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thoracolumbar
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  thoracolumbar
Camptocormia is defined as an abnormal, severe and involuntary forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine, which becomes manifest during standing and walking and subsides in the recumbent position.
      
Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured solitary aneurysm at thoracolumbar level with fatal outcome
      
Alternating monomeric paresis with decreased skin temperature and hyperhidrosis in a case of thoracolumbar myelopathy
      
Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar cord showed abnormal signal intensity with syrinx formation mainly at T12 to L1 vertebral level.
      
Interbody Fusion in Thoracolumbar Fractures (T11-L2) Using the Percutaneous Dorsolateral Technique
      
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The thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) was studided by dissection in 34 fetuses of various ages and both sexes. The present study showed that the bilaminar arrangement of the posterior layer of TLF was formed early in fetal period. Each aponeurosis of latissimus dorsi is bilaminar. The fibres of each lamina were perpendicular to those of the other lamina. They are major fibres to constitute both laminae of the posterior layer of TLF. It is suggested that such arragement of the posterior layer may constitute a...

The thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) was studided by dissection in 34 fetuses of various ages and both sexes. The present study showed that the bilaminar arrangement of the posterior layer of TLF was formed early in fetal period. Each aponeurosis of latissimus dorsi is bilaminar. The fibres of each lamina were perpendicular to those of the other lamina. They are major fibres to constitute both laminae of the posterior layer of TLF. It is suggested that such arragement of the posterior layer may constitute a substantial muscle-linked ligamentous system which aids in the stabilisation of the flexed lumbar vertebral column.

对34例胎儿尸体的胸腰筋膜后层,在解剖显微镜下进行了解剖观察。发现胎儿的胸腰筋腰后层由浅、深两层构成。浅层主要来自背阔肌的腱膜纤维、深层纤维除部分为正中线向下外走行的深筋膜纤维外,多数由对侧背阔肌腱膜纤维越过正中线延续而来。本文观察表明,胸腰筋膜后层的双层交叉排列结构在胎儿时期即已形成;每一背阔肌腱膜也都是双层构筑,两层纤维相互垂直,是组成胸腰筋膜后层纤维的主要成分。这使得胸腰筋膜的后层,成为一个强有力的连接肌肉的韧带系统,在屈腰时帮助维持腰段脊柱的稳定上发挥重要作用。

CB-HRP was injected into the wall of Cloaca in the chicken and traced with retrograde and transganglionic transport.The results were as follows.1.The labeled primary afferent cells from the cloaca were located bilaterally in the spinal ganglia T_4—S_9 and nodose ganglia The labeled cells in the spinal ganglia were concentrated in S_4—S_7 (mainly S_5)and T_6—L_1(mainly L_1),and there was a less-labeled- area in L_4—S_2.The ratio of the labeled ceils in the sacral ganglia to th those in the thoracolumbar...

CB-HRP was injected into the wall of Cloaca in the chicken and traced with retrograde and transganglionic transport.The results were as follows.1.The labeled primary afferent cells from the cloaca were located bilaterally in the spinal ganglia T_4—S_9 and nodose ganglia The labeled cells in the spinal ganglia were concentrated in S_4—S_7 (mainly S_5)and T_6—L_1(mainly L_1),and there was a less-labeled- area in L_4—S_2.The ratio of the labeled ceils in the sacral ganglia to th those in the thoracolumbar was about 1.6:1,and the ones in the nodose ganglia were fewer.The labeled cells in the spinal ganglia were mainly small ones,while those in the nodose were principally large.About 39% of the labeled ceils were found in the contralate- ral spinalganglia even though the HRP was injected into one side of the cloaca wall only.In the transverse plane,entering the S_3—S_8spi hal cord,the labeled central processes of primary afferent neurons of the cloaca first appeared in the dorsolateral tract,and then divided into medial and lateral parts.The lateral fiber bundle was thicker and larger,and run ventromedially along the lateral border of lays I-V in the dorsal horn.The medial one was thiner and smaller,and crossed the Clarke's column in the middle part of the dorsal horn.The two parts joined in the intercalated nucleus and terminated in the colu- tuna preganglionica saeralis.In the horizontal section,the labeled fibers formed a wider longitudinal tract(namely Lissauer's tract) which extended two to three segments rostrocaudally,centering on the S_5.Additionally,fine fiber bundle was also observed in the lateral border of dorsal horn in the T-7—L_2.

将 CB-HRP 注入鸡泄殖腔壁内,通过逆行和跨节追踪证明:1、被标记的泄殖腔初级传入神经元胞休位于双侧 T_4—S_9脊神经节和迷走神经结状节内。脊神经节内的标记细胞集中于 S_4—S_7和 T_6—L_1。分别以 S_5和 L_1为高峰,L_4—S_2为少标记区.荐段和胸腰段标记细胞数的比系1.6∶1,结状节内的标记细胞数较前二者少.脊神经节内的标记细胞以小型的为主,结状节内的标记细胞则以大型者居多。单侧注射例大约有39%的标记细胞出现于对侧脊神经节中。2、脊髓横断面观,被标记的初级传入神经元中枢突呈束状经背根外侧部进入S_3—S_8髓节的背外侧束,而后分成内外两部。外侧纤维束较粗大,沿背角Ⅰ—Ⅴ层外侧缘走行,内侧纤维束较细小,向内侧穿经 Clarke 氏柱,二者于中介核处汇合,共同终止于荐部副交感节前柱。单侧注射例,对侧的标记纤维束较注射侧疏淡。水平面观,背角外侧有被标记的纵向纤维束,以 S_5为中心向前后各伸延2~3个节段。在 T_7—L_2可见有纤细的纤维束沿背角外侧缘走行。

Using the NADPH-diaphorase reaction, we investigated the distribution of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) positive neurons and fibers and the origin of the positive fibers in the spinal cord. The positive neurons can mainly be divided into two typesaccording to their morphological characters. Processes of type Ⅰ neurons were exhibited well and similar to Golgi-like staining cells, and those of type Ⅱ were short or invisible, both types were heavily stained. The former was distributed in the central gray matter...

Using the NADPH-diaphorase reaction, we investigated the distribution of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) positive neurons and fibers and the origin of the positive fibers in the spinal cord. The positive neurons can mainly be divided into two typesaccording to their morphological characters. Processes of type Ⅰ neurons were exhibited well and similar to Golgi-like staining cells, and those of type Ⅱ were short or invisible, both types were heavily stained. The former was distributed in the central gray matter encircling the central canal of the entire length of the spinal cord, and in the intermediolateral nucleus(IML) of the thoracolumbar and the lumbosacral segments, and a few of this type neurons were also scattered in laminae Ⅳ-Ⅵ; the latter was found mainly in lamina Ⅲ. No positive neurons was observed in the ventral horn. The NOS positive fibers and terminals was densely distributed in the laminae Ⅰ and Ⅲ, and scattered in other areas, such as lamina Ⅱ and the deep part of the dorsal horn. There were some NOS positive terminals with varicosities surrounding the negative motoneurons in the ventral horn. In the t horacolumbar and lumbosaeral segments, the distribution of the NOS positive fibers and terminals showed some special characters. They were mainly distributed in the pathway and terminal fields of the visceral primary afferent fibers (on the lateral and medial edges of the dorsal horn, and ended in the IML and dorsal gray commissural nucleus). The results of semisection of the cervical enlargement and severance of the dorsal roots indicated that the NoS positive fibers and terminals in lamina Ⅰ and lamina Ⅲ were mainly originated from the dorsal root ganglia and spinal endogenous neurons containing NOS respectively. The present results suggestted that nitric oxide (NO) may be an important neurotransmitter or modulator for transmitting the somatic and visceral afferent signals, especially referred to the visceral activity.

用还原型尼克酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷磷酸(NADPH)脱氢酶反应观察了大鼠脊髓内一氧化氮合酶阳性神经元和纤维的分布。胞体浓染且突起显示良好的类似Golgi染色的阳性神经元分布于亘脊髓全长的中央管周围灰质(X层),胸腰髓(T1-L3)的中间带外侧核、中介核及腰骶髓(L6、S1)的骶髓副交感核和后连合核,少量弥散于后角Ⅳ~Ⅵ层。后角Ⅲ层内可见较多的胞体浓染或淡染但突起短或未见阳性突起的小型神经元。前角内无阳性神经元,但有较多串珠状阳性终末支,并在运动神经元胞体和树突上形成终扣。阳性纤维和终末在后角Ⅰ层和Ⅲ层密集,其它部位稀少。在胸腰段和腰骶段脊髓后角内、外侧缘有行向腹侧的内、外侧阳性纤维束,外侧束集中而粗大,阳性纤维束终止于中间带外侧核和后连合核。切断后根和半横断颈髓的实验表明,后角Ⅰ层的阳性纤维和终末主要来源于脊神经节内一氧化氮合酶阳性细胞的中枢突,而Ⅲ层内的阳性纤维和终末则为Ⅲ层和后角深层阳性细胞的突起。结合文献和本文结果可以推断,一氧化氮在躯体和内脏感觉的传入过程及内脏传出活动中是一种重要的活性物质。

 
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