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On the Possibility of Hybridogenesis in the Origin of Midge Chironomus usenicus Loginova et Beljanina (Chironomidae, Diptera)
      
Factors of resistance to the larvae of gall midge Dasineura rozhkovi Mam.
      
Relationships between the gall-midge genera Trotteria and Verbasciola (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), with description of new species
      
The Palaearctic genus Verbasciola comprises three species that have been recorded in galls of three gall-midge species damaging three plant species.
      
Parameters of the equation that allows determining the weight of midge larvae by the width of their head capsule or by their body length were calculated for Paratanytarsus baicalensis, Orthocladius nitidoscutellatus, and Orthocladius sp.
      
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Four chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides were tested in the laboratory fortheir contact and fumigant action against the adults of wheat blossom midge(Sitodiplosis mosellanna(Gehin)).Different concentrations and dosages ofthese insecticides were used.The results indicated that gemma BHC was themost toxic and equally effective as contact and fumigant poison.These compoundsappeared in the following order of toxicity as contact poison:gamma BHC>Aldrin=Dieldrin>DDT;and as fumigant action:gamma BHC>Aldrin=Diel-drin>DDT.The...

Four chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides were tested in the laboratory fortheir contact and fumigant action against the adults of wheat blossom midge(Sitodiplosis mosellanna(Gehin)).Different concentrations and dosages ofthese insecticides were used.The results indicated that gemma BHC was themost toxic and equally effective as contact and fumigant poison.These compoundsappeared in the following order of toxicity as contact poison:gamma BHC>Aldrin=Dieldrin>DDT;and as fumigant action:gamma BHC>Aldrin=Diel-drin>DDT.The field plot tests with different concentrations or dosages of the fivechlorinated hydrocarbon gave satisfactory results when 0.25% gamma BHC,0.15% aldrin,1% Dieldrin,1% DDT or 10% Toxaphene dusts were applied atthe rate of 22.5 kilograms per hectre when the adult midges first appeared in thewheat field,although it was not effective until 5 days after application.Significantreductions of the wheat blossom midge were obtained with all treatment but gammaBHC was the most effective of all.

施用药剂杀灭小(?)吸浆虫成虫,是防治吸浆虫重要方法之一。以几种有机氯杀虫剂进行室内、田间杀虫作用和药效等研究,证明γ 666、艾氏剂、狄氏剂和DDT 均具有强大的触杀作用,其中以γ 666毒效最怏,DDT 最慢。γ 666及艾氏剂还具有相当强的熏蒸杀虫作用。田间试验结果也说明γ 666粉剂浓度虽低至0.1%,仍能杀虫95%以上。0.25% γ 666粉剂效果与0.5%的相若,试验也证明,不同浓度的γ 666粉剂兑土稀释为0.25%药粉,稀释土的种类,对杀虫效果均无影响,并在全国不少地区推广应用均证明效果显著,解决了药剂供应问题,扩大了防治面积。田间残效试验证明,不同浓度的666粉剂,在羽化盛期前2天施用,均能毒杀羽化盛期的成虫;但如在前5天施用,除1%粉剂效果较好外,0.25%及0.5%粉剂浓度的防治效果均不理想。

Results of five years' experiments conducted in South China indicated that root-zone application of systemic insecticides effectively controlled nearly all the potential insect pests of rice -the yellow stem borer ( Tryporyza incertulas ) , the striped stem borer (Chile suppresalis) , the pink borer ( Sesamia inferens ), the rice leaf folder ( Cnaphalocrosis medinalis ), the rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae), the brown planthopper ( Nilaparvata lugens ) , the green leaf hopper ( Nephotetfix spp. ), the...

Results of five years' experiments conducted in South China indicated that root-zone application of systemic insecticides effectively controlled nearly all the potential insect pests of rice -the yellow stem borer ( Tryporyza incertulas ) , the striped stem borer (Chile suppresalis) , the pink borer ( Sesamia inferens ), the rice leaf folder ( Cnaphalocrosis medinalis ), the rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae), the brown planthopper ( Nilaparvata lugens ) , the green leaf hopper ( Nephotetfix spp. ), the rice thrip (Baliothrips biformis) and the rice weevil (Echinocnemus squameus). Altogether 14 compounds have been evaluated for the control of various species.Dimethoate is readily absorbed by the root of rice plant and translocated to the stem and the leaf blade, more was found in the tips of young leaves. The consistently higher dimethoate residue in the young leaves may partially explain the chemical's greater efficacy in controlling the rice thrip, because the insect congregates and feeds at the tip of young leaves.Kitazine in the root-zone application can be used both as a fungicide and insecticide. At a rate of 3Kg AI/ha. , a mixture of ki-tazine and dimethoate gave a 90% control of the brown planthopper in 20 days after treatment. The residues in the rice grain through such application is expected to be well below the tolerance limit.It was found that a series of organophosphorus compounds containing the pyrimidiflyl radicle are very effective systemic insectic-icides when aplied in soil. Pyrimioxythion [O, O-diethyl-O-(2 - methoxy - 4 - metyl - pyrimdyl - 6 ) phosphoro - thionate ( N23)] was found to be the most effective systemic insecticide against the rice gall midge. It is more effective than carbofuran or diazinon with a residual action of 30 days. Generally one application is sufficient to provide effective control of the rice gall midge during the entire crop. Mixed formulations of pyrimioxythion with padan or dimehypo [S,S ( dimethylamino ) trimethylene dithiosulf uric acid ester] at a rate of 1.5 kg Al/ha. applied in the root-zone provided very effective control of rice borers, the rice gall midge and the leaf folder. This formulation appears to be of practical importance. Diazinon and pirimiphos-ethyl were also found to be effective against the rice gall midge.Acephate and tamaron are not potent as systemic insecticides but when applied in soil they provide short-term control of the yellow stem borer and the brown planthopper. They are characterized by their short residual action. Acephate when used in an admixture formulation with padan or chlordimeform, the effectiveness was found to greatly increased.According to the results of extensive trials, one application of carbofuran granules in the root-zone at a rate of 1.5 kg Al/ha. provided effective control of the rice gall midge, the yellow stem borer, the pink borer, the rice thrip, the green leafhopper and the brown planthopper. Against rice borers its residual action was found to be as long as 40 - 60 days. One application of carbofuran granules by soil incorporation in the rice seed-beds provided good control of one generation of the rice gall midge and other insect pests. The insecticide was carried with the rice seedlings to the paddy field and proved to be effective after transplanting without adverse effects on the parasite, Platygaster spp.,This method of soil application of carbofuran has been popularized among rice farmers in Kwangtung, Kiangsu and other provinces.Carbofuran, though a broad spectrum insecticide, is not very effective against the rice leaf folder. In fields wherein, in addition to the common insect pests, a heavy infestation of the rice leaf folder occurs, it is recommended to apply carbofuran in admixture, with padan or dimehypo or chlordimeform in the root-zone.Nereistoxin from a marine annelid, has served as a starting point for a group of very useful insecticides. In resent years, it has been found that padan, dimehypo and thiocyclam h)rdrogen exalate ("Evi-sect") are good systemic insecticides when applied in the root-zone f

本文就根区施药方法的杀虫药效、杀虫作用机制、对害虫天敌的影响、农药残留量及内吸运转规律等方面进行讨论。 1975—1979年室内、田间小区和大田示范试验结果证明,根区施药(尤其是根区深层施药)具有药效高、节省用药量、残效期长、可以保护害虫天敌,帮助维持农田的生态系统平衡和减少环境污染等。 经试验过内吸杀虫剂有14种,已证明呋喃丹除对稻纵卷叶螟效果很差外,对叶蝉、飞虱、稻瘿蚊、稻蓟马、大螟、稻象(虫甲)等有特效,杀虫脒和类巴丹杀虫剂对螟虫类、稻纵卷叶螟有特效,但对稻瘿蚊则效果很差。巴丹、呋喃丹、杀虫脒性质较稳定,施于土壤里残效期可长达30-50天左右。有机磷内吸杀虫剂施于土壤里易于分解,残效期约10—25天左右。因不同药剂、不同季节和不同土壤类型而有差异。为了一次施药兼治多种主要害虫,可以采用混合剂如嘧啶氧磷混杀虫双、乐果混杀虫脒等,每亩用纯药75—100克深施,可以解决水稻生长前期30—50天的害虫为害,后期有可能靠生物天敌以达到生态平衡,尚待以后研究。 研究根区施药后对稻田蜘蛛的影响,也研究药剂对稻瘿蚊的寄生天敌黄柄黑蜂、三化螟卵寄生蜂等的影响,研究认为此种施药方式对天敌有显著的保护作用,而常规的喷雾、喷粉...

本文就根区施药方法的杀虫药效、杀虫作用机制、对害虫天敌的影响、农药残留量及内吸运转规律等方面进行讨论。 1975—1979年室内、田间小区和大田示范试验结果证明,根区施药(尤其是根区深层施药)具有药效高、节省用药量、残效期长、可以保护害虫天敌,帮助维持农田的生态系统平衡和减少环境污染等。 经试验过内吸杀虫剂有14种,已证明呋喃丹除对稻纵卷叶螟效果很差外,对叶蝉、飞虱、稻瘿蚊、稻蓟马、大螟、稻象(虫甲)等有特效,杀虫脒和类巴丹杀虫剂对螟虫类、稻纵卷叶螟有特效,但对稻瘿蚊则效果很差。巴丹、呋喃丹、杀虫脒性质较稳定,施于土壤里残效期可长达30-50天左右。有机磷内吸杀虫剂施于土壤里易于分解,残效期约10—25天左右。因不同药剂、不同季节和不同土壤类型而有差异。为了一次施药兼治多种主要害虫,可以采用混合剂如嘧啶氧磷混杀虫双、乐果混杀虫脒等,每亩用纯药75—100克深施,可以解决水稻生长前期30—50天的害虫为害,后期有可能靠生物天敌以达到生态平衡,尚待以后研究。 研究根区施药后对稻田蜘蛛的影响,也研究药剂对稻瘿蚊的寄生天敌黄柄黑蜂、三化螟卵寄生蜂等的影响,研究认为此种施药方式对天敌有显著的保护作用,而常规的喷雾、喷粉对天敌有严重的破坏作用。 深层施药,藉土壤微生物水解

During the last four years the authors have conducted a series of investigations on the collection, rearing and identification of the parasites of the rice gall midge in Kwangtung Province. Preliminary observations on the bionomics of the parasites and experiments on the effect of insecticides on them were also carried out. The results of studies obtained are summarized as follows:1. Altogether 5 species of hymenopterous parasites on the rice gall midge have been found in Kwangtung Province. They...

During the last four years the authors have conducted a series of investigations on the collection, rearing and identification of the parasites of the rice gall midge in Kwangtung Province. Preliminary observations on the bionomics of the parasites and experiments on the effect of insecticides on them were also carried out. The results of studies obtained are summarized as follows:1. Altogether 5 species of hymenopterous parasites on the rice gall midge have been found in Kwangtung Province. They are:Platygaster sp. (gregarious endoparasite)Platygaster sp. (solitary endoparasite)Neanastatus grallarius MasiNeanastatus oryzae PerriereObtusiclava oryzae Sabba RaoThe morphology of the various stages of these parasites are described and a brief account of their bionomics is also given. Usually the gregarious Platygaster parasite is the predominant species, but during the seedling and tillering stage of the late crop (both in the seed-beds and in the field) the population of Neanastatus may increase to as high as 70-80% of the 5 species in total. These parasites possess different characteristics in biology and play different roles in suppressing the outbreaks of the rice gall midge. Further investigations will help us to know how to utilize these parasites in the program of integrated pest management in rice fields.2. The percentage of parasitism of the rice gall midge in the seed-beds and fields of the late crop was found to be very high, in some cases as high as, 90% or more. This contributes an important factor in controlling populations of the gall midge. The outbreak of the gall midge is closely correlated to the cropping system; the late crop and the triple rice crop afford a "bridge" for the favorable reproduction of the gall midge. The irrational application of insecticides kills the natural enemies and is also one of the factors leading to the resurgence of the insect pest.3. According to the investigations made in 1976 in San-Hua brigade, Hua county, the percentage of parasitism on the rice gall midge in the overwintering generation in the wild rice (Oryzae rufipogon) reached as high as 65%, and in the first aad second generations of the early crop the parasitism was found to vary from 32.5% to 33.3%. But in the seed-beds of the late crop, due to the frequent applications of insecticides, usually with a spraying of Methyl parathion-BHC and Dimethoate at an interval of 4-5 days, the percentage of parasitism dropped to 1.53-4.5%, whereas in the field with no insecticide treatment it was about 44%. This indicates that the conventional method of the application of insecticide produces adverse effects to the parasites.4. Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the toxicity of several insecticides to the parasites of the rice gall midge. As a contact poison the organophosphorus compound Pyrimioxythion (N-23) was the most toxie, and chlorodi-meform was the least toxic. The order of toxicity to Platygaster sp. was: Pyrimioxy-thion > Trichlorofon > Dimethoate > (2,5-Dimethylphenyl-N-methylcarbamate) > Chlorodimeform. The LC50 of the five compounds was estimated to be 1.1, 3.5, 5.5, 15.0 and 24.0 ppm, respectively. As a foliar spray, Pyrimidoxythion is also more toxic than Methyl parathion-BHC to Obtusiclava oryzae and Neanastatus spp. The formulations and methods of applications of the insecticides is very important to the protection of the parasites. As a rule, broadcasting of impregnated-dusts is less hazardous to the natural enemies and the root-zone method of application givea good protection to the parasites and the spiders in the rice field. Thus there is a possibility that the rational use of insecticides will help to increasing the stability of the paddy agro-ecosystem and it may be of great utility in developing an efficient integrated control program for the rice gall midge as well as other insect pests.

在广东稻瘿蚊常见的寄生蜂有5种:(1)黄柄黑蜂Platygaster sp.(群居内寄生天敌);(2)单胚黑蜂Platygaster sp.(独居内寄生天敌);(3)黄斑长距旋小蜂Neanastatus grallartus Masi.;(4)稻长距旋小蜂Neanastatus oryzae Ferriere;(5)斑腹金小蜂Obtusiclava oryzae Subba Rao。这5种寄生蜂中黄柄黑蜂发生较普遍,在一年间大部分时间发生数量多于长距旋小蜂及斑腹金小蜂。稻瘿蚊寄生蜂在晚造秧田及本田寄生率有时达90%以上,对抑制稻瘿蚊的发生起了相当大的作用。 几种常用农药对寄生蜂毒杀作用的比较试验,分别在室内及田间进行。以嘧啶氧磷对寄生蜂毒杀最大,杀虫脒最小。对寄生蜂的毒力大小比较为:嘧啶氧磷>敌百虫>乐果>叶飞散>杀虫脒。

 
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