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     A Sort of Second-Order Filter Suited to Integrated MOS with Single Operational Amplifier
     一种适于MOS集成化的单运放二阶滤波器
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     The design of a sort of low noise preamplifier
     一种低噪声前置放大器的设计
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     A Sort of Boundary Value Problem on a Class of Nonlinear Equation Systems
     一类非线性方程组的一种边值问题
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     Application of a sort of monotonic picewise interpolation method in marine data Processing
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     A sort of graduation method correcting error of surface thermometer
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     On the Measure in Lp[0, 1]and a Sort of Orlicz Space
     关于L~p[0,1]和一类奥尔里奇空间上的测度
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     A Sort of Hermite Interpolating Function
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     A PRACTICAL METHOD FOR STRENGTH DESIGN OF A SORT OF TWISTED STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURE
     一类扭转超静定结构等强度优化设计方法
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     A SORT OF DISCRETE VARIABLES REGRESSION MODEL
     一类离散变量的回归模型
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     AN ANALYSIS OF A SORT OF SPATIAL 4R-C OVERCONSTRAINED CONDITIONS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN TEXTILE MACHINERY
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     A Sort of Partitional Matrix
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Retrograde infusion of chondroitin-sulfate via pancreatic duct could alleviate the pancreatic cell damage as a sort of scavengers of oxygen free radicals.
      
The exhalative rock occurring in the Xiagou Formation of Lower Cretaceous in Qingxi sag, Jiuxi basin is a sort of a rare lacustrine white smoke type, rich in ferrodolomites and albites.
      
The results suggest that PDLLA conduits may serve for peripheral nerve regeneration and PDLLA is a sort of hopeful candidate for tissue engineering.
      
Kerogen-as a sort of organic bearer of gold in gold-bearing formations
      
The antenna is a sort of sector antenna with structure of three layers, which possesses higher radiation efficiency and better travelling-wave properties.
      
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(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which...

(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which has made the ethnic position of the Malayans as well as the ethnicrelationship between the Malayans and the other related peoples unclear scientifically. Therecent anthropological studies revealed the close ethnic relation between the brown raceand the yellow race, hence the Malayan stock is regarded as one branch of the Mongo-loids and given a new term "Oceanic Mongoloid". The Malayan stock now stands closelywith its two brothers the Northern Mongoloid and the Southern Mongoloid. The term "Malayans" is used here in its broader meaning which includes all thepeoples in Malaysia with a physical characteristics mostly of yellowish-brown colour.brachycephalie (broad) head form, black and straight hair, scanty beard, Malayan eye.medium stature and speaking branches of Malayo-Polynesian language which is agglutina-tive in its nature. Scientifically, both the "proto-Malays" and the "deutero-Malays", orboth the "true Malays" (Orang Malayu) and the other Malayans outside of it are to beconsidered here as the Malayan stock. Generally speaking, largest part of the peoplesliving in Malaya, Indonesia, Philippines and other islands bear this common name inscientific sense. Within the country of Indonesia the term Indonesians is most usuallyused, but in this article, the Indonesians is also included in the term Malayan stockbecause the latter is larger in its scope and more generally used in science. The Malayan stock is not a pure, single race but one of many elements intermixedtogether. The first element is the Oceanic Mongoloid which came from the north, pro-bable Chinese continent, its physical characteristics survived are the black, straight hair,broad head, yellowish-brown colour, medium stature and certain degree of Mongolian eye(narrow eye with Mongolian fold which covers the upper eye-lid). The second elementis the Indonesian stock, (This is used in scientific, narrower meaning instead of thatused in common sense) and early branch of the Caucasian race, originated in westernAsia and migrated eastward to Malaysia through Indo-China; it gives the present people the physical characteristics of Malayan eye, (broad eye without Mongolian fold hence theeye-lashes and a concave line on the eye-lid can be seen clearly) a certain degree of doli-chocephalie (long) head together with the agglutinative Malayo-Polynesian language. Thethird element is the Oceanic Negroid whose part contributed to the Malayans is not solarge that it still has pure descendants in present day viz. the Negritoes and the Papuans;while the fourth element is the Veddas came from India. The third and fourth one arri-ved earliest in probably Palaeolithic age, but played no important role in ethnic composi-tion of the Malayan stock because of their small number in population. The second onereached Malaysia after the above two probably in early period of Neolithic age, while thefirst one arrived latest in later period of Neolithic age. Though later in time, the OceanicMongoloids and Indonesians came in large numbers hence they formed the two principalelements of the Malayan stock. As the outcome of the intermixing of blood there appea-red a great mixed racial stock which looks different from its original elements, conseq-uently the original names are no longer suitable to be used. The term Indonesian is usedhere in its original meaning which is different from that of the so-called "Indonesians"in present day use. The mixed stock is no more called Indonesian but Malayan stock inthis article. Ⅱ. Is there Any Connection Between the Malayan Stock and the Ancient Peoples in Southern China? The cradle of the mix-blooded Malayan stock may be in the meeting point of the twoprincipal elements. Indo-China, a necessary meeting point on their ways, was naturally thecradle of the Malayan stock. From Indo-China floods of racial migration appeared fromtime to time and peopled the islands of Malaysia from west to east. As the Oceanic Mongoloid might be originated in the east Asia continent and mig-rated southward to Indo-China, naturally there must be a time in which they lived insouthern China as well as in Indo-China. Furthermore, the ancient peoples in SouthernChina consisted of various aboriginal tribes different from the Chinese Proper, it seemsnot very unreasonable to suggest that besides the Mongoloids there might existed too acertain primitive branch of Caucasian race or even Negroid race in southern China eventhough in small number before the Chinese Proper migrated southward. Possessing theability of migrating southward by the difficult way of water, why the Indonesians couldor would not proceed further eastward from Indo-China by an easier way of land tosouthern China During or preceding Chow dynasty (before 250 B. C.) in the coastal regions of sout-hern China (Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, Kwangsi provinces) there existedan ancient aboriginal stock with the name of "Yueh" which was looked by the Chineseproper as a different race because they lived in different way, followed their own queerhabits and customs and spoke in a different tongue. This stock was indeed more strangethan the other aboriginal stocks in southem China. The formation of such a stock mightbe the outcome of blending of the Mongoloids arrived from the north with some other peoples came from the southwest. As there really existed a different people-the In-donesians-migrated from the west and the blending of the two races-the Indonesiansand the Mongoloids-was actually taking place in Indo-China, it is far from impossiblethat such a phenomenon might extend and appear also in southem China. Being theproduct of mixing blood of the two principal races-the Mongoloids and the Indonesians-the Yueh stock might be in the same condition as the Malayan. If the intermixing of the Mongoloids with the Indonesians really took place in sout-hern China, the ancient people Yueh then was the brother of the Malayan stock. At thebeginning they might resemble to each other, but in later days both of them lived indifferent places and mixed with more other peoples, hence appeared also different fromeach other. Since the Chin dynasty (220 B. C.) the Yueh stock began to be assimilatedby the Chinese Proper from the north; the process of assimilation of culture and theblending of blood reached its conclusion in about 6th century. Later on no survivor ofYueh stock with pure blood or tribal name ever appeared in China. Their mix-bloodedoffspring, however, have existed up to present time as the population of the southeastcoastal region viz. Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung Provinces. Ⅲ. Three Evidences From the historical and geographical point of view, we get the above hypothesis ofthe ethnical Connection between the Malayan and the Yueh stock in southern China. Ifthis is true there must be, between them, physical and cultural resemblances which aresound enough as the evidence. Three sorts of facts, as I seek, may do this service: (1) Resemblances in Physical Characteristics--Though there is still no enoughamount of prehistoric skeletons of both the Indonesians and the Oceanic Mongoloidsunearthed in Malaysia and southern China for scientific research, the Iiving offsprings ofboth the two ancient races may give us some hints about this question,. It is often observedthat the physical characteristics of the southern Chinese of present day are different insome respects from the northern ones although basically they are of the same type viz.the Chinese type. Among them, the peoples of Kwangtung and Fukien have espicially adifferent appearence: Firstly, the eyes of them are broader and less in degree of Mongolian fold on theupper eye-lid. The eye of this type is the medium form between the Mongolian and theMalayan eye, and may be called Half-Malayan eye. Generally most of the Mongol Properand the northern Chinese have the Mongoian eye, while the Malayans have the Malayaneye. The intermediate eye suggests that the human group possessing it must be the mixedblood of the two kinds of peoples with these two sorts of eyes. Wherefrom did the sout-hern Chinese get the half-Malayan eye? Unless they had as one part of their compositeelement a sort of people with Malayan eyes, it is quite impossible to explain the derivationof this eye form. this eye form, therefore, tells us that the southern Chinese, especiallythat of Kwangtung, Fukien and perhaps Chekiang provinces had as one part of theirancestors a people with Malayan eyes. The Malayans may get their malayan eye from the Indoncsians, because the Indonesians belong to the Caucasian race whose eye is calledEuropean eye which is the same as the Malayan one. In fact, the European eye formappeared on the Malayan face is called Malayan eye. The eyes of the southern Chinesetherefore might he derived from the same way as the Malayans. Secondly, the stature of the southern Chinese especially those of Kwangtung andFukien is generally lower than that of the northern Chinese; while compared with theMalayans, they are nearly the same with each other. Thirdly, some of the faces of the southern Chinese looks different from the northernones but appears resembling the Malayans. The Southerns have a shorter face while thenortherners have a longer one. As the physical characteristics of both the southem Chinese and the Malayans resem-bling each other, it is hardly possible to distinguish some Chinese in Malayan costumesand vice versa. The Chinese new comers in Malaysia are often astonished to find thatthe so-called strangers or foreigners viz. the Malayans, look quite like themselves in theirphysical respect. Sometimes it is not easy too for the Europeans to distinguish betweenthe Chinese and the Malayans, because most of the Chinese immigrated to Malaysiancountries were from the southeastern coastal regions which was the home country of theancient Yueh people. (2) Resemblances in Early Cultural Respects--Of course the cultural life ofthe southern Chinese and the Malayans in present day are different to each other, butthe historical records about the ancient Yueh people reveal that the Yueh stock had intheir material life, social customs and languages some points suggesting the connectionwith the Malayans. These may be enumerated as the following: 1, Hair cutting: The ancient northern Chinese never cut their hair, the Miao stockbound their hair too, only the Yueh people was noted for their hair cutting. The primitivebranches of the present Malayan also cut their hair, the early Malayans probably had thiscustom in ancient times too. 2, Tattooing: The Yueh was also well-known for their tattooing which made themlook quite wonderful to the other Chinese, The Malayans of today still have kept thiscustom in Borneo, Philippines etc. 3, Snake worship: The Yueh worshipped the snakes and those in Fukien even tookthe snake as their totem. The aborigines in Taiwan province, which belong to Malayanstock too, still preserve the remnant of such belief, Snake worship is not unknown tothe Malayans in Malaysia too. 4, Pile-house: At present the pile-houses of the Malayans is quite well-known forits specialty; such form of building, however, was also adopted by the ancient southernChinese because it is recorded that the Yueh lived in nest, and the later southern peopleslived actually in the pile-houses which was called "kan-lan". 5, Naked foot: The Yueh's naked foot custom was also noted in ancient times.while the Malayans in history also kept their feet naked even though they were officersin the kings courts. 6, Agglutinative language: The Yueh spoke in a different and queer tongue fromthe Chinese Proper and even the other peoples in ancient times, the translation of Yuehwords gave the Chinese Proper a hard question; to denote the sound of a Yueh word,one Chinese word is not enough, while two or three words sound too much. Thiscondition suggests that though the Chinese language was isolating in its nature, that ofthe Yueh might belong to agglutinative one, because one agglutinative word usually pro-nounces just like two or more isolating words connected. Heine-Geldern and other scholarealso suggested that the Malayo-Polynesian or Austro-Asiatic language was originated inthe continent. The present south-eastern Chinese still speak in different dialects whichproves that the ancient Yueh language was quite strange to the northern Chinese. Thedifficulty to compare the ancient Yueh language with the Malayan one lies in the factthat both the present tongues used by the modern Malayans and the southern Chinesehave been changed by nearly two thousand years' assimilation with other languages. (3) Resemblances of Prehistoric Remains--Before the prehistoric archaeologicaldiscoveries took place in southern China, the question of the derivation or origin of someprehistoric objects in malaysia and even Polynesia had been very hard to be solved. Poly-nesia is famous for one special type of stone implements viz. the tanged adze or steppedadze, the origin of it was traced to that unearthed in Philippines; the derivation of thestepped adze of Philippines, however, was also very hard to be traced. Since about 1930the prehistoric findings began to take place in southern Chinese continent. the newmaterials enable the old questions easier to be solved. The prehistoric remains are difte-rent to those found in northern China, the latter consists of the painted pottery, blackpottery, thick stone axe, holed stone axe etc., whilc the former consists of the pressedgeometric-designed pettery, the stepped adze, the shouldered axe etc.. Strange to say thatthe southern prehistoric objects of China really resemble those of Malaysia and evenPolynesia. These objects may be pointed as the following: 1, Stepped stone adze: Stepped adze is found in large numbers in the south-easternregions viz. Fukien, Kwangtung, Chekiang, Kiangsi, Kiangsu etc., but appears veryrare in the eastern part of northern China and is entirely unknown in the western partof it. The shape suggests that it was developed in three stages just like that of Phi-lippines and Polynesia. Furthermore, the stepped adze of primary and intermediate stagesappeared more in number in south-eastern China, while that of the higher stage appearedmore in Philippines and Polynesia; such a condition reveals that the stepped adze of Phi-lippines and Polynesia was derived from south-eastern China. The way of transmigrationof the stepped adze is probably through Taiwan, Philippines and other islands. 2, Shouldered stone axe: The shouldered axe appeared in Indo-China. Malay pe-ninsula, Philippines etc., but was not found in the intermediate islands viz Sumatra,Java etc.. It was unearthed in Taiwan and Hainan islands too. In the southern part ofthe Chinese continent it appeared less in number but more will be found in future. Inthe north-eastern China very rare was obtaine(?) too. The shouldered axe might be ori-ginated in Indo-China and then spreaded eastward to the south-eastern coastal region of Chinese continent, therefrom it crossed the sea and arrived in Philippines through Tai-wan island, On the way a northward route led it to the north-eastern region. Anotherroute led it southward to Malay Peninsula. Shouldered axe is also an object of evidenceshowing the relation of the Malayans and the southern Chinese, because the prehistoricpeoples in Indo-China was the Malayans instead of the Annamese etc.. 3, Pressed geometric-designed pottery: In southern, especially south-eastern China,the prehistoric pottery was that with geometric designs pressed with pottery prints, thisis quite different to the painted pottery of north-western China and the black pottery ofnorth-eastern China. In Malaysia and Indo-China the prehistoric potteries found resembleto that of south China, some of the shape of the potteries as well as the pressed designsare quite like each other. Some potteries of this type were actuaily found in Indo-China,Java and Sulawesi, which are comparable with that of south China. This kind of potteryalso suggests the prehistoric connection between Malayans and the southern Chinese. Ⅳ. Conclusions (1) The Malayan stock is a mixed blood of chiefly the Oceanic Mongoloid raceand the Indonesians which is an early branch of the Caucasian race. These two raceshave been blended to such a degree that a new stock appeared which is called the Ma-Jayan stock, and the two elements have no more pure offsprings survived. The presentMalayans show more Mongolian physical features than the Indonesian ones, hencs it istaken as a branch of Mongoloids. (2) The Oceanic Mongoloid came from southern China, hence these should beethnic connection. between the Malayans and the ancient southern Chinese. Moreover,the other two elements of the Malayans, the Indonesians and the Negritoes probablyalso arrived and lived in southern China earlier than the Mongoloids and became partof the ethnical elements of the southern Chinese in later days, therefore the Malayansand the southern Chinese may have the same ethnical element. (3) The present southern Chinese, especially the south-eastern ones have some phy-sical characteristics like the Malayans, their ancestor Yueh stock had some customs andlanguage showing some resemblances to the Malayans, finally, the prehistoric discoveriesalso show the relationship between these two races. (4) The processes of the formation of the Malayan stock might proceeded in Indo-China and southern China. Since Neolithic age the Malayans migrated step by step toMalaysian islands, while those remained in Indo-China and southern China were assimi-lated by the Chinese Proper, Annamese, Siamese and Burmese. The ancient Yueh stockin southern China might have nearly the same ethnic composition as the Malayans, butwas assimilated by the Chinese Proper since two thousand years ago. (5) There might be two routes of southward migration of the Malayans. The firstand principal one was the west route which started from Indo-China, penetrated Suma-tra, Java and Borneo, and finally reached Philippines; the evidences are the pressedgeometric designed pottery and the shouldered axe. The second was the east route whichstarted from the south-eastern coast of Chinese continent, passed Taiwan and other islets,finally reached Philippines, Sulawesi and eastern Borneo. The stepped adze, the shoul-dered axe, and the pressed geometric-designed pottery are the evidences of this

林惠祥同志三十多年来除了对人类学(包括古学、民族学)进行系统的研究,并获得很大的成就和贡献外,他一生对南洋问题的研究,也曾下过工夫,做过不少工作和贡献。“南洋马来族与华南古民族的关系”这篇论文是林惠祥同志关于南洲问题最后的遗著。前篇于一九三八年以“马来人与中国东南方人同源说”为题曾在南洋发表过,后篇是他二十年后对这问题进一步深入研究的成果,提出更丰富、更可靠的有关人类学(包括考古学、民族学)的材料和证据,把我国和南洋民族的历史关系以及将东南亚这一大片地方过去被遗忘的历史补充起来,这是他三十年多年来对南洋研究的重要贡献,也是他一生对南洋问题研究总结的一部份。

An investigation on the fishing methods of lake Hung Hu was made by the auther in 1959.The fishing method of“san”is of special interest.In this paper some discussions on it’s history, (?)echnique and the cause of migration will be made;and the appreciation of this method will also be given. Ⅰ.History The said fishing method was mentioned in a Chinese book as early as 221 B.C.It is,of no doubt that our country was the first to us this method in fishhag,which has remained in application for thou- sands of years...

An investigation on the fishing methods of lake Hung Hu was made by the auther in 1959.The fishing method of“san”is of special interest.In this paper some discussions on it’s history, (?)echnique and the cause of migration will be made;and the appreciation of this method will also be given. Ⅰ.History The said fishing method was mentioned in a Chinese book as early as 221 B.C.It is,of no doubt that our country was the first to us this method in fishhag,which has remained in application for thou- sands of years and still kept it’s features up to the present time. The method of“San”may often be classified into two types:natural and artificial.Changing with the different seasons,there are three forms of the natural“San”:Spring“San”,autumn“San”,and winter“San”. Ⅱ.Technique Here the artificial“San”,which is more complicated and important is to be introduced. The fishing—ground is chosen in late autumn or early winter at the inlet of the lake or at a sport with small current where many loppings of trees or bushes are put into the bottom of lake,which is usually named the“CENTER OF SAN”.Around the center bundles of herbaceous plants should be sank into the bottom of lake at certain distance,nearer the center than the outside.But in doing so,the bundles should not be set too thick,in order that the sunlight may shine upon the water. One month or more when the work mentioned above has been accomplished,bamboo palings, immerged two-thirds of half in water,are placed around the fishing-ground on a fine and sunny day. The placing of bamboo palings is an important part of the whole scheme;it requires both speed and close-setting.For this purpose,20-30 bamboo palings are placed on between deck of each boat,slant on the front but vertical behind.At least,three men are needed to control each boat:the first to drag pa- lings into water from the deck,the second to hammer them in the bottom of lake,and the third to roll the boat backwards,so as to much strength the first man and also to escape the blockade of the palings. Some wood-slices may used to joint the palings together.Choose a sintable sport between two palings,and 1-4 or more fish-pits are well-arranged.Later on,a sort of special hand-nets is used to fish out from the fish-pits.And then,the bundles of herbaceous plants may gradually be removed; the loppings of trees or bushes also gradually removed toward the center.Finally,the lopping at the center are removed by using 4 palings to separate the center into 5 parts.And then a casting-net or other nets are used to capture the fish. Ⅲ.Analysis of the cause for congregation of fish Alnumber of scientific workers have discussed the cause of the congregation of fish by the fishing method of“San”.There remain argument about the subject.Most of them believe that the con- gregation is dosely related to the temperature,the desolved oxygen and food besides in the water,as well as to the defence against the attachs from the enemy.The author agrees with this cpinion. According to the author’s opinion,however,the response of fish to lower temperature has shown in two different forms.Some fishes the winter-migrators for exalpale,at lower temperature,seek a habit at with higher temperature.Based upon the author’s observation,be found that the younger fish especially like to live at higher temperature equivalent to slightly above body temperature.Therefore,unless the take in too shallow(1-3 M),they do not enter the fishing-ground of“San”,but prefer to go to deeper water.Some other fishes adapt themselves to lower temperature by decreasing the metabolism of the body.Their activities,therefore,are limited with in a small area,where is plenty of food and desolved oxygen,and the temperature is always above the lowest limit of living,and it is also a safe environment for them to live in.The“San”fishing-ground is sufficient for this environment.As for the other fishes, they may come into the fishing-ground by man’s interference. Ⅳ.Appreciation of the Fishing Method of“SAN” So far as the author’s observation is concerned,the fishing method of“San”is a relatively better fishing method.It differs from other methods not only in tools but in fishing-ground.And it also gets a better catch,especially in those lakes with shallow water and thick vogetation.Beside,by making use of this method,we can protect the young fish.Judging from what has been mentioned above,the author regards“San”as a good method for fishing.For improvement the author offer some suggestions as follows: 1.The vegetation of nature“San”fishing-ground may be destroyed by 1own-mower or the plant cut down at certain intervals. 2.The simplification of“San”is the better than others,which are simplicites at tools and process of fishing,if so that use cormerant instead of men to drive fish,such a result is better of possibility. 3.Limit or decrease the application of spring and autumn“San”.For during those seasons,the fish will spawn on vegetation and become fat gradually,it is not proper to catch them,thus protecting the fish as well as having annual catches. 4.For the purpose of making“San”earlier in unfavourable seasons,control the water-loyal by. means of sluice-gate.

渔具渔法种类繁多,罧业渔法是我国淡水湖泊常见渔法之一。这种渔法在渔需物资、渔坊等条件与其它渔具不同,特别是在浅水多水草湖泊中捕鱼能起其它渔具所不能起的作用;不仅渔获量高,收益大,同时还具备诱大鱼的特点,有利于繁殖保护。然而关于罧业渔法尚未得到系统的整理。作者综合了白洋淀、梁子湖以及在洪湖实地调查的赘料,写成本报告。目的在总结我国罧业渔法经验,探讨罧雾(?)诱集鱼群的原因,并提供一些改进意见,希望在我国淡水渔捞业上起一点促进作用。我国是世界上最早用罧捕鱼的国家,记载首见于春秋战国时代,现在作法与古时记载基本相同。现这种渔法已沿用了一千多年了。罧业渔法依其作业的性质可分为生霖和熟霖两类:前者是用帘包围天然鱼群集聚区,除草缩小包围圈捕捉,而后者则是人造的。生罧依作业季节不同可分春罧、秋罧和冬罧。熟罧以适应水位和其它条件又有倒把式罧和简化罧的区别。生罧渔法适应于多水草的浅湖,熟罧则适应水草较少的湖泊。作业时除船外,主要用具为帘子(竹质最好),附属用具有长柄弯镰、通篙及抄纲。生罧、熟罧罧(?)条件虽有不同,但均要求底质低凹、富于淤泥,水深2—2.5米,位近港口或注水河道的迥水区,水色不过于混浊,有一定的水草(生罧则以多...

渔具渔法种类繁多,罧业渔法是我国淡水湖泊常见渔法之一。这种渔法在渔需物资、渔坊等条件与其它渔具不同,特别是在浅水多水草湖泊中捕鱼能起其它渔具所不能起的作用;不仅渔获量高,收益大,同时还具备诱大鱼的特点,有利于繁殖保护。然而关于罧业渔法尚未得到系统的整理。作者综合了白洋淀、梁子湖以及在洪湖实地调查的赘料,写成本报告。目的在总结我国罧业渔法经验,探讨罧雾(?)诱集鱼群的原因,并提供一些改进意见,希望在我国淡水渔捞业上起一点促进作用。我国是世界上最早用罧捕鱼的国家,记载首见于春秋战国时代,现在作法与古时记载基本相同。现这种渔法已沿用了一千多年了。罧业渔法依其作业的性质可分为生霖和熟霖两类:前者是用帘包围天然鱼群集聚区,除草缩小包围圈捕捉,而后者则是人造的。生罧依作业季节不同可分春罧、秋罧和冬罧。熟罧以适应水位和其它条件又有倒把式罧和简化罧的区别。生罧渔法适应于多水草的浅湖,熟罧则适应水草较少的湖泊。作业时除船外,主要用具为帘子(竹质最好),附属用具有长柄弯镰、通篙及抄纲。生罧、熟罧罧(?)条件虽有不同,但均要求底质低凹、富于淤泥,水深2—2.5米,位近港口或注水河道的迥水区,水色不过于混浊,有一定的水草(生罧则以多水草为主要条件),背风向阳,环境安静。罧(?)确定后,如生罧渔法,即用长柄弯镶除草,挖帘路下帘包围鱼群,以后则以分片除草下间帘的方式缩小范围,作法与下述熟罧基本一致.熟霖罧(?)确定后,先在罧(?)的中央投放一定数量的树枝和篙草做成罧心,围绕罧心等距离地插上些草把(岗柴或芦苇每4—10根一束),由里向外逐渐稀疏,罧(?)随告建成,经一段时间禁畜后,即可围帘起罧捕鱼。下帘的目的在包围隐蔽在罧(?)内的鱼群,为了防止鱼群受惊逃避,要求动作迅速。为达到此目的,帘子在船上安放的方式很为重要;通常每只船载20—30个帘子,当第一个帘子上船时就以折迭方式横置中仓,起初一折约1/2米宽,每折至船头方向时均向外逐渐放宽,务使帘子的边绿终止在船头方向。以后上船的帘子沿着先一个帘子的终点起以同一方式折迭,亦逐渐向船一头方向放宽.如是,全部帘子堆起来近船头一方呈斜坡形,近船尾方向的一边为垂直的。下帘时三人共船。其中两人站在船关,一人拉帘入水井扶直,另一人用木锤打稳,第三人则倒划着船走,这样既便于拉帘入水,又可避免竖起来的帘子所阻挡,加速下帘工作。两帘交界处要有复迭的边绿,以便利用木片联结。罧(?)被帘子包围后,通常要检查一遍,不妥处要予以修整。然后再选择适当的地方以旋箔的方式安装取鱼部(鱼溜)。并定期在其中用抄纲捕捞。缩小罧(?)有两种方式:一为沿着即将拆除帘子的一边割除水草(生罧)或移去草把(熟罧)至一定范围时,在近罧心的地方另下间帘,然后再拆除同边的帘子。另一为拆除同边的帘子并把它移向内方.除草或移草把时就起赶鱼的作用。有时为慎重起见还须结合船队用通篙击水赶鱼。特别是采用后一种方式时,赶鱼尤属重要。起罧下间帘、赶鱼必须遵循两个原则:1.早不移东,晚不移西。这是因为斜光映帘入水警戒着鱼群不敢外逃,早晨拆除东边帘子便会除去这个警戒线界,稍微不慎即可造成逃鱼缺口。晚不移西也是同样道理。2.赶鱼下间帘只能沿着一方前进,每天只能下1—2边,顶多也不超过3边,不能4边一齐进行。因为4边一齐进行鱼群没有停息的机会,往往会造成炸罧(注1)遇有炸罧情况发生时要采取相应措施(暂时的停止工作或修补帘子),防止逃鱼。当罧(?)缩得很小时,最后起鱼有两种方法:一种是从罧心赶鱼,使其进入取鱼部用抄网捕捉;另一种是除去罧心并下间帘把罧心分格,配合罩纲、挟纲从事捕捞。进行罧心分格的方式很多,通常是下四道帘子把罧心分成五格,称五花式。起鱼完毕后,倘在渔期,尚须重建罧(?)。如渔期已过,需要把帘子、草把等移至岸边并加保管。以备来年再用。罧(?)渔获物随设罧地区鱼类区系特点而异,同一地区常随设罧的季节而不同,鱼类之所以进入罧坊在于罧(?)内的某些条件或全部条件(水温、溶氧、饵科及其它)能满足鱼类的需要。春罧在一定程度上诱捕到沿岸水草丛中觅食和产卵的鱼类(白洋淀、大同湖),因之,鲤、(?)占很大比重,秋罧大都捕捉在浅水区觅食的鱼类。人的有意识的在罧区外开展其它渔具作业,也是鱼类进入罧(?)原因之一。依作者观察:鱼类对低温条件的反应有两种方式,并且是逐渐进行的。一种是随着低温条件的来临,鱼类游向温度较高的水域——通常是比较深的水域——并在那里渡过低温期。这是因为较深的水域水文学条件比较稳定的关系,既是有变化也不象浅水区那样骤烈;另一种方式是随着环境条件的变更以调节其代谢作用的过程,减少活动并增强其摄食量是这一适应的具体表现。鱼类以那一种方式渡过低温期,常受其栖居环境条件的影响。看来洪湖的鱼类是以后一种方式渡过为时很短的冬季。虽然罧区与其它水面具有几乎是相同的水温、溶解氧、pH 等条件,但铒料基础却显得丰富些。在其它诸条件相同时,饵料基础的增加,绣集某些鱼类的集中,已经为实践所证明。罧(?)中主要经济鱼类的幼鱼(体长20厘米以下的个体)较少,可能与幼鱼需要较高的温度条件有关.依据渔民的经验和一些不完整的调查资料(表2)来看,有迹象表明:在低温条件下较深水域中幼鱼较多。由于罧(?)水深在2—2.5米之间,因此在有深水条件存在时,可能罧(?)中幼鱼比较少。至于表中深浅水中大小鱼交叉的现象,可能与鱼类代谢作用有极大的伸缩性有关。罧业渔法经济效益较大(见表3)。已往因一次投资大、劳力多、应用不广。人民公社化为这一渔法的普遍应用提供了可能性。作为改进的意见有:1.生罧可以用间隔除草法,省劳力又可争取时间多捕鱼。如能用除草机更好。2.春罧主要捕捉那些即将到沿岸区水草丛中产卵的鱼类影响鱼群数量补充和年产量,可以少发展。3.简化罧(?)蓄禁期短,投资少,省劳力,作业期长,收益较大,可以多加提倡。4.在反常季节可以充分利用泄水闸控制水位,以便利设罧。非不得已不采用倒把式罧,据称其渔获量不如熟罧为高。

On analysing the biological data of the recent years,a hypothesis of chromosomal sectional activity has been produced which manifested as:(1)During the individual development,the chromosome proceed its sectional activity regularly with its different components.(2)The sectional activity is uninverseable and the specificity is proved gradually in the individual development.The activationer of the activity is found to be the hormone and the suppressor histone.(3)Chromosome is a sort of essential genetic material,but...

On analysing the biological data of the recent years,a hypothesis of chromosomal sectional activity has been produced which manifested as:(1)During the individual development,the chromosome proceed its sectional activity regularly with its different components.(2)The sectional activity is uninverseable and the specificity is proved gradually in the individual development.The activationer of the activity is found to be the hormone and the suppressor histone.(3)Chromosome is a sort of essential genetic material,but far from the doctrine of Mendel-Morgan's chromatophore of gene.This was confirmed by the sectional activity of chromosomal component was not in accordance with the proceedings of the character differentiation.The activity of the chromosome has provided with different material basis and the processes for the character differentiation.Lastly,by applying the hypothesis,it is hoped to render some new explanations to the principles of Mendelian genetics,the matrilineal inheritance,the corresponting stage inheritance as well as in the cases concerning cancers.

根据近年来有关的理论及实验资料,对染色体在遗传发育中的活动规律进行了分析,提出一个染色体阶段活动假说。认为染色体不是与性状一一对应的基因的载体,染色体上遗传单位的活动与性状分化不是一回事。在个体发育中染色体是以不同组份(或单位),循序进行着不同质的阶段活动,从而控制着性状分化的程序。并根据这个假说对遗传、发育、癌等提出了新的解释,以说明它对生物学理论与实践的意义。

 
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