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I now ask what happens if you try to formulate physicalism on the basis of other accounts of realization, accounts due to LePore and Loewer and to Shoemaker.




 This paper introduces the finite element method used for analyzing the contact stress acting on rock by a wedged cutter.In such a case the contact stress can be considered as a structure consisting of both plane stress elements and truss elements.Its global stiffness matrix is expressed aswhere [Kp(e)] is the general stiffness matrix of plane stress elements and [Kt(e)] is the stiffness matrix of truss respectively,and the latter must be specially assigned.In this way several stress fields (σmax,σmin and σmaxσmin... This paper introduces the finite element method used for analyzing the contact stress acting on rock by a wedged cutter.In such a case the contact stress can be considered as a structure consisting of both plane stress elements and truss elements.Its global stiffness matrix is expressed aswhere [Kp(e)] is the general stiffness matrix of plane stress elements and [Kt(e)] is the stiffness matrix of truss respectively,and the latter must be specially assigned.In this way several stress fields (σmax,σmin and σmaxσmin before the suddenly lumpy breaking) in rock under pressure by a wedged cutter with a round end are calculated and shown as in Fig.7,8 and 9.The whole process of rock breaking is programed in such a way that a method of load increments is applied since the indefinite load and the stress release is taken into account due to the nonelasticity of rock.In conclusion,1.Powdered kernels take form iniatially.With the sudden energy release due to the energy stored in the powdered kernels,the rock breaks into large lumps suddenly under tensilecracking.2.Tensile failure is the main cause and also the main form of this suddenly lumpy breaking.  本文用组合结构接触应力分析的有限单元法分析了圆头楔形刀具作用下岩石内的应力场,得出了盘形滚刀对岩石的破碎作用主要是突进破碎,而突进破碎是受拉破坏。大量实验证实这个结论是正确的。  River crossing pipelines and subsea pipelines usually involve composed structure in order to ensure safe operation. The former is often protected with packaged concrete weights or casing pipes, while the latter with continuous concrete coating, altogether forming composite structure. For the strength calculation with such structure in the design stage, however, the interaction between concrete (cement) and pipeline generally have not been taken into account due to the complexity and technicaleconomic... River crossing pipelines and subsea pipelines usually involve composed structure in order to ensure safe operation. The former is often protected with packaged concrete weights or casing pipes, while the latter with continuous concrete coating, altogether forming composite structure. For the strength calculation with such structure in the design stage, however, the interaction between concrete (cement) and pipeline generally have not been taken into account due to the complexity and technicaleconomic factor. For this reason, taking the structure of crossing pipeline as a composed beam consisting of different materials , supposing no interaction exists between concrete and steel pipes, and ignoring the influence of insulation coating, the equations calculating the bending rigidity and flexousity stress have been derived. Besides the strength of underwater crossing pipeline, these equations can also be directly used to calculate the curvity radius of elastic laying for crossing pipeline, as well as the resonant suspension length. Also,the equations can be used to study the longitudinal stability of the crossing pipelines.  河流穿越管道和海底管道一般采用组合结构,以保证其安全运行。前者常采用组装式混凝土加重块或套管,后者常采用混凝土连续覆盖层,与管道一起构成复合结构。然而在设计阶段,对于这种组合结构的强度设计,由于其复杂性和出于技术、经济方面的考虑,工程上大多不考虑混凝土(水泥)与管道的相互作用。为此,将穿越管道结构看成由不同材料构成的组合梁,并认为混凝土(水泥)与钢管之间没有相对运动,也不计防腐绝缘层的影响,分别导出了穿越管道的抗弯刚度和弯曲应力的计算公式。该公式除可用于水下穿越管道强度的计算之外,还可直接用于穿越管道的弹性敷设弯曲半径计算,以及共振悬空长度确定等的设计计算。另外,公式对研究穿越管道的纵向稳定性也有实际意义。  On the basis of field investigation,the method of fuzzy synthetic evaluation is used to study the stability of a road cutting slope in Sichuan in this paper and the method is proved to be effective. The result indicates that the whole slope and blocks are all in stability.But some measures should be taken into account due to the effect of steepincline discontinuities.  应用模糊综合评判方法分析研究四川某公路深挖路堑边坡的稳定性 ,研究表明边坡整体及部分块体在边坡开挖后均处于基本稳定状态 ,为边坡的治理提供了依据。   << 更多相关文摘 
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