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painted pottery
相关语句
  彩陶
     for unglazed painted pottery α=90°,θ=0°-30°, E/Es=2. 00-2. 50: for tri-coloured glazed pottery α=30°,θ=75°, E/Es=2. 50-3. 00.
     对于无釉彩陶:α=90°,θ=0°-30°,E/E_s=2.00-2.50; 对于唐三彩:α=30°,θ=75°,E/E_s=2.50-3.00。
短句来源
     Comprehension and Study of the Patterns on the Ancient Painted Pottery
     彩陶纹饰认知与研究
短句来源
     We may get a hint of the harmony between nature and humanity, which meets the humanity pursuit of modern art through analyzing the aesthetic characteristics of painted pottery and the comfort from its mood of art.
     通过彩陶纹饰审美特征及其意境情趣传达的“写意”表现的分析,从中窥见自然与人性的和谐,同现代艺术所追求的艺术人性化的表现不谋而合。
短句来源
     Classified systems of Fish Patterns on the Painted Pottery of the Banpo Culture
     半坡文化彩陶鱼纹的分类系统
短句来源
     A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON YANGSHAO PAINTED POTTERY ART
     仰韶彩陶艺术的综合研究
短句来源
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  原始彩陶
     In order to solve two the above-mentioned big problems , take line kind of primitiveancient painted pottery as an example and analyze and summarize the Americancharacteristic of form of primitive art at first.
     为了解决以上两大问题,首先以原始彩陶纹样为例分析和总结原始艺术的形式美特征。
短句来源
     The primitive painted pottery decorative design in a utensil as one kind of the mark in artistic, is one kind of “has the meaning form”, its institute contacts all is directly has the universal human significance question, in its is concerned the life style which the people concerned the world.
     原始彩陶纹饰作为一种艺术中的符号,是一种“有意味的形式”,它所直接接触到的都是具有普遍的人类意义的问题,关涉到人在其所关切世界的生活方式。
短句来源
     The modelling of original ancient painted pottery is simple,unsophisticated and vivid, producing a kind of artistic charm for both material and spirit.
     原始彩陶造型古朴生动,产生一种既是物质的又是精神的艺术魅力;
短句来源
     This article tries to search its symbolism artistic characteristic shallowly from five aspects, in order to has the further study and the understanding to the primitive painted pottery decorative design in a utensil.
     本文试从五个方面浅探其符号性艺术特征,以期对原始彩陶纹饰有更进一步的学习和认识。
短句来源
     The ancient painted pottery are is used to produce great influence on the connotation and the form of expression of the traditional Chinese paintings.
     原始彩陶艺术对中国传统绘画的意蕴和表现方式产生过深远影响。
短句来源
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  “painted pottery”译为未确定词的双语例句
     ANALYSIS OF COATING ON PAINTED POTTERY OF NEW STONE AGE OF XI SHAN RUIN AND RELATION WITH SINTERING TEMPERATURE
     新石器时期西山遗址古陶器表面陶彩的分析及其与烧结温度的关系
短句来源
     Decorative Art of Painted Pottery Vases of Han Dynasty in Luoyang
     洛阳汉代彩绘陶壶装饰艺术
短句来源
     THE PAINTED POTTERY CULTURE OF GUANGDONG FUJIAN AND TAIWAN PROVINCES IN THE NEOLITHIC AGE
     新石器时代粤闽台彩陶文化
短句来源
     Appreciation of Female Painted Pottery Figurine of Tang
     风吹仙袂飘飘带 犹如霓裳羽衣舞——唐彩绘陶女舞俑赏析
短句来源
     A Preliminary Study of the Rreservation of the Painted Pottery from Sanmenxia
     三门峡彩绘陶器保护浅析
短句来源
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  painted pottery
This major European culture of the Copper Age existed for about 1500 years and survived as a rudiment of painted pottery cultures until the beginning of the Bronze Age.
      
The stylistic development of the painted pottery from the excavations of Akrotiri on Thera evidences that the great Late-Minoan eruption of the Thera volcano must be dated around 1500 B.C.
      
The painted pottery in the Canaanite ceramic tradition had continued through all Iron I phases.
      
Similarly, the later level's ceramic assemblage also had more coarse wares and less fine painted pottery.
      
Stratum VII, the final stage of Iron Age I with its painted pottery tradition, was reached in parts of the field.
      
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(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which...

(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which has made the ethnic position of the Malayans as well as the ethnicrelationship between the Malayans and the other related peoples unclear scientifically. Therecent anthropological studies revealed the close ethnic relation between the brown raceand the yellow race, hence the Malayan stock is regarded as one branch of the Mongo-loids and given a new term "Oceanic Mongoloid". The Malayan stock now stands closelywith its two brothers the Northern Mongoloid and the Southern Mongoloid. The term "Malayans" is used here in its broader meaning which includes all thepeoples in Malaysia with a physical characteristics mostly of yellowish-brown colour.brachycephalie (broad) head form, black and straight hair, scanty beard, Malayan eye.medium stature and speaking branches of Malayo-Polynesian language which is agglutina-tive in its nature. Scientifically, both the "proto-Malays" and the "deutero-Malays", orboth the "true Malays" (Orang Malayu) and the other Malayans outside of it are to beconsidered here as the Malayan stock. Generally speaking, largest part of the peoplesliving in Malaya, Indonesia, Philippines and other islands bear this common name inscientific sense. Within the country of Indonesia the term Indonesians is most usuallyused, but in this article, the Indonesians is also included in the term Malayan stockbecause the latter is larger in its scope and more generally used in science. The Malayan stock is not a pure, single race but one of many elements intermixedtogether. The first element is the Oceanic Mongoloid which came from the north, pro-bable Chinese continent, its physical characteristics survived are the black, straight hair,broad head, yellowish-brown colour, medium stature and certain degree of Mongolian eye(narrow eye with Mongolian fold which covers the upper eye-lid). The second elementis the Indonesian stock, (This is used in scientific, narrower meaning instead of thatused in common sense) and early branch of the Caucasian race, originated in westernAsia and migrated eastward to Malaysia through Indo-China; it gives the present people the physical characteristics of Malayan eye, (broad eye without Mongolian fold hence theeye-lashes and a concave line on the eye-lid can be seen clearly) a certain degree of doli-chocephalie (long) head together with the agglutinative Malayo-Polynesian language. Thethird element is the Oceanic Negroid whose part contributed to the Malayans is not solarge that it still has pure descendants in present day viz. the Negritoes and the Papuans;while the fourth element is the Veddas came from India. The third and fourth one arri-ved earliest in probably Palaeolithic age, but played no important role in ethnic composi-tion of the Malayan stock because of their small number in population. The second onereached Malaysia after the above two probably in early period of Neolithic age, while thefirst one arrived latest in later period of Neolithic age. Though later in time, the OceanicMongoloids and Indonesians came in large numbers hence they formed the two principalelements of the Malayan stock. As the outcome of the intermixing of blood there appea-red a great mixed racial stock which looks different from its original elements, conseq-uently the original names are no longer suitable to be used. The term Indonesian is usedhere in its original meaning which is different from that of the so-called "Indonesians"in present day use. The mixed stock is no more called Indonesian but Malayan stock inthis article. Ⅱ. Is there Any Connection Between the Malayan Stock and the Ancient Peoples in Southern China? The cradle of the mix-blooded Malayan stock may be in the meeting point of the twoprincipal elements. Indo-China, a necessary meeting point on their ways, was naturally thecradle of the Malayan stock. From Indo-China floods of racial migration appeared fromtime to time and peopled the islands of Malaysia from west to east. As the Oceanic Mongoloid might be originated in the east Asia continent and mig-rated southward to Indo-China, naturally there must be a time in which they lived insouthern China as well as in Indo-China. Furthermore, the ancient peoples in SouthernChina consisted of various aboriginal tribes different from the Chinese Proper, it seemsnot very unreasonable to suggest that besides the Mongoloids there might existed too acertain primitive branch of Caucasian race or even Negroid race in southern China eventhough in small number before the Chinese Proper migrated southward. Possessing theability of migrating southward by the difficult way of water, why the Indonesians couldor would not proceed further eastward from Indo-China by an easier way of land tosouthern China During or preceding Chow dynasty (before 250 B. C.) in the coastal regions of sout-hern China (Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, Kwangsi provinces) there existedan ancient aboriginal stock with the name of "Yueh" which was looked by the Chineseproper as a different race because they lived in different way, followed their own queerhabits and customs and spoke in a different tongue. This stock was indeed more strangethan the other aboriginal stocks in southem China. The formation of such a stock mightbe the outcome of blending of the Mongoloids arrived from the north with some other peoples came from the southwest. As there really existed a different people-the In-donesians-migrated from the west and the blending of the two races-the Indonesiansand the Mongoloids-was actually taking place in Indo-China, it is far from impossiblethat such a phenomenon might extend and appear also in southem China. Being theproduct of mixing blood of the two principal races-the Mongoloids and the Indonesians-the Yueh stock might be in the same condition as the Malayan. If the intermixing of the Mongoloids with the Indonesians really took place in sout-hern China, the ancient people Yueh then was the brother of the Malayan stock. At thebeginning they might resemble to each other, but in later days both of them lived indifferent places and mixed with more other peoples, hence appeared also different fromeach other. Since the Chin dynasty (220 B. C.) the Yueh stock began to be assimilatedby the Chinese Proper from the north; the process of assimilation of culture and theblending of blood reached its conclusion in about 6th century. Later on no survivor ofYueh stock with pure blood or tribal name ever appeared in China. Their mix-bloodedoffspring, however, have existed up to present time as the population of the southeastcoastal region viz. Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung Provinces. Ⅲ. Three Evidences From the historical and geographical point of view, we get the above hypothesis ofthe ethnical Connection between the Malayan and the Yueh stock in southern China. Ifthis is true there must be, between them, physical and cultural resemblances which aresound enough as the evidence. Three sorts of facts, as I seek, may do this service: (1) Resemblances in Physical Characteristics--Though there is still no enoughamount of prehistoric skeletons of both the Indonesians and the Oceanic Mongoloidsunearthed in Malaysia and southern China for scientific research, the Iiving offsprings ofboth the two ancient races may give us some hints about this question,. It is often observedthat the physical characteristics of the southern Chinese of present day are different insome respects from the northern ones although basically they are of the same type viz.the Chinese type. Among them, the peoples of Kwangtung and Fukien have espicially adifferent appearence: Firstly, the eyes of them are broader and less in degree of Mongolian fold on theupper eye-lid. The eye of this type is the medium form between the Mongolian and theMalayan eye, and may be called Half-Malayan eye. Generally most of the Mongol Properand the northern Chinese have the Mongoian eye, while the Malayans have the Malayaneye. The intermediate eye suggests that the human group possessing it must be the mixedblood of the two kinds of peoples with these two sorts of eyes. Wherefrom did the sout-hern Chinese get the half-Malayan eye? Unless they had as one part of their compositeelement a sort of people with Malayan eyes, it is quite impossible to explain the derivationof this eye form. this eye form, therefore, tells us that the southern Chinese, especiallythat of Kwangtung, Fukien and perhaps Chekiang provinces had as one part of theirancestors a people with Malayan eyes. The Malayans may get their malayan eye from the Indoncsians, because the Indonesians belong to the Caucasian race whose eye is calledEuropean eye which is the same as the Malayan one. In fact, the European eye formappeared on the Malayan face is called Malayan eye. The eyes of the southern Chinesetherefore might he derived from the same way as the Malayans. Secondly, the stature of the southern Chinese especially those of Kwangtung andFukien is generally lower than that of the northern Chinese; while compared with theMalayans, they are nearly the same with each other. Thirdly, some of the faces of the southern Chinese looks different from the northernones but appears resembling the Malayans. The Southerns have a shorter face while thenortherners have a longer one. As the physical characteristics of both the southem Chinese and the Malayans resem-bling each other, it is hardly possible to distinguish some Chinese in Malayan costumesand vice versa. The Chinese new comers in Malaysia are often astonished to find thatthe so-called strangers or foreigners viz. the Malayans, look quite like themselves in theirphysical respect. Sometimes it is not easy too for the Europeans to distinguish betweenthe Chinese and the Malayans, because most of the Chinese immigrated to Malaysiancountries were from the southeastern coastal regions which was the home country of theancient Yueh people. (2) Resemblances in Early Cultural Respects--Of course the cultural life ofthe southern Chinese and the Malayans in present day are different to each other, butthe historical records about the ancient Yueh people reveal that the Yueh stock had intheir material life, social customs and languages some points suggesting the connectionwith the Malayans. These may be enumerated as the following: 1, Hair cutting: The ancient northern Chinese never cut their hair, the Miao stockbound their hair too, only the Yueh people was noted for their hair cutting. The primitivebranches of the present Malayan also cut their hair, the early Malayans probably had thiscustom in ancient times too. 2, Tattooing: The Yueh was also well-known for their tattooing which made themlook quite wonderful to the other Chinese, The Malayans of today still have kept thiscustom in Borneo, Philippines etc. 3, Snake worship: The Yueh worshipped the snakes and those in Fukien even tookthe snake as their totem. The aborigines in Taiwan province, which belong to Malayanstock too, still preserve the remnant of such belief, Snake worship is not unknown tothe Malayans in Malaysia too. 4, Pile-house: At present the pile-houses of the Malayans is quite well-known forits specialty; such form of building, however, was also adopted by the ancient southernChinese because it is recorded that the Yueh lived in nest, and the later southern peopleslived actually in the pile-houses which was called "kan-lan". 5, Naked foot: The Yueh's naked foot custom was also noted in ancient times.while the Malayans in history also kept their feet naked even though they were officersin the kings courts. 6, Agglutinative language: The Yueh spoke in a different and queer tongue fromthe Chinese Proper and even the other peoples in ancient times, the translation of Yuehwords gave the Chinese Proper a hard question; to denote the sound of a Yueh word,one Chinese word is not enough, while two or three words sound too much. Thiscondition suggests that though the Chinese language was isolating in its nature, that ofthe Yueh might belong to agglutinative one, because one agglutinative word usually pro-nounces just like two or more isolating words connected. Heine-Geldern and other scholarealso suggested that the Malayo-Polynesian or Austro-Asiatic language was originated inthe continent. The present south-eastern Chinese still speak in different dialects whichproves that the ancient Yueh language was quite strange to the northern Chinese. Thedifficulty to compare the ancient Yueh language with the Malayan one lies in the factthat both the present tongues used by the modern Malayans and the southern Chinesehave been changed by nearly two thousand years' assimilation with other languages. (3) Resemblances of Prehistoric Remains--Before the prehistoric archaeologicaldiscoveries took place in southern China, the question of the derivation or origin of someprehistoric objects in malaysia and even Polynesia had been very hard to be solved. Poly-nesia is famous for one special type of stone implements viz. the tanged adze or steppedadze, the origin of it was traced to that unearthed in Philippines; the derivation of thestepped adze of Philippines, however, was also very hard to be traced. Since about 1930the prehistoric findings began to take place in southern Chinese continent. the newmaterials enable the old questions easier to be solved. The prehistoric remains are difte-rent to those found in northern China, the latter consists of the painted pottery, blackpottery, thick stone axe, holed stone axe etc., whilc the former consists of the pressedgeometric-designed pettery, the stepped adze, the shouldered axe etc.. Strange to say thatthe southern prehistoric objects of China really resemble those of Malaysia and evenPolynesia. These objects may be pointed as the following: 1, Stepped stone adze: Stepped adze is found in large numbers in the south-easternregions viz. Fukien, Kwangtung, Chekiang, Kiangsi, Kiangsu etc., but appears veryrare in the eastern part of northern China and is entirely unknown in the western partof it. The shape suggests that it was developed in three stages just like that of Phi-lippines and Polynesia. Furthermore, the stepped adze of primary and intermediate stagesappeared more in number in south-eastern China, while that of the higher stage appearedmore in Philippines and Polynesia; such a condition reveals that the stepped adze of Phi-lippines and Polynesia was derived from south-eastern China. The way of transmigrationof the stepped adze is probably through Taiwan, Philippines and other islands. 2, Shouldered stone axe: The shouldered axe appeared in Indo-China. Malay pe-ninsula, Philippines etc., but was not found in the intermediate islands viz Sumatra,Java etc.. It was unearthed in Taiwan and Hainan islands too. In the southern part ofthe Chinese continent it appeared less in number but more will be found in future. Inthe north-eastern China very rare was obtaine(?) too. The shouldered axe might be ori-ginated in Indo-China and then spreaded eastward to the south-eastern coastal region of Chinese continent, therefrom it crossed the sea and arrived in Philippines through Tai-wan island, On the way a northward route led it to the north-eastern region. Anotherroute led it southward to Malay Peninsula. Shouldered axe is also an object of evidenceshowing the relation of the Malayans and the southern Chinese, because the prehistoricpeoples in Indo-China was the Malayans instead of the Annamese etc.. 3, Pressed geometric-designed pottery: In southern, especially south-eastern China,the prehistoric pottery was that with geometric designs pressed with pottery prints, thisis quite different to the painted pottery of north-western China and the black pottery ofnorth-eastern China. In Malaysia and Indo-China the prehistoric potteries found resembleto that of south China, some of the shape of the potteries as well as the pressed designsare quite like each other. Some potteries of this type were actuaily found in Indo-China,Java and Sulawesi, which are comparable with that of south China. This kind of potteryalso suggests the prehistoric connection between Malayans and the southern Chinese. Ⅳ. Conclusions (1) The Malayan stock is a mixed blood of chiefly the Oceanic Mongoloid raceand the Indonesians which is an early branch of the Caucasian race. These two raceshave been blended to such a degree that a new stock appeared which is called the Ma-Jayan stock, and the two elements have no more pure offsprings survived. The presentMalayans show more Mongolian physical features than the Indonesian ones, hencs it istaken as a branch of Mongoloids. (2) The Oceanic Mongoloid came from southern China, hence these should beethnic connection. between the Malayans and the ancient southern Chinese. Moreover,the other two elements of the Malayans, the Indonesians and the Negritoes probablyalso arrived and lived in southern China earlier than the Mongoloids and became partof the ethnical elements of the southern Chinese in later days, therefore the Malayansand the southern Chinese may have the same ethnical element. (3) The present southern Chinese, especially the south-eastern ones have some phy-sical characteristics like the Malayans, their ancestor Yueh stock had some customs andlanguage showing some resemblances to the Malayans, finally, the prehistoric discoveriesalso show the relationship between these two races. (4) The processes of the formation of the Malayan stock might proceeded in Indo-China and southern China. Since Neolithic age the Malayans migrated step by step toMalaysian islands, while those remained in Indo-China and southern China were assimi-lated by the Chinese Proper, Annamese, Siamese and Burmese. The ancient Yueh stockin southern China might have nearly the same ethnic composition as the Malayans, butwas assimilated by the Chinese Proper since two thousand years ago. (5) There might be two routes of southward migration of the Malayans. The firstand principal one was the west route which started from Indo-China, penetrated Suma-tra, Java and Borneo, and finally reached Philippines; the evidences are the pressedgeometric designed pottery and the shouldered axe. The second was the east route whichstarted from the south-eastern coast of Chinese continent, passed Taiwan and other islets,finally reached Philippines, Sulawesi and eastern Borneo. The stepped adze, the shoul-dered axe, and the pressed geometric-designe

林惠祥同志三十多年来除了对人类学(包括古学、民族学)进行系统的研究,并获得很大的成就和贡献外,他一生对南洋问题的研究,也曾下过工夫,做过不少工作和贡献。“南洋马来族与华南古民族的关系”这篇论文是林惠祥同志关于南洲问题最后的遗著。前篇于一九三八年以“马来人与中国东南方人同源说”为题曾在南洋发表过,后篇是他二十年后对这问题进一步深入研究的成果,提出更丰富、更可靠的有关人类学(包括考古学、民族学)的材料和证据,把我国和南洋民族的历史关系以及将东南亚这一大片地方过去被遗忘的历史补充起来,这是他三十年多年来对南洋研究的重要贡献,也是他一生对南洋问题研究总结的一部份。

Study has been made on the chemical compositions and microstructures of the coatingsand glazes of more than 60 pieces of the painted pottery, black pottery with clay glaze,proto-porcelain and green-ware in Zhejiang Province starting from the Neolithic perioddown to the present day, thereby the formation and development of the green glaze ofZhejiang Province is traced. The development of the green glaze in Zhejiang Province can be envisaged to havegone through the following four stages: 1.Pre-Shang...

Study has been made on the chemical compositions and microstructures of the coatingsand glazes of more than 60 pieces of the painted pottery, black pottery with clay glaze,proto-porcelain and green-ware in Zhejiang Province starting from the Neolithic perioddown to the present day, thereby the formation and development of the green glaze ofZhejiang Province is traced. The development of the green glaze in Zhejiang Province can be envisaged to havegone through the following four stages: 1.Pre-Shang period: Nurturing stage (about 5000 B.C.~1600 B.C.), 2.Shang and Zhou period: Forming stage (1600 B.C.~220 B.C.), 3.Han, Jin, Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties period: Maturing stage (206 B.C.~A.D.960), 4. Song till present day period: Enhancing stage (A.D. 960-present day). The chemical compositions and microstructures of the coatings and glazes of the 4 stageshave distinctive features, particularly, in that as the main flux of the glaze RO (CaO+MgO) contents show distinct and regular changes. In the Pre-Shang period, the RO contentwas rather low generally less than 5%;in the Shang and Zhou period it increased to notmore than 15%; in the Han till Five Dynasties period, it increased to 18%~20%, whilein the Song till present day period, it again dropped to below 15%, usually around10%. The R_2O (K_2O+Na_2O) and Fe_2O_3 contents showed relevant changes with the increaseor decrease of RO content, but the variation was comparatively small, generally less than6%. In the said historical period, the change of the RO content in the glazes appeared tohave been: low-high-low. The porcelain glaze in Zhejiang area, thus, developed to befirst as a unique and traditional lime glaze, and later as unparalleled form of lime-alka-line glaze. From the research works done on several tens of the painted pottery, proto-porce-lain, green ware and white porcelain of the various historical periods in the north andsouth areas of China,the author arrived at the conclusion, that with the exception of theTang white porcelain glaze and a few others, the development of the green glaze inChina as a whole follows the same pattern as that of Zhejiang Province.

通过浙江地区自新石器时期一直到近代的60多个彩陶、泥釉黑陶、原始瓷和青瓷的涂层、彩及釉的化学成分和显微结构的研究,找出了浙江青瓷釉的形成和发展的规律。 随着时代的进展,我国浙江青瓷釉的发展过程可以从4个历史时期划分为4个阶段:(1)商前时期的釉的孕育阶段(公元前5000年~公元前1600年);(2)商、周时期的釉的形成阶段(公元前1600年~公元前220年);(3)汉、晋、隋、唐、五代时期的釉的成熟阶段(公元前206年~公元960年)和(4)宋到现代的釉的提高阶段(公元960年至今)。这4个阶段在釉的化学组成上和显微结构上都有明显的差别,特别是作为釉的主要熔剂的RO(CaO+MgO)的含量有着明显的有规律的变化。如商前时期RO的含量一般不超过5%。商、周时期虽有所增加,但一般也不超过15%。汉至五代则增加到不低于18%,一般在20%上下,宋以后,则又降低到不超过15%。一般在10%左右。在RO发生变化的同时,R_2O(K_2O+Na_2O)和Fe_2O_3也发生相应的变化,但变化范围是比较小的,一般只在6%以下。在整个历史阶段,釉中RO的含量形成先低、后高、再低的变化规律,使我国的瓷釉先形成独具风格的传统的石...

通过浙江地区自新石器时期一直到近代的60多个彩陶、泥釉黑陶、原始瓷和青瓷的涂层、彩及釉的化学成分和显微结构的研究,找出了浙江青瓷釉的形成和发展的规律。 随着时代的进展,我国浙江青瓷釉的发展过程可以从4个历史时期划分为4个阶段:(1)商前时期的釉的孕育阶段(公元前5000年~公元前1600年);(2)商、周时期的釉的形成阶段(公元前1600年~公元前220年);(3)汉、晋、隋、唐、五代时期的釉的成熟阶段(公元前206年~公元960年)和(4)宋到现代的釉的提高阶段(公元960年至今)。这4个阶段在釉的化学组成上和显微结构上都有明显的差别,特别是作为釉的主要熔剂的RO(CaO+MgO)的含量有着明显的有规律的变化。如商前时期RO的含量一般不超过5%。商、周时期虽有所增加,但一般也不超过15%。汉至五代则增加到不低于18%,一般在20%上下,宋以后,则又降低到不超过15%。一般在10%左右。在RO发生变化的同时,R_2O(K_2O+Na_2O)和Fe_2O_3也发生相应的变化,但变化范围是比较小的,一般只在6%以下。在整个历史阶段,釉中RO的含量形成先低、后高、再低的变化规律,使我国的瓷釉先形成独具风格的传统的石灰釉,然后再发展成为独树一帜的石灰-碱釉。 结合数10个我国南北各地历代的青瓷釉和白瓷釉的化学成分的研究。发现除少数例外?

The authors have used the technique of semantic differential scale and factoranalysis to investigate the optimum lighting conditions of the visual environmentfor the exhibiton of cultural relics. Three kinds of cultural relics are studied. i, e.bronze ware, unglazed painted pottery and tri-coloured glazed pottery of the TangDynasty. The parameters which are used to describe the lighting conditions of the visualenvironment for the exhibition are the azimuth (α)and elevation (θ) of the direc-tional...

The authors have used the technique of semantic differential scale and factoranalysis to investigate the optimum lighting conditions of the visual environmentfor the exhibiton of cultural relics. Three kinds of cultural relics are studied. i, e.bronze ware, unglazed painted pottery and tri-coloured glazed pottery of the TangDynasty. The parameters which are used to describe the lighting conditions of the visualenvironment for the exhibition are the azimuth (α)and elevation (θ) of the direc-tional lighting and the illuminance vector/scalar illuminance ratio (E/Es). The results are: for bronze ware α=60°, θ=75°, E/Es=1.00-1.50; for unglazed painted pottery α=90°,θ=0°-30°, E/Es=2. 00-2. 50: for tri-coloured glazed pottery α=30°,θ=75°, E/Es=2. 50-3. 00.

作者们应用语意差别量表和因子分析法研究了青铜器、无釉彩陶和唐三彩等古文物陈列室的视觉环境的最佳照明条件。实验中描述照明条件的参数为:方向性照明的方位角(α)、高度角(θ)和照度矢量/标量照度比(E/E_s)。结果为: 对于青铜器:α=60°,θ=75°,E/E_s=1.00-150; 对于无釉彩陶:α=90°,θ=0°-30°,E/E_s=2.00-2.50; 对于唐三彩:α=30°,θ=75°,E/E_s=2.50-3.00。

 
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