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renewable material
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     Material
     实验材料与方法
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     Material
     一、实验材料
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     Cellulosic material is the most abundant renewable carbon source in the world.
     纤维素是地球上最丰富、最廉价的可再生资源。
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     Renewable Resources
     可再生资源
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     Lignocellulose material are the most abundant renewable organic resource on the earth.
     木质纤维素是地球上最充分的可更新的有机资源。
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  renewable material
In recent years bamboo has been rediscovered as an important renewable material with great potential.
      
The interest in using cellulose fibres as reinforcing elements in composite materials based on polymeric matrices is constantly growing, mainly because of the many advantages associated with this renewable material.
      
Wood is the main renewable material on Earth and is largely used as building material and in paper-pulp manufacturing.
      
Wheat Board Core is a low-emission, rapidly renewable material composed primarily of wheat straw fibers.
      
The grass could alternatively be used for biofuels of as renewable material and does not necessarily contradict the paragraph on bioenergy production.
      
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Plant fibers are the most abundant organic material. It is one of the renewable materials too. Efficient use and conversion of plant ffiberes or cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels, such as alcohol, is very important for relax of the energy supply in the world.Due to the new cellulase producing cultures of microorganism were selected and a lot of advanced techniqnes, such as the continnous digestion technology for pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstock, the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation...

Plant fibers are the most abundant organic material. It is one of the renewable materials too. Efficient use and conversion of plant ffiberes or cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels, such as alcohol, is very important for relax of the energy supply in the world.Due to the new cellulase producing cultures of microorganism were selected and a lot of advanced techniqnes, such as the continnous digestion technology for pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstock, the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and the continuous enzyme production, were developed, the processes of alcohol production from plant fibers or cellulose wastes have been carried through the pilot-plant stage with encouraging resuits. Now they need to be proved in larger demonstrationscale plants before comerical plants are attampted.Hemicellulose is one of the major components of renewable plant fibers. To fully ntilize biomass-derived sugars in the production of ethanol, the fermentation of hemicellulose-derived sugars, such as xylose, becomes important. It has been observed, that fermenting yeast are able to produce ethanol from D-xylose when D-xylose isomerizing enzyme is present. The results indicate that ethanol could be produced from D-xylose in a yield of greater thou 80% with alcohol concentration over 6%(w/v) by a twosteps process.Now, direct fermentation of D-xylose to ethanol by voriouse microorgamism cultures is studed widly. The results indicate, that ethanol could be produced from D-xylose directly, but with low alcohol conceutration and slow rates of growth and convertion. There are still a lot of works have to do in this area.

植物纤维是最大量存在的有机物,也是一种再生资源。有效地利用植物纤维或纤维素废料来制造液体燃料,(如酒精),对于缓和全世界的能量供应是很重要的。由于许多新的产纤维素酶菌株被发现和分离,许多先进的技术,例如木质纤维素连续预处理工艺,糖化发酵混合进行,纤维酶的连续生产等的发明,植物纤维或纤维素废料制酒精已经通过了中间工厂的试验,效果很好。现在的问题是在商业性大生产前要经过较大规模的示范性工厂的证实。半纤維素是再生植物纤维的主要成份之一,为了完全地利用植物纤维产生的糖制造酒精,半纤维素水解后得到的糖(例如D-木糖)的利用是非常重要的。试验结果表明,酵母可发酵D-木糖为酒精,但必需要有木糖异物酶存在,这时酒精的得率可达80%以上,酒精浓度最高达6%(w/v)以上。目前D-木糖直接发酵成酒精的研究进行得很多,结果表明多种微生物可以直接发酵D-本糖为酒精,但是得率低,酒精浓度低,生长速度和转化速度都慢,在这方面看来还有许多工作要做。

Plant fibers are the most abundant organic material. It is one of the renewable materials too. Efficient use and conversion of plant ffiberes or cel- lulosic wastes to liquid fuels, such as alcohol, is very important for relax of the energy supply in the world. Due to the new cellulase producing cultures of microorganism were sele- cted and a lot of advanced techniqnes, such as the continnous digestion tech- nology for pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstock, the simultaneous sacch- arification...

Plant fibers are the most abundant organic material. It is one of the renewable materials too. Efficient use and conversion of plant ffiberes or cel- lulosic wastes to liquid fuels, such as alcohol, is very important for relax of the energy supply in the world. Due to the new cellulase producing cultures of microorganism were sele- cted and a lot of advanced techniqnes, such as the continnous digestion tech- nology for pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstock, the simultaneous sacch- arification and fermentation and the continuous enzyme production, were developed, the processes of alcohol production from plant fibers or cellulose wastes have been carried through the pilot-plant stage with encouraging re- suits. Now they need to be proved in larger demonstrationscale plants before comerical plants are attampted. Hemicellulose is one of the major components of renewable plant fibers. To fully ntilize biomass-derived sugars in the production of ethanol, the fer- mentation of hemicellulose-derived sugars, such as xylose, becomes important. It has been observed, that fermenting yeast are able to produce ethanol from D-xylose when D-xylose isomerizing enzyme is present. The results indicate that ethanol could be produced from D-xylose in a yield of greater thou 80% with alcohol concentration over 6% (w/v) by a twosteps process. Now, direct fermentation of D-xylose to ethanol by voriouse microorg- amism cultures is studed widly. The results indicate, that ethanol could be produced from D-xylose directly, but with low alcohol conceutration and slow rates of growth and convertion. There are still a lot of works have to do in this area.

植物纤维是最大量存在的有机物,也是一种再生资源。有效地利用植物纤维或纤维素废料来制造液体燃料,(如酒精),对于缓和全世界的能量供应是很重要的。由于许多新的产纤维素酶菌株被发现和分离,许多先进的技术,例如木质纤维素连续预处理工艺,糖化发酵混合进行,纤维酶的连续生产等的发明,植物纤维或纤维素废料制酒精已经通过了中间工厂的试验,效果很好。现在的问题是在商业性大生产前要经过较大规模的示范性工厂的证实。半纤维素是再生植物纤维的主要成份之一,为了完全地利用植物纤维产生的糖制造酒精,半纤维素水解后得到的糖(例如D-木糖)的利用是非常重要的。试验结果表明,酵母可发酵D-木糖为酒精,但必需要有木糖异物酶存在,这时酒精的得率可达80%以上,酒精浓度最高达6%(w/v)以上。目前D-木糖直接发酵成酒精的研究进行得很多,结果表明多种微生物可以直接发酵D-本糖为酒精,但是得率低,酒精浓度低,生长速度和转化速度都慢,在这方面看来还有许多工作要做。

Formulations of all kinds of detergents such as powder detergent,liquid detergent,laundry soap,laundry paste,fabric softener and liquid dishwashing detergent with surfactants based on oil chemical is described in this paper.The surfactants based on renewable materials will increase in the future detergent formulation. Natural surfactants will aid to get better washing effect.

本文叙述了以油化学基表面活性剂为原料配制各种洗涤剂,如粉状洗涤剂、液体洗涤剂、洗衣皂、洗衣膏、织物柔软剂、液体餐具洗涤剂等。基于再生资源的表面活性剂在未来的洗涤剂配方中将增加。天然表面活性剂有助于获得更好的洗涤效果。

 
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