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disposal
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     The disposal is proposed.
     提出了处理和解决的建议.
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     Disposal of Waste Oil
     废矿物油的处理处置
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  disposal
Hence, reasonable disposal of the surplus sludge to avoid re-pollution is very important.
      
A Delftia tsuruhatensis strain capable of consuming aniline as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy at concentrations of up to 3200 mg/l was isolated from activated sludge of the sewage disposal plants of OAO Volzhskii Orgsintez.
      
Part of the review is devoted to analyzing methods used for studying the population dynamics of bacterial communities involved in xenobiotic degradation in natural biotopes or industrial waste disposal plants.
      
Intralaboratory Quality Control of Chemical Analysis with Reference Materials at Disposal
      
Enrichment cultures of microorganisms producing gases (hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide) and capable of participation in the precipitation of metal sulfides were obtained from the waters of the disposal site.
      
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Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification...

Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification methods, the Chinese coals available with ultimate analysis or proximate analysis data can be easily classified into the following different kinds as known internationally: -anthracite (A), semi-athracite (T), semi-bituminous ( C), coking coal (k), steaming fat coal ( ), gas coal ( ), long flame (candle) coal ( ) and lignite coal ( ), as tabulated on Table - 4. Ⅲ. The Properties of Chinese Coals. (а) The composition of the Chinese Coals - with the exception of ash and sulfur which vary irregularly, the other constituents. like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and analytical moisture vary regularly with the variation of the vodatile matter on combustible basis V in the different stage of carbonization. (б) The Reltation between the ultimate analysis and proximate analysis for the Chinese Coals- In the bituminous coal region, the data of proximate analysis can be transferred to the ultimate analysis proximately according to the straight line formula, as for the bituinous coal. The other constituents like H, O and N, S can also be obtained by the straight line formulas as shown on the graph. (в) The Heating Value of Chinese Coals - The Heating Value of Chinese Coals; when only ultimate analysis data is available, can be checked by using the Mendeleef formula; when Duly the proximate analysis data is available, the heahng value can be checked by the Goutal Formula. When illers is only the ultimate data without any bomb calorimeter, the heating value can be obtained by the following empirical formulas:(p) The Coking Property of the Chinese Coals---The ebbing property can be represent6d by' foe coking coeffident as suggested by the author, the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen on combustible. basis (%). With the exception of anthraede, semi--anthracite and liana, ' which will have the ash in powderform, when burned, the other bituminous coals like (1) Semi--bituminous and part of the coking coal, when Vr- 16 ~ 24 7o and (%) = 0.90 1 .8, the ash after combustion will become softly caked; (2) for coking coal, Steaming fat Hr coal and gas coal, when Vr~25-47 and M~0. 58-1 .2, the ash after combustion will become strongly caked; (3) FOr gas coal and long flame coal, when Vr~31 ~46 ac and aam: =0. 34-0. 50, the ash will become softly caked. f {if) The Combustion Characteristics of Chinese Coals -- The combustion characteristics vary with the kind of coal. Which kind of coal is suitable for what kind of industrial use and which type of furnace is suitable for burning what kind' of 'coal,. all depends uPOn the rank, composition and combustion charact6rislics of the coal. F6, economy, it is necessary >to burn the poor quality coal nearby and the problem of caking inside the furnace resulting from poor quality coal muSt be properly solved. ' (in) The ash Fusion point of Chinese Coals -- The ash composition affects the fusion point. greatly. The change in ash composition will of feet the fusion poillt. Thus increasing the met,ilie oxides in the coal ash liko FeZO3, CaO and MAO ate. will raduce the fusion point and will fadlitate the ash disposal in fluid form. On the other hand, whother increasing 'the kaolin (fire clay) in the ash composition will raise the ash fusion point or not is a problem worthy for further investigation and research. ' '. It may be reaseonably assumed as suggested by the auther that the coal ash is mainly consisted of kaolin (Al.O, ZFios ZHZO) + free SiOZ + different motailic odddes (FavOr, CaO and MgO, etc ). When coal is burned, the free SiOZ will combine with some of the metallic

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对;若仅有实用分析数据,则...

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对;若仅有实用分析数据,则可用古?

The ash composition affects the fusion point greatly. The change in ash composition will effect the fusion point.. Thus increasing the metallic oxides in the coal ash like Fe_2O_3, CaO and MgO etc. will reduce the fusion point and will facilitate the ash disposal in fluid form. On the other hand, whether increasing the kaolin (fire clay) in the ash composition will raise the ash fusion point or not is a problem worthy for further investigation and research.

煤灰成分对灰熔点是有影响的,改变煤灰成分可以改变灰熔点.增加煤灰中金属氧化物如Fe_2O_3、CaO及MgO等可以降低灰熔点而便利液态除灰,而增加煤灰成分中的瓷土(耐火泥)百分数是否可以提高灰熔点,是值得试验研究的.可以假定煤灰的主要成分是:瓷土(Al_2O_3·2SiO_2·2H_2O)+自由SiO_2+各种金属氧化物,煤在燃烧后,自由SiO_2与金属氧化物结合而成低熔点的硅酸盐.自由SiO_2的增减以比率SiO_2/Al_2O_3的增减表示之.当比率SiO_2/Al_2O_3=1.17时,自由SiO_2=0,则虽金属氧化物增加,但没有自由SiO_2与金属氧化物结合成低熔点的硅酸盐来降低总的灰熔点.若比率SiO_2/Al_2O_3增加至1.17以上,则虽在同一的金属氧化物百分数时,灰熔点将降低.煤成分中的总硫的增加,亦正如煤灰中的Fe_2O_3一样,将降低灰熔点.电厂锅炉中的用煤含硫总量,希望不超过1%,俾免产生炉内结焦问题.

In the progress of the Four-modernization movement, the sewerage systems of the cities will be modernized. The selection of the disposal methods of municipal sewage and the way of seperation of the old combined sewerage system need to be discussed and studied. This article points out the rationality of the method of ir- rigation and possibility of developing new concepts and principles for storm and sanitary sewer design to promote the seperation of old combined swerage system. Some suggestions are proposed...

In the progress of the Four-modernization movement, the sewerage systems of the cities will be modernized. The selection of the disposal methods of municipal sewage and the way of seperation of the old combined sewerage system need to be discussed and studied. This article points out the rationality of the method of ir- rigation and possibility of developing new concepts and principles for storm and sanitary sewer design to promote the seperation of old combined swerage system. Some suggestions are proposed to the research work of these problems.

在四个现代化的进程中,各城市的排水系统将进行现代化建设。城市废水出路的安排和合流制沟道系统的分流化是两个需要深入研究的课题。本文指出了灌溉法的合理性和改革城市雨水排除方法与城市污水沟道设计原理可能有助于合流沟道的分流化,并提出了设想。建议加强治理工业废水的技术指导和设立试点开展沟道设计与灌溉法的研究。

 
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