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improvement
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     Improvement of VAST
     语音辅助缝纫技术的性能改进(英文)
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     The improvement of azodicarbonamide
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Optimal error estimates in L∞(J;H1(ω)) are proved, which implies an essential improvement to existed results.
      
This is an improvement compared to that obtained by HDI-based conventional CE.
      
Moreover, it was shown that the dispersion ability of CNT in aqueous solution had a significantly improvement after CNT functionalized with NB even at a level of high concentration, for example, 5 mg of NB-CNT per 1 mL of H2O.
      
The speaker-independent continuous speech recognition experiments show that by only modeling the state duration in DDBHMM, a significant improvement (17.8% error rate reduction) can be achieved compared with the classical HMM.
      
Comparisons of the new and circular models in the experiment show that the new model can predict yield caused by real defects more accurately than what the circular model does, which is of significance for the prediction and improvement of the yield.
      
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Two types of under-water quartz transducers, namely, the mosaic type & the array type, were designed and manufactured, particularly paying attention to the points of cementing of crystals and supporting of vibrating bodies, with a view to reducing the equivalent resistance r of the transducers when they are unloaded. A transducer of the mosaic type with an area of 609 mm~2, unsupported, measured 60 k Ω for its r, while one of the array type with an area of 259 mm~2, 15 k Ω. Finally, discussions were made on...

Two types of under-water quartz transducers, namely, the mosaic type & the array type, were designed and manufactured, particularly paying attention to the points of cementing of crystals and supporting of vibrating bodies, with a view to reducing the equivalent resistance r of the transducers when they are unloaded. A transducer of the mosaic type with an area of 609 mm~2, unsupported, measured 60 k Ω for its r, while one of the array type with an area of 259 mm~2, 15 k Ω. Finally, discussions were made on the comparison of these two types of transducers with the conclusion that a transducer of the array type possesses more merits than that of the mosaic type. The ways for further improvements were considered.

我们设计了并制造了两种不同型式的水中用水晶机电转换器:(i)镶嵌型,(ii)叠片型;尤其注意于水晶片的胶合、振动体的支持等问题,其目的在于减少转换器在无负荷时的等值电阻r。测得一个面积为609平方毫米其支持点完全自由的镶嵌型转换器的r为60kΩ;又测得另一个面积为256平方毫米四块水晶叠片型转换器的r焉15kΩ。再后讨论了两种型式转换器的优缺点,显见得叠片型的优于镶嵌型的很多,并进一步考虑了可能改进之点。

1. A brief review of the assay processes of liquorice root is made. 2. After investigating the more important stages in the processes of Houseman and Fahmy, the following improvements are made to obtain a more complete separation of glycyrrhizic acid: (1) duration for the precipitation of glycyrrhizic acid is prolonged from 2-fe- hours employed by Houseman to 24 hours; (2) concentration of the sulphuric acid usad for the precipitation of glycyrrhizic acid is changed from 0.3 per cent employed by Houseman...

1. A brief review of the assay processes of liquorice root is made. 2. After investigating the more important stages in the processes of Houseman and Fahmy, the following improvements are made to obtain a more complete separation of glycyrrhizic acid: (1) duration for the precipitation of glycyrrhizic acid is prolonged from 2-fe- hours employed by Houseman to 24 hours; (2) concentration of the sulphuric acid usad for the precipitation of glycyrrhizic acid is changed from 0.3 per cent employed by Houseman to 1.4 per cent; (3) temperature for the precipitation of glycyrrhizic acid is lowered from room temperature employed by Fahmy to 6-7°C. 3. Benedict's quantitative solution is used in place of Fehling's solution in the titration of reducing sugars, because the former solution is more stable and has better keeping properties. 4. An improved process for the assay of liquorice root is described. Five samples of Chinese liquorice root have been assayed by this method. The results obtained are as follows: water-soluble extractives, 26.17—35.59 per cent; glycyrrhizic acid 5.49—10.04 per cent; total reducing sugars, 4.70—10.97 per cent; starch and gummy matter, 4.17—5.92 per cent; water, 8.04—8.93 per cent; ash, 3.06—4.24 per cent; acid-insoluble ash, 0.25—0.65 per cent. The above results showed that the samples assayed fully conform with the requirements of the pharmacopoeias of most countries.

1.本文简述了前人分析甘草成分所用的方法,並對Houseman氏及Fahmy氏所用方法的主要步驟進行了比較研究,改進了他們的操作方法. 2.為了便利更完全地分離甘草根中所含的甘草酸,我們進行了下列修改:(1)將Houseman氏沉澱甘草酸的時間由2.5小時延長至24小時;(9)將Houseman氏沉澱甘草酸時所用的硫酸濃度由0.3%提高至1.4%;(3)將Fahmy氏沉澱甘草酸時的温度由常温降低至6—7C°. 4.由於非林氏試液很不穩定,應用、貯存均感不便,故採用班乃第氏定量試液.用轉化後的糖液滴定一定量的班乃第定量試液,以测定總還原糖量. 6.本文報告了對五種国產甘草成分分析的結果;水溶物26.17—35.59%,甘草酸5.49—10.04%,總還原糖4.70—10.97%,澱粉及膠質4.17—5.92%,水分8.04—8.93%,灰分3.06—4.24%,酸不溶性灰分0.25—0.65%.並證明上述樣品完全符合於中、蘇、英、日、美各国藥典規定的甘草品質標準.

Many methods of analyzing statically indeterminate structures are now available. The method of redundant forces and that of deformations (i. e. the slope-deflection method), heretofore generally used in the U. S. S. R., both require the solution of a system of simultaneous simple equations. In the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents, the large number of such equations would greatly complicate the calculation work, it being both time-consuming and liable to make mistakes. The method of moment distribution...

Many methods of analyzing statically indeterminate structures are now available. The method of redundant forces and that of deformations (i. e. the slope-deflection method), heretofore generally used in the U. S. S. R., both require the solution of a system of simultaneous simple equations. In the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents, the large number of such equations would greatly complicate the calculation work, it being both time-consuming and liable to make mistakes. The method of moment distribution simplifies calculations to a great extent, as there is no need to solve simultaneous equations, and therefore it has been warmly received bY practical engineers. Many soviet scholars are also devoted to its study. There are, however, defects in this method, namely: (1) Should the moments obtained in the successive cycles of distribution and carrying-over prove to converge very slowly, twenty or more such cycles must be done if fairly accurate results are expected.(2) In the case of analyzing structures under various conditions of loading, while it is possible to find the influence moments by applying a unit moment at each joint as proposed by Prof. Hardy Cross, it would bequite laborious in the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents containing a large number of members, especially when subjected to unsymmetrical loadings.For the remedy of the first defect, such Chinese scholars as Profs. Lin Tung Yen, Chao Tsu Wu, Meng Chao Li and Tsai Fang Yin have made much contribution, and the author of this paper has recently written a discussion on the two papers of the last-mentioned scholar. For the remedy of the second defect, the author is unaware of any except that mentioned below.One of the soviet scholars, Dr. P. P. Shaggin (i.e.) has suggested important improvements with regard to both these defects. For the former, he adopted a method of single-cycle distribution; and for the latter, he invented the method of successive conjugation which greatly reduces the work of calculation in finding the influence moments. The essence of these methods is well-worth studying on the part of our Chinese engineers. After an intensive study, the author of this paper thinks that, while Dr. Shaggin's methods are quite correct in principle, his methods of calculation can still be somewhat improved, as described herein, so as to be made more easily applied in practice.This paper Shaggin based upon the book, (Calculation of Multi-storey Frames by the Method of Successive Conjugation) published in 1954 by Dr. P. P. Shaggin in Leningrad, U. S. S. R., shows that, in applying a unit moment at each joint of a given statically indeterminate structure, one can easily find the influence moments at the ends of all the members, and that, after multiplying the unbalanced fixed-end moments at each joint calculated in accordance with the given external loads, by the respective influence moments, the sum of such products added to the original fixed-end moments will give at once the actual moments at each end of the members in the structure.Three notable improvements are indicated in this paper:(1) Dr. Shaggin's formula (5") on page 11 of his book, has been altered to formulas (3) in this paper. (2) For multi-storey bents, Dr. Shaggin's method of finding the conjugate moments (i. e. the influence moments) by formulas is replaced by the usual method of simple moment-distribution.(3) The author of the paper has extended the method to the analysis of multi-storey and multi-bay bents under any system of unsymmetrical loading.Of course, for structures under a single system of loading, influence moments need not be found and, generally speaking, it would be more convenient to apply the original method of moment-distribution; for a multi-storey bent, it would be better, even in this case, to modify it by applying the method of successive conjugation.The author is of the opinion that the application of the methods described in this paper, being convenient and time-saving, would be useful to the practical engineers.

本文以蘇聯學者沙金博士最近出版之“用逐次互聯法計算多層排架”一書为依據,叙述在已知超靜定結構中每一結點,施以單位力矩,可以很容易地求得各桿端的影響力矩;然後依照其所受外力荷載,求得各結点處的定端力矩,分別乘以相當的影響力矩,相加之後並加以原有的定端力矩,即得各該桿端的實際力矩。若結構承受多種多样的荷載(不問其為豎向的或平向的、對稱的或不對稱的),用此篇所述之方法以推算各桿端力矩,著者認為最便利、最省時,並且適合實際工作者之需要。

 
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