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quality
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     高等教育质量规模与效益 ;
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This paper presents an investigation of the"Automatic Operator" of Diesel Loco-motive based on the principle of compound programming control. According to the sur-rounding conditions of locomotive, the"Automatic Operator"can change its structure automatically in order to obtain better quality of control.In this paper, the principle scheme, the characteristics of"Automatic Operator" and the experimental results of automatic control of Diesel locomotive with "Automatic Operator"are presented, the principle...

This paper presents an investigation of the"Automatic Operator" of Diesel Loco-motive based on the principle of compound programming control. According to the sur-rounding conditions of locomotive, the"Automatic Operator"can change its structure automatically in order to obtain better quality of control.In this paper, the principle scheme, the characteristics of"Automatic Operator" and the experimental results of automatic control of Diesel locomotive with "Automatic Operator"are presented, the principle and the design of logical circuit for changing the characteristics of"Automatic Operator"is emphasized. The latter part of the paper in-cludes a discussion of quality of control; and finally, formulas for determining the para-meters of the control system are derived.

文内介绍了采用复合控制原理和根据机车所处客观条件自动切换系统结构的内燃机车程序控制方案,介绍了按此方案制成的(自动司机)总体线路及其性能.介绍了利用这台控制机进行内燃机车自动驾驶的全面试验结果.文中着重讨论了自动切换系统结构的逻辑装置的设计计算.给出了综合这类系统参数的计算公式.此外,对系统的控制质量进行了详细讨论.

This is a preliminary report of the application of several methods in the making of bamboo pulp. The two-stage soda process and the two-stage sulfate process were first tested. It was found that the pulp obtained by the second process can be better bleached than that by the first process. In order to im-prove the quality of the pulp, the three-stage sulfate process was then applied. It consists of three steps, namely, cooking in water under slight pressure (115℃) for about one hour, digesting in a solution...

This is a preliminary report of the application of several methods in the making of bamboo pulp. The two-stage soda process and the two-stage sulfate process were first tested. It was found that the pulp obtained by the second process can be better bleached than that by the first process. In order to im-prove the quality of the pulp, the three-stage sulfate process was then applied. It consists of three steps, namely, cooking in water under slight pressure (115℃) for about one hour, digesting in a solution of one percent of the cook-ing reagent (HaOH:Na2S=2:l) at 120℃ for two hours, and finally digesting in a 5% solution of the reagent for three hours. This 3-stage method gave a product which is satisfactorily white and was found equally applicable to sev-eral kinds of bamboo used.

本文系将数量制粕法应用於竹材纸粕之初步研究报告,试以二级碱法及二级硫酸盐法蒸解老竹,发现后者竟较前者更宜於竹材,所得硫酸盐竹粕,经漂白后色泽较碱粕为佳,再试以三级硫酸盐法,先以水於微压下(115℃)蒸煮一小时,次於120℃时以1%蒸解剂(NaOH:Na_2S=2:1)稀溶液预行蒸解两小时,最后以5%蒸解剂溶液蒸解三小时,结果可得洁白之纸粕,对於所用数量竹料均极相宜.第三级蒸解之最宜情况,经试验结果,以在160℃时用5%蒸解剂溶液(NaOH:Na_2S=2:1)蒸解3(1/2)小时之成绩为最佳,所得纸粕色泽既白,且漂剂消耗量亦低.作者曾将竹材皮层与心材剥离,分别以三级硫酸盐法蒸解,证明两者所得纸粕,就色泽及漂剂消耗量而言,大致相同,指示前人理论,谓老竹皮层中含有高分子胶质,纸粕不易漂白,似属不确.本试验仅用三种不同地区所产之竹为原料,故三级硫酸盐法是否适用於所有国产竹材,及其最宜蒸解情观是否完全相同,犹待於将来之研究.

The injurious insects of cotton of this province, however, have not hithertobeen carefully studied, especially the pink bollworm, which annually reducesthe cotton production by 10 to 30 per cent. The present authors spent twoyears in observing the life history and habits of this insect, in attempting tofind some effective control measures. The result is herewith summarized :- 1. In the vicinity of Wu-chang, the pink bollworm has three generationsa year. The first generation occupies May and July. The second...

The injurious insects of cotton of this province, however, have not hithertobeen carefully studied, especially the pink bollworm, which annually reducesthe cotton production by 10 to 30 per cent. The present authors spent twoyears in observing the life history and habits of this insect, in attempting tofind some effective control measures. The result is herewith summarized :- 1. In the vicinity of Wu-chang, the pink bollworm has three generationsa year. The first generation occupies May and July. The second one occursin mid-July and the last in late-August. Due to the lower temperature, theemergence of the first generation need about two months. 2. In day time, the adult is usually inactive, while in windless night,after seven o'clock, it becomes very active and lays eggs mostly on green bollsand calyx. about a week later, the eggs hatch and the newly-hatched larvaeare shortly getting into the bolls. After four days they often eat into theseeds. Ten days later, the lint is so stunted as to become dusky yellow incolor, thus both the yield and the quality of cotton are greatly lowered. Themature larvae appear about half a month after. 3. Field experiments have shown that three dustings of 10% DDT- sulfurpowder were very effective. In the severely damaged cotton area, the thirdspray may be simultaneously done with controlling the cotton leaf-hoppers andthe cotton leaf-rollers. 4. About 84% hibernating larvae in cotton seeds will come out when thecotton exposed in sun light and stored in the farmer's house. Hence it seemsadvisable to put cloth or other soft material covers on the cotton stored inorder to collect and kill the larvae under them. In addition, destruction of allremaining bolls on the cotton stalks, as early as possible in winter is important. 5. For controlling the bollworms in cotton store-houses, the followingresults have been obtained 50% wettable DDT diluted with 20 parts of water,91% of larvae were killed within 30 days; 6.5% 666 (benzene hexachloride)gave a mortality of 63% in four months. Wettable 6.5% 666 diluted withwater (1:100), has been proved to be the most effective ovicide which destroys99.4% of eggs while parathion (E605) also gave a very high mortality at97.7%. But 50% wettable DDT (1:100) Kills eggs at 64.2% and lead arsena-te only 16.2% respectively. 6. There were 39.1% overwintering larvae parasitized by parasitic mitesand wasps. Among them, most are the mite, Pediculoides ventricosus Newport,while the parasitic wasps Eurypterna arakawae Mats. less than 0.5%.

红铃虫在南方棉区为害棉花相当严重,除去脱落蕾铃外,僵黄花率为10—30%,我们针对这个严重问题,进行了红铃虫生活史的观察研究与防治方法试验,写出初步结果,提供防治参考。 1.红铃虫在华中武昌棉区一年有三代。第一代羽化在5至6月,7月中旬为第二代;8月下旬为第三代;第一代的蛹和幼虫所需时期均较第二、三代长。 2.成虫白天不活动,夜晚7时以后无风天气活跃最盛,产卵以在青铃上及花萼上为最多。孵化后三十多分钟即钻入棉桃内为害,4天即侵入棉籽内取食,10天棉瓤纤维呈僵黄状,半月后幼虫即可老熟(第三代的)。 3.田间防治红铃虫以10%滴滴涕硫磺粉喷三次效果显著,在后期棉虫严重地区可结合防治叶跳虫卷叶虫等同时进行。 4.籽花内的幼虫在群众家里及晒花时逃出84%,因此指导群众将籽花堆上加覆盖物,再结合帘架晒花是消减过冬红铃虫最经济有效的办法。 4.防治仓库越冬红铃虫以50%可混性滴滴涕1:30倍水溶液杀虫效果最佳。30天内死亡率达91%.6.5%可混性666(1:20)死亡率为63%。但是1:100倍的水溶液杀卵效率高到99.4%。稀释万分之一的E605为97.7%。50%可混性滴滴涕1:100杀卵率为64.2%,砒酸铃最差...

红铃虫在南方棉区为害棉花相当严重,除去脱落蕾铃外,僵黄花率为10—30%,我们针对这个严重问题,进行了红铃虫生活史的观察研究与防治方法试验,写出初步结果,提供防治参考。 1.红铃虫在华中武昌棉区一年有三代。第一代羽化在5至6月,7月中旬为第二代;8月下旬为第三代;第一代的蛹和幼虫所需时期均较第二、三代长。 2.成虫白天不活动,夜晚7时以后无风天气活跃最盛,产卵以在青铃上及花萼上为最多。孵化后三十多分钟即钻入棉桃内为害,4天即侵入棉籽内取食,10天棉瓤纤维呈僵黄状,半月后幼虫即可老熟(第三代的)。 3.田间防治红铃虫以10%滴滴涕硫磺粉喷三次效果显著,在后期棉虫严重地区可结合防治叶跳虫卷叶虫等同时进行。 4.籽花内的幼虫在群众家里及晒花时逃出84%,因此指导群众将籽花堆上加覆盖物,再结合帘架晒花是消减过冬红铃虫最经济有效的办法。 4.防治仓库越冬红铃虫以50%可混性滴滴涕1:30倍水溶液杀虫效果最佳。30天内死亡率达91%.6.5%可混性666(1:20)死亡率为63%。但是1:100倍的水溶液杀卵效率高到99.4%。稀释万分之一的E605为97.7%。50%可混性滴滴涕1:100杀卵率为64.2%,砒酸铃最差为16.2%。 6.越冬幼虫被寄生的平均有39.1%,发现天敌有二种,其中绝大多数是榖痒螨(Pediculoides ventricosus

 
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