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osteosarcoma
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     Chemotherapy for Osteosarcoma
     骨肉瘤的辅助化疗
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     Surface osteosarcoma
     表面骨肉瘤
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This is a preliminary report of X-ray diagnosis on osteopetrosis ga-llinarum. Twenty natural cases of the disease were discovered and studied by X-ray examination.Avian skeleton radiography is a useful and practicable aid to the diagnosis of osteopetrosis and is a more reliable method than others to detect lesions of the bones in live chickens.Radiographic signs of the disease are increase in density of bilateral bones, osteosclerosis with thickening of the cortex and stricture or obliteration of the medullary...

This is a preliminary report of X-ray diagnosis on osteopetrosis ga-llinarum. Twenty natural cases of the disease were discovered and studied by X-ray examination.Avian skeleton radiography is a useful and practicable aid to the diagnosis of osteopetrosis and is a more reliable method than others to detect lesions of the bones in live chickens.Radiographic signs of the disease are increase in density of bilateral bones, osteosclerosis with thickening of the cortex and stricture or obliteration of the medullary cavity. Pathologic changes of the skeleton were observed in most bones of the body, but they were most frequently encountered in the long bones of the extremities. The pathologic process affected the tibia first and its incidence was the highest (20/20), while the figures of other bones were, for the femur 12/20, the coracoid 11/20, the ulna 11/20 and the radius 11/20. The lowest incidences were encountered in the metatarsus 6/20 and phalanges 3/20. X-ray presentation of the disease might be divided into the following types. ( a ) fusiform deformity and sclerosis of the long bones in the extremities, especially in the metatarsus; (b)deformity of the long bones of the pelvic extremities with diffuse osteosclerosis; ( c ) difuse osteosclerosis without skeletal deformity; (d) partly proliferation and sclerosis in the endosteum or small focal osteosclerosis, which were ordinarily well-defined in the tibia and were sometimes found in the femur or ulna. The first type of X-ray presentation might only be in young chickens, while other types might generally occur in adult chickens without "bootlike" deformity of the metatarsus.Differential diagnosis of other avian osteopathies, for example, rickets, osteoporosis, periostosis, staphylococcosis, chronic osteomyelitis, osteosarcoma and Paget's disease was discussed. Radiopraphy of a shank is recommended as a means to detect this disease in general survey.

1、本文在国内首次报告了鸡骨质石化病的X线诊断,利用X线检查,共发现了20只本病的自然病鸡。鸡的骨骼X线照相对诊断骨质石化病是有效可行的。在生前检出骨骼的病变较其他方法更为可靠。 2、本病的X线征为双侧骨骼的密度增高和骨质硬化,骨皮质变厚,骨髓腔变窄甚至闭塞。病变可见于多骨,但最常发生在四肢长骨。最先损害的是胫骨,其发生率最高(20/20);股骨其次(12/20);而乌喙骨、尺骨和桡骨再其次,均为11/20;跖骨较低(6/20);趾骨最低,只有3/20发生病变。其X线表现可分为四种类型:(1)四肢长骨(尤其跖骨)梭状畸形与骨质硬化;(2)后肢长骨畸形与泛发性骨质硬化;(3)泛发性骨质硬化但无骨骼畸形;(4)胫骨骨内膜局限性增生硬化或小灶性硬化,有时累及股骨或尺骨。第一种类型的表现可能只发生于仔鸡。没有跖骨“靴样”畸形的其他类型通常见于成年鸡。 3、对其他骨病如佝偻病、骨质疏松、骨膜骨质增生、葡萄球菌病、慢性骨髓炎、成骨肉瘤和佩吉特氏病(Paget’s disease)等的区别诊断作了讨论,并建议在大群检疫时用一侧胫骨的X线照相作为检出该病的方法。

Since August 1969, radical local resection was done in 12 cases of malignant bone and soft tissue sarcomata in extremities. It is an en bloc resection including sarcoma per se and the infiltrated bone and soft tissue together with the surrounding normal tissue. The 12 cases included 2 cases of chondrosarcoma, 4 osteosarcoma, 1 each of giant-cell sarcoma and Ewing's tumor, and 3 soft tissue sarcomata (malignant fibrohistiocytoma, rhombdomyosarcoma and myxosarcoma). The reconstruction methods after local...

Since August 1969, radical local resection was done in 12 cases of malignant bone and soft tissue sarcomata in extremities. It is an en bloc resection including sarcoma per se and the infiltrated bone and soft tissue together with the surrounding normal tissue. The 12 cases included 2 cases of chondrosarcoma, 4 osteosarcoma, 1 each of giant-cell sarcoma and Ewing's tumor, and 3 soft tissue sarcomata (malignant fibrohistiocytoma, rhombdomyosarcoma and myxosarcoma). The reconstruction methods after local resection were: segmental resection and replantation of distal limb in 2, bone of the resected part boiled and reimplanted in 1, adjacent bone flap reversion in 1, massive homologous bone graft in 1, whole titanium artificial knee joint in 1, vascularized free fibular transplantation in 2 and transposition of m. sartorius and gracilis in 1. Reconstruction was unnecessary in the other 3 cases. All the 12 cases were followed for 16 months to 10 years. 2 chondrosarcoma cases, 1 giant-cell sarcoma, 3 soft tissue sarcoma and 1 fibrosarcoma of bone were living without local recurrence or lung metastasis, and they retained some function of the extremities. 3 osteosarocoma cases died of lung metastasis within 2 years and 1 Ewing's tumor showed bone to bone metastasis 1 year after operation, but they were free from local recurrence. Of the 12 cases, only 1 had local recurrence, probably due to insufficient resection.The authors hold that readical local resection is applicable to the treatment of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors of extremities instead of amputation. The latter often results in permanent disability and severe mental trauma, and also fatal lung metastasis is not prevented. Radical local resection is more suitable for tumors of low malignancy such as chondrosarcoma, malignant giant-cell tumor and certain soft tissue sarcomas. While for those of high malignancies such as osteosarcoma, amputation is preferred.

本文报道应用局部根治性截除术治疗肢体恶性骨和软组织肿瘤的初步体会。治疗的结果显示,局部根治性截除术对软骨肉瘤、恶性巨细胞瘤及某些软组织肉瘤效果较好。对恶性度较高的肿瘤如骨肉瘤,仍以截肢为妥。文中对局部根治性截除术的定义、截除可能性、手术和再建的方法以及手术后应用化疗和中药等辅助疗法的必要性作了讨论。

From May 1979 to Oct 1982, 48 infrahyoid myocutaneous flaps (IHMCF) were used for reconstruction after resection of lingual carcinoma in 44 cases, 4 for carcinoma of retromolar buccal mucosa, 3 each for carcinoma of floor of mouth and parotid gland and 1 each for osteosarcoma of mandible and soft tissue sarcoma of face. The operative technique was reported in 1980. Two flaps were used simultaneously in 4 cases of lingual carcinoma. When the width of flap was less than 4.5 cm, primary suture of the donor...

From May 1979 to Oct 1982, 48 infrahyoid myocutaneous flaps (IHMCF) were used for reconstruction after resection of lingual carcinoma in 44 cases, 4 for carcinoma of retromolar buccal mucosa, 3 each for carcinoma of floor of mouth and parotid gland and 1 each for osteosarcoma of mandible and soft tissue sarcoma of face. The operative technique was reported in 1980. Two flaps were used simultaneously in 4 cases of lingual carcinoma. When the width of flap was less than 4.5 cm, primary suture of the donor wound could be accomplished. The cutaneous cervical nerve was severed to increase the mobility of the flap. If there was no contraindication, the external and internal jugular vein or part of it including the superior thyroid vein were preserved for better venous return of the flap.

本文报道用60个舌骨下肌群肌皮瓣,在原修复舌癌根治术后舌缺损获得成功的基础上,进一步改进修复方法,对44例(48个瓣)舌癌和12例其它头颈部恶性肿瘤根治术后缺损进行立即修复。术后肌皮瓣成活率为87%(52/60)。未发生口皮肤瘘。42例舌癌患者于术后1.5月内口进半流质。80%患者术后说话清楚可辨。文中对此肌皮瓣的优点和手术改进要点作了讨论。

 
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