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similarity
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  相似匹配句对
     RECURSIVE SIMILARITY
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     lexical similarity;
     词义相似;
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  similarity
This is a survey of recent work involving concepts of self-similarity that relate to
      
In this paper, we consider a scheme for determining the similarity among proteome maps.
      
In our view, the crucial step in determining the degree of similarity among proteome maps is that which defines the normalization for the relative abundances of the protein spots.
      
Utilizing analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) on the ten pharmaceutical descriptors provides a discrete numerical result that indicates overall dissimilarity among these agents.
      
This note shows that for a BVP of Poisson's equation withQm(u, v) as its source function, a direct evaluation of some integrals yields the same exact results as obtained by similarity analysis.
      
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Desdimethylaminoaureomycin (Ⅳ) and desdimethylaminodesoxyaureomycin (Ⅴ), when subjected to catalytic hydrogenation, yield deschlorodesdimethylaminoaureomycin (Ⅶ) and deschlorodesdimethylaminodesoxyaureomycin (Ⅷ) respectively. On warming with methanolic hydrogen chloride, Ⅶ and Ⅷ give their corresponding anhydro-compounds: deschlorodesdimethylaminoanhydroaureomycin (Ⅹ) and deschlorodesdimethylaminodesoxy- anhydroaureomycin (Ⅺ). On catalytic hydrogenation, anhydroaureomycin (Ⅵ) is converted into deschloroanhydro-...

Desdimethylaminoaureomycin (Ⅳ) and desdimethylaminodesoxyaureomycin (Ⅴ), when subjected to catalytic hydrogenation, yield deschlorodesdimethylaminoaureomycin (Ⅶ) and deschlorodesdimethylaminodesoxyaureomycin (Ⅷ) respectively. On warming with methanolic hydrogen chloride, Ⅶ and Ⅷ give their corresponding anhydro-compounds: deschlorodesdimethylaminoanhydroaureomycin (Ⅹ) and deschlorodesdimethylaminodesoxy- anhydroaureomycin (Ⅺ). On catalytic hydrogenation, anhydroaureomycin (Ⅵ) is converted into deschloroanhydro- aureomycin (Ⅳ), which, on further hydrogenation with zinc-acetic acid, produces a mixture of Ⅹ and Ⅺ. A comparison of the ultra-violet absorption spectra of Ⅶ, Ⅷ, Ⅸ, Ⅹ with the cor- responding degradation products of terramycin, Ⅻ, (XIII), (XIV), (XV), provides further evidence for the similarity of the structures between aureomycin and terramycin.

脫二甲胺金黴素(IV),脫二甲胺脫羥金黴素(V)分别予以接觸氫化,產生脫氯脫二甲胺金黴素(VII)及脫氯脫二甲胺脫羥金黴素(VIII)。這兩種產物再分別以甲醇鹽酸處理,得到它們相當的脫水化合物:脫氯脫二甲胺脫水金黴素(X)及脫氯脫二甲胺脫羥脫水金黴素(XI)。脫水金黴素(VI)經接觸氫化。產生脫氯脫水金黴素(IX)。後者用鋅粉醋酸氫解,亦得到Ⅹ與Ⅺ。

A new alkaloid, sipeimine, has been isolated by the authors from a Chinese drug, Si-Pei-Mu, with a yield of 0.12-0.2% (based upon the dry drug), being the highest for Fritillaria alkaloid so far. Sipeimine has an empirical formula C_(27)H_(43)O_3N, m.p. 269℃, [α]_D -33.8° (CHCI_3), [α]_D-39.4°(C_2H_5OH). It crystallises in colorless prisms, and is easily soluble in chloroform or ethyl acetate, soluble in methanol, ethanol, acetone or ether but insoluble in water, sodium hydroxide or petroleum ether. From it,...

A new alkaloid, sipeimine, has been isolated by the authors from a Chinese drug, Si-Pei-Mu, with a yield of 0.12-0.2% (based upon the dry drug), being the highest for Fritillaria alkaloid so far. Sipeimine has an empirical formula C_(27)H_(43)O_3N, m.p. 269℃, [α]_D -33.8° (CHCI_3), [α]_D-39.4°(C_2H_5OH). It crystallises in colorless prisms, and is easily soluble in chloroform or ethyl acetate, soluble in methanol, ethanol, acetone or ether but insoluble in water, sodium hydroxide or petroleum ether. From it, a hydrochloride in the form of a colorless, amorphous and hygroscopic powder with a m.p. 210° (sealed tube), [α]_D-51.1° (H_2O), a thiocyanate, C_(27)H_(43)O_3N·HCNS·H_2O, in the form of colorless prisms with a m.p. 170° (262° decomp.), an aurichloride with a m.p. 1638 (decomp.) and a platinichloride with a m.p. 239° (decomp.) are prepared. Sipeimine is a strong monoacidic tertiary base, containing one alcoholic hydroxyl group and one carbonyl group. Its methiodide, C_(27)H_(43)O_3N·CH_3I, colorless needles, m.p. 252°(decomp.), methoperchlorate, C_(27)H_(43)O_3N·CH_3ClO_4, colorless needles, m.p. 281° (decomp.), monoacetyl derivative, C_(29)H_(45)O_4N, colorless prisms, m.p. 189°, [α]_D-39.6° (CHCl_3) and mono-oxime C_(27)H_(44)O_3N_2, colorless needles, m.p. 171°, are obtained. It contains at least three carbon-methyl groups but has no active ethylenic linkage, nor has any active methylene group been detected. It does not form sparingly soluble digitonide with digitonin. From the similarity of its empirical formula, botanical origin and properties, sipeimine probably belongs to the steroidal alkaloids as peimine does. A partial formula is presented as follows:

由西貝母提得新植物鹼西貝素(sipeimine)C_(27)H_(43)O_3N,熔點269°,[α]_D——33.8°(CHCl_3),[α]_D-39.4°(C_(2)H_(5)OH),為無色柱狀結晶,易溶於氯仿,可溶於甲醇、乙醇、丙酮及醚,不溶於水、石油醚及苛性鹼溶液。其氫氯酸鹽,熔點210°;硫氰酸鹽,熔點262°;氯金酸鹽,熔點163°(分解):氯鉑酸鹽,熔點239°(分解)。西貝素合一個叔胺基[碘甲季銨鹽,熔點252°(分解)],一個醇羥基[乙醯西貝素,熔點189°,乙醯西貝素氫氯酸鹽,熔點271°(分解)],一個羰基(肟,熔點171°),及至少三個碳甲基。其部分分子式如下:

The purpose of this study was to find the response of the teleost's brain toward chemical stimuli.In carrying out the series of experiments, four species of teleost fishes were selected as working materials. They were Carassius auratus, Ophiocephalus argus, Monopterus javanensis and Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.The chemical agents for the experiments were selected as follows: Janus green, methylene blue, neutral red and crystal violet for staining purpose, i. e. for primary oxidation (Child' 47), in which the...

The purpose of this study was to find the response of the teleost's brain toward chemical stimuli.In carrying out the series of experiments, four species of teleost fishes were selected as working materials. They were Carassius auratus, Ophiocephalus argus, Monopterus javanensis and Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.The chemical agents for the experiments were selected as follows: Janus green, methylene blue, neutral red and crystal violet for staining purpose, i. e. for primary oxidation (Child' 47), in which the specimens were examined with the results recorded before reduction process set in; and in addition potassuim permanganate was used for complete oxidation-reduction purpose. The concentrations of the former agents in Ringer's solution and the latter in distilled water were experimentally determined, and are given in Table 1-4.In all cases of the stain experiments, the metabolic rates of the nosebrain (including only the olfactory bulbs and primitive endbrain in the present case) are higher than any other division, and that of the cerebellum, the balancing brain, comes out to be the next, being higher than all the other parts of the organ (with the exception of Carassius). The midbrain (part of the eyebrain) is less responsive than the cerebellum; and the medulla oblongata, without the facial and vagal lobes (brain centers for taste buds) and with its anterior regions (the earbrain) overshadowed largely by the cerebellum or only with little parts visible from above; i. e., the skinbrain, is, on the average, least responsive of allIn Carassius, the vagal lobes showed somewhat greater sensitivity than the cerebellum, and in Hypophthalmichthys they were less so than the facial lobes, which in turn almost matched up with the cerebellum. As a whole, it may be said that the olfactory lobes and primitive endbrain are most responsive and the midbrain and medulla oblongata least so, the cerebellum somewhat between them, while the facial and vagal lobes vary in their responses to these stains, but they fall between the endbrain and the medulla. If the records of both these lobes were removed from the curves on Carassius and Hypophthalmichthys, (Chart V (A)-(D)), these four curves would have a much closer resemblance in the general tendency of responses among themselves; i. e., the centers of greatest activities are located in the nosebrain, there is a considerable dropping in the eyebrain, while the cerebellum, the balancing brain, shows a great deal of rise in responsiveness, though it does not go so high as either the olfactory lobes or the primitive endbrain, and finally the medulla oblongata, the skinbrain, shows least responsiveness to the stains.The results of the oxidation-reduction process (Chart VI (A)-(D)) show more or less a general resemblance to those o?the stain experiments, but there are some differences, which should be noted. In the case of Carassius the primitive endbrain falls in its functional features a great deal below the olfactory lobes and is now even lower than the cerebellum, and the vagal lobes are about on the same level with the midbrain, while in the case of Monoptenis the cerebellum is the most active division of the brain and the medulla oblongata is similar to the midbrain. In general, it is reasonable to assume that the physiological gradients in the brains of Carassius and Hypophthalmichlhys are similar to each other, as they are of the same family, and those of Ophiocephalus and Monopterus are likewise, though they are of different families. In spite of some deviations these brains in both stain and oxidation-reduction experimentes show a general trend of similarity in their responses.It is concluded that the sensitivities of the brain surface to these chemicals are in direct proportion to its functional activities and in reverse proportion to their histogenetic age. Besides these factors, the polarity of the organ and the size of its division also have a significant bearings on the physiological gradient, but the latter should be considered together with the organization and developmental st

(一)此研究限于鱼脑的背面(因由腹面观察,不能看到全脑各部)。所用四种硬骨鱼是鲫鱼、乌鱼、黄鳝与黑鲢。 (二)鱼脑背面,分为五部分:嗅球、原始端脑、中脑、小脑与延脑。鲫鱼延脑背面前部有迷叶长出,鲢鱼延脑背面前部有面叶与迷叶长出。为研究便利计,将迷叶与面叶划为另外部分,分别观察其代谢现象。 (三)染剂用以刺激鱼脑者,为简氏绿、次甲基蓝、中性红与晶紫。此外,又用过锰酸钾作完全氧化—还原实验。 (四)对于以上各剂,鱼脑反应程度最高处是嗅球,大约与嗅球相等者,是原始端脑,稍次是小脑,再次是中脑,最次是延脑。黑鲢面叶与迷叶低于小脑,高于中脑,而面叶高于迷叶(曲线图Ⅴ(D)与Ⅵ(D))。鲫鱼的迷叶,对染剂的反应,高于小脑,对氧化—还原剂的反应,低于小脑(图Ⅴ(A)与Ⅵ(A))。 整个结论是鱼脑表面,对于化学药剂的感性与其生理功用成正比例,与其组织之年龄成反比例。除此二因素外,脑的极性(polarity)、脑各部分之体积,都与生理量度有密切的关系。唯体积关系,须与以后数点共同考虑:(1)组织的构成;(2)组织发达的程度;(3)在演化过程中该组织对于脑部继续发达,及其功用所有关系的重要性(不能单看体积的大小)。鼻脑在脑前端,...

(一)此研究限于鱼脑的背面(因由腹面观察,不能看到全脑各部)。所用四种硬骨鱼是鲫鱼、乌鱼、黄鳝与黑鲢。 (二)鱼脑背面,分为五部分:嗅球、原始端脑、中脑、小脑与延脑。鲫鱼延脑背面前部有迷叶长出,鲢鱼延脑背面前部有面叶与迷叶长出。为研究便利计,将迷叶与面叶划为另外部分,分别观察其代谢现象。 (三)染剂用以刺激鱼脑者,为简氏绿、次甲基蓝、中性红与晶紫。此外,又用过锰酸钾作完全氧化—还原实验。 (四)对于以上各剂,鱼脑反应程度最高处是嗅球,大约与嗅球相等者,是原始端脑,稍次是小脑,再次是中脑,最次是延脑。黑鲢面叶与迷叶低于小脑,高于中脑,而面叶高于迷叶(曲线图Ⅴ(D)与Ⅵ(D))。鲫鱼的迷叶,对染剂的反应,高于小脑,对氧化—还原剂的反应,低于小脑(图Ⅴ(A)与Ⅵ(A))。 整个结论是鱼脑表面,对于化学药剂的感性与其生理功用成正比例,与其组织之年龄成反比例。除此二因素外,脑的极性(polarity)、脑各部分之体积,都与生理量度有密切的关系。唯体积关系,须与以后数点共同考虑:(1)组织的构成;(2)组织发达的程度;(3)在演化过程中该组织对于脑部继续发达,及其功用所有关系的重要性(不能单看体积的大小)。鼻脑在脑前端,屡次实验,表现为最高生理量度之所在;此处之势力,支配全脑各部分。高等脊椎动物的大脑,

 
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