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socioeconomic impacts
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     4. The impacts of tourism, which consists of the socioeconomic and sociocultural effects of tourism.
     四、旅游的影响,分两个方面:旅游的社会经济影响与旅游的社会文化影响。
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     PARENTAL SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND PREMATUR
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  socioeconomic impacts
Research on these phenomena has been directed mainly at understanding avalanche mechanics and travel distances and related socioeconomic impacts.
      
Although there has been much research done on the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of urbanization, little attention has been given to cultural impacts.
      
For policy-makers, it is important to assess the socioeconomic impacts of forest owners' ageing in order to ensure the sustainable management of forests.
      
This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of two nuclear generating stations.
      
The socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: An analysis of the Rancho Seco and peach bottom facilities
      
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The effective management of nature reserves has increasingly become the focus of atten-tion among researchers and governmental and nongovernmental organizations.The development and management of ecotourism thus also become a crucial issue in the management process of nature reserves and need to be treated seriously.Therefore,it is of great significance to the study of the impacts of ecotourism in nature reserves,and based upon which,to the establishment of criteria or an assessment index system for ecotourism...

The effective management of nature reserves has increasingly become the focus of atten-tion among researchers and governmental and nongovernmental organizations.The development and management of ecotourism thus also become a crucial issue in the management process of nature reserves and need to be treated seriously.Therefore,it is of great significance to the study of the impacts of ecotourism in nature reserves,and based upon which,to the establishment of criteria or an assessment index system for ecotourism in nature reserves for the theoretic advancement and scientification of practice of nature reserve management.This paper reviewed the methods and main progress of environmental and socioeconomic impact assessment researches on ecotourism in nature reserves,and noted that there was a considerable gap between actual effects and theoretical expectations of ecotourism,hence resulting in many practical problems.These can be treated as good warning signs for the management of nature reserves in China.Under the situation of the rapid increase in the number of nature reserves and great passion of ecotourism development in China,three tasks should be emphasized:1)to enhance the research on ecotourism in nature reserves;2)to strengthen planning,management and monitoring of ecotourism in nature reserves;and 3)to enlarge the economic contributions of ecotourism development in nature reserves.

自然保护区有效管理日益成为学术界、政府部门和非政府组织关注的一个焦点。近年来,生态旅游的发展和管理已经成为自然保护区管理中不容回避的重要问题。因此,研究旅游发展对自然保护区的影响并以此为基础建立自然保护区生态旅游的标准或评价指标体系,对于自然保护区管理理论的完善和管理实践的科学化具有非常重要的意义。论文阐述了自然保护区生态旅游生态环境和社会经济影响评价研究的相关方法与主要进展,认为保护区内生态旅游的实际效果与理论期望之间存在很大差距,从而在实践中引发了种种问题,对中国自然保护区的管理具有很好的警示作用。在中国自然保护区数量快速增长和旅游发展热情高涨的形势下,应重点做好三方面工作:①加强自然保护区生态旅游研究;②加强自然保护区生态旅游的规划、管理和监测;③强化生态旅游的经济贡献。

In discussions of sustainable development,tourism has been suggested as a tool for achieving economic development while protecting the natural environment.However,tourism,like any economic activity,can lead to undesirable environmental and socioeconomic impacts.The concept of sustainable tourism involves recognition of negative impacts and the need to manage them if sustainability is to be achieved.Tourism Carrying Capacity(TCC) often has been cited as a framework within which such issues can be...

In discussions of sustainable development,tourism has been suggested as a tool for achieving economic development while protecting the natural environment.However,tourism,like any economic activity,can lead to undesirable environmental and socioeconomic impacts.The concept of sustainable tourism involves recognition of negative impacts and the need to manage them if sustainability is to be achieved.Tourism Carrying Capacity(TCC) often has been cited as a framework within which such issues can be considered.Initially,TCC focused on the critical number of visitors that may destroy the resource quality and visitor experience.It was clear that TCC is a singular numerical form determined by a point beyond which conditions deteriorate.Nevertheless,a variety of authors previously pointed to the limitations of numerical TCC as an effective management paradigm.They considered implementing a management strategy that specifically identifies conditions and establishes explicit standards of quality will be more efficacious than relying on numerical carrying capacities.As knowledge and management experience grew,definitions of TCC also evolved.TCC came to be defined as the amount of recreational use allowable by an area's management objectives.Consequently,the failures in the US to find carrying capacities led to searches for alternative management paradigms such as Limits of Acceptable Change(LAC),Visitor Experience and Resource Protection(VERP) etc.These planning frameworks were based on TCC,concerned with protecting certain conditions,rather than finding numerical carrying capacities,served to significantly advance the state-of-the-knowledge of tourism and management.

旅游容量(TCC)最初只关注旅游地的游客量上限,认为超过就会对资源质量和游客体验质量造成破坏。随着研究的深入,用极限数字表示TCC的缺陷越来越明显,TCC的重心也逐渐由寻求一个魔力数字(magic number)转到具体目标(objective)的建立。TCC是一个管理工具而非科学理论的观点被越来越多的学者接受,逐步形成了LAC、VERP等管理框架,广泛应用于美国的自然保护区、国家公园等,有效控制了旅游对环境的影响,促进了旅游地的可持续发展。

It is very important to have scientifically and quantitatively socioeconomic impact studies during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and Olympic trial meanwhile, it is a weakness at present. Based on reviews of relative literatures, it integrates the social survey and depth interview with VIP customers like BOCOG (Beijing Organization Committee of Olympic Games) and so on by combining with qualitative and quantitative methods. It constructs customer's satisfaction indices, which includes eight multi-items to...

It is very important to have scientifically and quantitatively socioeconomic impact studies during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and Olympic trial meanwhile, it is a weakness at present. Based on reviews of relative literatures, it integrates the social survey and depth interview with VIP customers like BOCOG (Beijing Organization Committee of Olympic Games) and so on by combining with qualitative and quantitative methods. It constructs customer's satisfaction indices, which includes eight multi-items to measure the satisfaction degree of fixed customer group, i.e. realizing and meeting the needs of BOCOG, time and efficient of weather service, social benefit judgment by customers, customer's meteorological manual and dissemination approaches, meteorologist's ability, forecast accuracy of different meteorological factors, future choice after competitions and comprehensive impression on meteorological sections etc. It is the first time to put forward the Customer Satisfaction Index of Weather Service (CSIWS). Taking 2006 women's fast pitch world championship as a case study, some quantitatively results are measured. They show that customers satisfy with comprehensive impression and endeavors of meteorological bureau. Some disadvantages show that we should try our best to lead and exploit customers' needs, produce various customers' manual and general public's weather guidebooks, to improve the hit rate of our official meteorological websites of OG.

科学定量地评估2008年北京奥运及演练期间气象信息服务所产生的社会经济效益,是奥运气象服务的一项重要工作,同时也是当前工作中的薄弱环节。在简要评述了近年来有关评估研究工作的基础上,综合应用了社会问卷调查、高端用户深度访谈等定量和定性研究相结合的方法,构建了满意度指数体系,包括了解和满足用户的需求、预报发布时间和时效、用户对气象服务所产生效益的判断、奥运气象服务手册、用户指南和网站等服务和宣传手段,服务人员能力、针对不同预报要素的预报准确度、用户的未来意向以及对气象部门的整体印象等8类综合指标。首次提出了天气服务用户满意度指数(CSIWS),并以2006年女垒奥运测试为例进行实证分析,通过数学模型计算了奥组委等高端用户群的满意指数,来定量测量用户群对奥运气象信息服务的期望度和满意度。结果显示,用户对气象部门整体印象最满意,也发现目前奥运气象信息服务中存在的问题和改善的契机,在引导和挖掘用户需求、完善奥运气象宣传手册或用户服务指南以及广为宣传奥运气象官方网站等方面还要下功夫。

 
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