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external ear     
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  外耳
     Methods The fascial flaps in mastoid area were designed, which including the posterior auricular artery, to reconstruct the external ear.
     方法:在耳后乳突区设计一个以耳后动脉为蒂的扇形乳突筋膜瓣,用于术中包裹耳支架,行外耳再造术。
短句来源
     Objective and Methods:Ultrasonographic study of the external ear in 206 fetuses of 20~40 week gestational ages.
     目的与方法:报告206例胎龄20~40周胎儿外耳的超声显像检测。
短句来源
     Malignant melanoma of external ear:14 cases report
     外耳恶性黑瘤14例报告
短句来源
     Conclusion:Deformity of fetal external ear can be diagnosed by ultrasonography.
     结论:超声显像对胎儿外耳发育状态的检测,能够产前诊断胎儿外耳发育畸形。
短句来源
     Results:The morphology,the size and the lie of the fetal external ear could be clearly seen after 20 week pregnancy.
     结果:胎儿外耳在孕20周以后即可清晰显示其形态、大小及位置。
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  半耳
     Repairing the absence of the traumatic external ear
     外伤性半耳缺损的修复
短句来源
     Conclusion: The above methods are the ideal choice for repairing the absence of the traumatic external ear.
     结论 :以上方法修复外伤性半耳缺损行之有效 ,值得推广。
短句来源
  外耳郭
     Experimental study of histologic changes of rat external ear allograft
     同种异体大鼠外耳郭移植组织学改变的实验研究
短句来源
     Objective To study histologic changes of rat external ear allograft and recruitment of inflammatory cells.
     目的 研究同种异体大鼠外耳郭移植后组织形态学改变及免疫细胞的浸润情况。
短句来源
     The other group included 10 SD rats as donors and 10 WISTAR rats as recipients(SD→WISTAR). The survival time of rat external ear and pathological changes and recruitment of inflammatory cells were checked.
     异体移植组以SD大鼠为供体 ,WISTAR大鼠为受体 (SD→WISTAR) ,然后观察外耳郭的生存情况与组织学变化。
短句来源
  “external ear”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Expression of CA did not show a significant difference between extensive cholesteatoma and localized cholesteatoma, P>0.05. The levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were 0.954±0.411 and 2.676±0.734 in cholesteatoma and were 0.355±0.160 and 1.166±0.443 area gray-scale/mg/ml in external ear skin, respectively.
     广泛性胆脂瘤和局限性胆脂瘤CA的表达无差别,P>0.05。 ②中耳胆脂瘤组织中MMP-2和MMP-9的平均活性为0.954±0.411和2.676±0.734面积灰度/mg/ml,而外耳道皮肤的平均活性为0.355±0.160和1.166±0.443面积灰度/mg/ml。
短句来源
     CDK4 was expressed mainly in the basal and parabasal cell layers of cholesteatoma epithelium and external ear canal skin. The CDK4-positive cell rate is 35.6%±14.6% and 13.6%±5.1%, respectively.
     CDK4在胆脂瘤上皮和外耳道皮肤中阳性细胞率分别为35.6%±14.6%、13.6%±5.1%,两组之间的差异具有显著性(P=O.001)。
短句来源
     The PCNA labeling index and the mean optical density were ( 10.52 ± 2.65 )% and ( 0.134 0 ± 0.036 3 ) in normal external ear canal skin samples and ( 36.91 ± 22.77 )% and ( 0.242 7 ± 0.058 6 ) in cholesteatoma tissue samples.
     在胆脂瘤上皮中 PCNA阳性细胞率和平均光密度分别为(36 .91± 2 2 .77) %和 0 .2 4 2 7± 0 .0 5 86 ,明显高于正常外耳道上皮中的 PCNA阳性细胞率 (10 .2 5± 2 .6 5 ) %及平均光密度 (0 .1340± 0 .0 36 3) ,其差异有显著性意义 (P<0 .0 5 )。
短句来源
     Results Counts of microvessel and relative area of all microvessels per image in the adjacent skin around perforation were 14.395±2.000 and (9.927±2.600) %,respectively. These were significantly higher than the normal deep external ear skin′s with the average of 6.218±0.949 and (5.076±0.807) % in 15 cases acquired middle ear cholesteatoma patients (P<0.001).
     结果 胆脂瘤型中耳炎患者的鼓膜穿孔部位邻近皮肤的微血管计数、微血管相对面积 ( x±s)分别为 14.395±2.000和 (9.927±2.600 ) %,显著高于其自身耳道深部正常皮肤的 6 218±0 949和 ( 5.076±0.807 )% (P<0. 001 );
短句来源
     Results The expressions of Hsp70,p27 and Hs-p70mRNA were significantly stronger in human middle ear cholesteatoma than that in external ear canal skin(p < 0.05) .
     结果Hsp70、Hsp70mRNA和p~(27)在中耳胆脂瘤上皮中表达均明显高于在正常外耳道皮肤中的表达(P<0.05)。
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  external ear
The responsiveness of single motor units of rabbits' external ear muscles to acoustic stimulation has been investigated.
      
We address whether fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in an external ear element is correlated with the accuracy of location of a sound source (synthetic male advertisement calls) by female midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans).
      
Series of MS as 7 impulses with frequency 333 imp/s and current 10-50 μA evoked predominantly ipsilateral MR in vibrissa groups, upper lip, external ear, mandible, and eyeball.
      
Single units of external ear-muscles were investigated during vestibular and optokinetic stimulation.
      
In this paper, localization experiments are described in which hearing for each ear was either normal, or spectrally disrupted by a mold fitted to the external ear.
      
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Specimens were raken then from two Landrace. one Er-Whu-Lian and two Yorkshare×Native Crosses. The first two breeds used were adults (B. wt about 100kg)and the rest were 100-day-old pigs. There are some differences in auricular muscles among these breeds and alsopresent in both side of the same body, but it is not significant. There is no correlationbetween the external ear direction, Such as erect lop and inclined ear types, and musular sizes. They are mainly determined by to inheritance.The m....

Specimens were raken then from two Landrace. one Er-Whu-Lian and two Yorkshare×Native Crosses. The first two breeds used were adults (B. wt about 100kg)and the rest were 100-day-old pigs. There are some differences in auricular muscles among these breeds and alsopresent in both side of the same body, but it is not significant. There is no correlationbetween the external ear direction, Such as erect lop and inclined ear types, and musular sizes. They are mainly determined by to inheritance.The m. parietoscutularis was found in this observation. It is located deep to the m. interscutularis and m. parietoauricularis, and its fibres run parellel to the long axis of the head. The m. parietoauricularis is originated from nuchal crest, and, a little distance forward forward it turns as aponeurosis. Then it blends with the fascia over the frontal bone and connectes with scutiform cartilage. A detailed description of findings is given and discussed with reference to the reported observations of other wonkers.

研究了长白猪、二花脸猪和约克夏×地方种的杂交猪的耳廓肌表明,耳廓方向与肌肉的发达程度无明显关系。在解剖中,我们发现过来一般文献未曾提及的顶盾肌,该肌位于盾间肌及顶耳肌深面,起于项脊肌纤维与头的长轴相平行,向前纵走,离起点不远转变为宽的腱膜与额筋膜相混,并与盾状软骨相联系。对各文献资料中有关同一肌采用不同的名称作了讨论。

Four cases of external ear reconstruction were performed with a modified method in one stage. The technical improvements included: 1) 3 pieces of crescent-shaped cartilages were inserted into 3 tunnels beneath the super-thin skin flap and 2) the post-auricular defect was skin-grafted. The helix, triangular fossa, scapha and concha of the external ear were almost similar to that of the normal.

对4例外耳再造采用隧道法植入坎骨形成耳轮、三角窝、舟状窝、耳甲腔,戊形后近似正常外耳。方法浅是在皮肤层形成三个半园形隧道,并将按模型制备的软骨条植入,耳后部植皮成形。

Yunnanodon brevirostre (formerly named as Yunnania, Cui, 1976) is a tritylodont of small size, with short and broad snout, and low and posteriorly situated parietal crest. It is also characterized by possessing less number of postcanine teeth and a cusp formula of 2-3-2. The type skull came from the Lower Lufeng Series in the Lufeng Basin, Yunnan Province. The basic structure of the pterygoid and basisphenoid region of Yunnanodon brevirostre is exactly Bienotherium-like, i. e. narrow and ridged, which is distinguished...

Yunnanodon brevirostre (formerly named as Yunnania, Cui, 1976) is a tritylodont of small size, with short and broad snout, and low and posteriorly situated parietal crest. It is also characterized by possessing less number of postcanine teeth and a cusp formula of 2-3-2. The type skull came from the Lower Lufeng Series in the Lufeng Basin, Yunnan Province. The basic structure of the pterygoid and basisphenoid region of Yunnanodon brevirostre is exactly Bienotherium-like, i. e. narrow and ridged, which is distinguished from the flat and wide type as in the Bienotheroides. Recently, a further preparation reveals the auditory region of the type skull (V5017). Unexpectedly, it is found to be of a totally different structural pattern. Firstly, the skul possesses a pair of buldges at the rear end of the basisphenoid wing (plate I) in front of the fenestra ovalis and fenestra rotunda. It gives no choice but to interpret the buldges as the cochlear housing, 'promontorium' in Morganucodon and Sinoconodon. Up to the present, there is no such elevations appeared in any cynodonts and other tritylodonts. Figure 1 illustrates the internal morphology of the cochlea when the cover of the right side has been taken off. The buldge itself is filled with matrix, most of the fillings are quartz-like mineral grains. Inside the cochlea is a hollow space, its anterior end extends right into the prootic bone. A distinct round opening at the outer ridge indicates the exit of auditory nerve, the opening being considerably large. Separated from the nerve opening by a narrow bony bridge is a deep fossa which locates at the inner side of the fenestra ovalis. The fossa stretches dorsally and terminated at an opening, which penetrates the braincase. This opening in the braincase is anterior to the jugular foramen. This fossa should be the osseous vestibule and the dorsal open- ing to the braincase, a passage to the superior semicircular canal. Three small openings were also appeared at the lateral broken surface, one of them shows its connection with the vestibule fossa. These holes and passages may represent the remains of semicircular canals. On the other side of the skull, a tiny foramen has been exposed at the antero-medial corner of the cochlear buldge, and followed by a distinct groove. It is reasonable to assume this groove as the path of the internal carotid artery, and the foramen, its entrance, more precisely, the medial internal carotid artery by mammalian term. It is worth notice that this animal pos- sesses both the mammalian characters of the cochlear housing and the position of the mentioned artery. The structure of the middle ear is also unusual. Resulted from the development of the 'promontorium', the petrosal is enlarged and in contact with the basisphenoid end and the lateral flange of the prootic bone; consequently, a bony wall is formed, separating the cavum epipterycure from the tympanic cavity. In comparison with the other tritylodonts, the tympanic cavity is more closed. A small foramen at the anterior border of the paroccipital process represents the pterygo-paroccipital foramen. Opposite to the fenestra ovalis, there is a small piece of bone resting on the corner, it extends across the cavity and points to \the fenestra ovalis, but failed to reach it because of breakage. The weakness and fragility of the small bone prevent the possibility of further preparing. This should be explained as the stapes. In front of it is another opening on the wall of prootic, which is identified as the internal opening of the vena capitis lateralis. On the paroccipital process, the attachment of the stapedial muscle leaves a very distinct scar, it is ellipsoid instead of being rounded as that in Morganucodon and Sinoconodon. The posterior paroccipital process is very long and slender, its isolated rear end stretches ventrally, while the anterior process is quite normal in position. The peculiar ball-like structure outside the paroccipital process is really interesting. The 'ball' is swollen dorsally and almost reaches the level of the skull roof. Ventrally, between the 'ball' and the paroccipital process lies a very distinct sulcus. The anterior half of the sulcus is relatively deep but tends shallow and flat posteriorly. The sulcus curves somehow outwards and runs between the end of stapes and the posterior paroccipital process. The quadrate is assumed resting at the place where the stapes ended. The authors here prefer to accept the 'postquadrate tympanum' statement based on the sulcus at this position. We consider the only explanation of the sulcus is the hanging with the ear drum. The lateral edge of it could be compared to the squamosal lip in Diademodon (Watson, 1911) and other cynodonts, which supports the tympanic membrane, as some authors held. If the explanation of the tympanic membrane is acceptable, it is most likely that the 'ball' should be represent a part of the squamosal bone, which contains the external audi[ory meatus. The meatus has been shown in various mammal-like reptiles. It exists in tritylodonts as well, except turns laterally rather then posteriorly (Kuhne, 1956). In Yunnanodon, the three openings on the 'ball' connect with each other, the external auditory meatus must be long and tortuous. The lateral opening sitting high up the top probably indicates the end of the meatus, and the basal plate inside the window may indicate certain device of the external ear. All these unusual morphological structures of the ear region speaks a certain particular mode of life of Yunnanodon brevirostre.

本文介绍了以短吻云南兽为代表的一种耳区结构.它表明在三列齿类爬行动物里已经出现有发育的耳蜗壳以及在其内侧通过的颈内动脉等进步性质,听腔亦趋封闭.云南兽的中耳腔外侧出现了一条曲折的骨质外耳道,侧枕骨突外侧明显的沟可能表明方骨后耳膜之存在.

 
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