This paper elaborates the applicability of the energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing design,introduces the basic principle of the energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing system of the engineering structure and the basic method of the energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing design,and probes into the mode selection,quantity determination and arrangement of the shock-absorber and its energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing results.

The results, which is from the test of the flow characteristics of the fluid in the three-phase circulating fluidized bed , show that the flow efficiency of the fluid in this circulating fluidized bed with polymer porous carriers is excellent, and its minimum fluidization velocity and transport velocity are more small compared with some other carriers, so the energy-dissipating in the operation of the reactor is very low.

Three other hysteretic models,including elastic perfectly-plastic(EPP),shear-slipped(SSP) and bilinear elastic(BIL),are analyzed to examine the effect of energy-dissipating capacity and stiffness degradation on the R spectra,and the results,together with the R spectra for MC model,are compared.

Here we probe into a new mode to expend earthquake energy by creating trace imitated earthquake waves in order to achieve the goal-area energy-dissipating.

The test results show that: the above two steel bracing-retrofitting methods can improve the lateral stiffness and energy-dissipating capacity of the existing frame structure effectively;

It turned out that the contribution of both energy-dissipating systems in the prevention of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation in vivo could lead to its constant level throughout the growth cycle of A.

In a previous work, it has been shown that protein expression and activity of these two energy-dissipating systems exhibit large variations during tomato fruit development and ripening on the vine.

The Energy-Conserving and Energy-Dissipating Processes in Mitochondria Isolated from Wild Type and Nonripening Tomato Fruits Dur

The energy-dissipating crack propagation processes were described.

This improvement is related to the build up of an energy-dissipating mechanism by fibre microcracking in the vicinity of the crack tip.

The dynamic properties of the unstable (fast) propagation of cracks, especially the rule of the variation of propagating velocity, are discussed. The case to be considered is that the extension of cracks is not very long (as the cases of rapid crack propagation under impulsive load) , the main idea of this paper is that the rapid propagation of cracks may be treated as a vibration problem and is connected to the basic conceptions of fracture mechanics (such as criterior of fracture, etc.) by the principle of...

The dynamic properties of the unstable (fast) propagation of cracks, especially the rule of the variation of propagating velocity, are discussed. The case to be considered is that the extension of cracks is not very long (as the cases of rapid crack propagation under impulsive load) , the main idea of this paper is that the rapid propagation of cracks may be treated as a vibration problem and is connected to the basic conceptions of fracture mechanics (such as criterior of fracture, etc.) by the principle of energy equivalence. The rapid propagation of cracks is essentially a specific type of the transient vibration of elastic bodies, with the boundary conditions varying with the time. Under the assumption of equivalence, the above problem may be treated as the initial-value problem of a damped system with multiple degrees of freedom, considering the nonlinear effect of stiffness due to the extension of crack. After further simplification, it is deduced to a transient response problem of a damped nonlinear system of single degree of freedom under the initial condition of displacement, so that the solution can be obtained numerically. The fundamental conceptions for which the model is constituted, is the principle of the whole amount of energies being equivalent between the model and practical element, and the primary (main) hypothesis is that the fracture energy dissipated during the propagation oi crack is equivalent to the damping energy of the model system. The DCB specimens are taken as an example for explaining the theory and computing procedure. Numerical examples are calculated and compared with experimental results.In order to record the complete procedure of the rapid propagation and arrest of the crack by experiments, a new method of eddy-current type is developed.Computational results of several specimens of different materials are all coincided well with the experiments. So it can be concluded that the computational model can be used at least for such cases. Further research would be studied for more compli cate cases.

This method, suitable for digital computation, is used for calculating all the natural frequencies, mode shapes and their resonant-vibration stress for a banded group of turbine twisted buckets vibrated in tangential, axial and torsional directions.In this approach, the buckets are connected elastically with a continuous beam and, as the following factors are considered, the calculation is done more accurately.a. Twist of blade.b. Modification due to the effect of shear deformation and rotary inertia in buckets...

This method, suitable for digital computation, is used for calculating all the natural frequencies, mode shapes and their resonant-vibration stress for a banded group of turbine twisted buckets vibrated in tangential, axial and torsional directions.In this approach, the buckets are connected elastically with a continuous beam and, as the following factors are considered, the calculation is done more accurately.a. Twist of blade.b. Modification due to the effect of shear deformation and rotary inertia in buckets and band.c. The effect of centrifugal force in revolution of a banded group.d. Part of the root of bucket participated in vibration.It does not only calculate tangential bending vibration in Ao, Po and Al modes, but also axial bending-torsional vibration in X, U and S.,nodes and different torsional modes.Through the comparison of more than ten stages with short and medium-height steam turbine buckets in large power units, we found the values of calculation basically agree with the measurement in the power plant.Having calculated the frequencies and modes of a banded group, we use the principle of energy conservation--during the steady resonant state of a banded group, within a vibration cycle, the energy supplied to the blades of the banded group by the existing force acting on tangential, axial and torsional directions is equal to the energy dissipated in damping on the above directions for all buckets in group--to calculate the real displacement and resonant-vibration stress of blade, root of buckets, band and rivets in group for different known vibration modes. At the same time, according to the fatigue strength of the material, steady stress, structure, technology and the operating condition, we get the permissible fatigue stress of material for judging the safety of the vibration stress. The author found that the result of the calculation of "169" accident of stages and the safe operating stages, an improved design of the original "169", agreed with the real circumstances.This method is mainly used to calculate short and wedium-height blade group. The author analyses the accident of the first-stage in French KT1501 steam turbine unit used in the whole set equipments with a capacity of 300,000 tons/year synthesized ammonia. The coefficient in calculation--the fractional stimulus S and logarithmic decrement δ derive from the French data. The calculating frequencies basically agree with the measmement and, according to the vibration stress value, we get the conclusion of the calculation for the accident stage as follows.1. The abruption accidents of the first stage in the original rotor (the 1st, 2nd and 3rd accidents) were due to axial-toisional resonance-U mode for four bucket's group and x mode for three bucket's. Although the blades and band were safe, the resonant-vibration stress of bucket root were unsafe and that of the rivet was large. Also, when extra fluctuating bending moment was applied from forced band vibration by steam inlet in partial circumference, the rivet was in danger. After two rivets had been used on the blade, the rivets were safe, but fatigue still occured in bucket root (as in the 5th accident)2. The abruption accident of the first-stage in the new rotor (the design was improved by the French but the abruption still took place as in the 4th accident) was due to a tangential resonance with Bo mode; its resonant stress of the bucket root was more than the permissive vibration stress of the material, thus causing it to fatigue abruption.The results of the calculation agree with the abrupting position and the surface of the crack in these accidents. Therefore, the author is of the opinion that all the five abru ption accidents that happened in the past were mainly due to the design of the banded group, not to the operation or defect of the material used.

A microsecond flash photolysis apparatus which has been set up recently in the Institute of Biophysics of Academia Sinica is described. The time resolution of the apparatus is about 5 microseconds and the energy dissipated in a single flash is in the range of 400～600 joules. The minimum detectable optical density of transient species may be 7 × 10~(-4)O. D.Observations on formation and decay for the hydrated electron and dihalide anion radicals were made on this apparatus. The hydrated electron e_(aq)~- has...

A microsecond flash photolysis apparatus which has been set up recently in the Institute of Biophysics of Academia Sinica is described. The time resolution of the apparatus is about 5 microseconds and the energy dissipated in a single flash is in the range of 400～600 joules. The minimum detectable optical density of transient species may be 7 × 10~(-4)O. D.Observations on formation and decay for the hydrated electron and dihalide anion radicals were made on this apparatus. The hydrated electron e_(aq)~- has maximum absorption at 680 nm and the absorption peaks of .Cl_2~-, .Br_2~- and .I_2~- are at 340, 335 and 380 nm respectively. The kinetics of decay for these transient species is also discussed.