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in-product
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     Computational methods of fuzzy control based on in-product actual value current reasoning
     基于内积真值流推理的模糊控制算法
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     This management model includes pre-product, in-product and ex-product control of cost to accomplish the target cost.
     是以实现目标成本为目的,兼顾事前、事中和事后控制的成本管理模式。
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In cyclodimerization of butadiene, there exists a correlation between the catalytic properties of zerovalent nickel complex and peroxide oxygen present in cyclooctadiene-1, 5 (COD). Results of infrared spectroscopic, thin layer and gas chromatographic studies confirm the identity of product components obtained from air autoxidation of COD at ambient temperature and those from oxidation initiated with azobisisobutyronitrile, i. e., both reactions gave mixtures of alkyl hydroperoxides and peroxidic polymer.Investigation...

In cyclodimerization of butadiene, there exists a correlation between the catalytic properties of zerovalent nickel complex and peroxide oxygen present in cyclooctadiene-1, 5 (COD). Results of infrared spectroscopic, thin layer and gas chromatographic studies confirm the identity of product components obtained from air autoxidation of COD at ambient temperature and those from oxidation initiated with azobisisobutyronitrile, i. e., both reactions gave mixtures of alkyl hydroperoxides and peroxidic polymer.Investigation of the effects of peroxidic compounds on the different components of catalytic system shows that the main component suffered from interference is the ligand triphenyl phosphite, which favours the cyclodimerization. By substitution of triphenyl phosphite with pentavalent triphenyl phosphate in the cyclooligomerization reaction, change in product distribution takes place noticeably, i. e., cyclodimerization is retarded and cyclotrimeriza-tion is enhanced. Besides, an experiment with addition of extra triphenyl phosphite to a reaction mixture with certain limited amount of peroxides shows a revival of catalytic property for production of COD.

零价镍配位化合物在丁二烯环化齐聚反应中的催化性能和环辛二烯-1,5中过氧化物的含量有关。通过红外光谱、薄层色谱、气体色谱肯定了环辛二烯-1,5的室温空气自氧化产物与偶氮二异丁腈引发氧化的产物具有相同的组成,都是烷基过氧化物的混合物。分别讨论了过氧化物对催化体系各组分的影响,对环化二聚反应有影响的主要组分是配位体亚磷酸三苯酯。发现可用磷酸三苯酯代替亚磷酸三苯酯配位,齐聚反应也能进行,但产物分配起了明显变化。二聚受到抑制,三聚体有增加。此外,在一定的过氧化物含量范围内,补加亚磷酸三苯酯,可使生成环辛二烯-1,5的催化活性恢复。

A 15t ladle injection station has been designed and constructed under the joint efforts of CISRI and Chongqing Special Steel Plant and then, here were performed the tests of desulphurization process. This station is characterized by a two-storeyed platform and flat-bottomed powder dispenser. The desulphurization trials proceeded in a 15t ladle with fireclay, using CaSi as desulphurizer and argon as carrier gas. Injection lance depth immersed ranged from 1.2-1.4m, blowing time 3-5 min. Sulphur level reaching...

A 15t ladle injection station has been designed and constructed under the joint efforts of CISRI and Chongqing Special Steel Plant and then, here were performed the tests of desulphurization process. This station is characterized by a two-storeyed platform and flat-bottomed powder dispenser. The desulphurization trials proceeded in a 15t ladle with fireclay, using CaSi as desulphurizer and argon as carrier gas. Injection lance depth immersed ranged from 1.2-1.4m, blowing time 3-5 min. Sulphur level reaching in product was<0.005%, average efficiency of desulphurization 70%.

钢铁研究总院与重庆特殊钢厂共同合作设计建立了15t钢包喷粉处理站并进行了脱硫试验,喷粉站的特点设有两层平台,使用平底分配器,采用CaSi粉作脱硫剂,用Ar气作载流气体,喷枪插入深度1.2~1.4m,喷吹时间3~5min,下粉速度10~15kg/min,处理后钢中最低合硫量<0.005%,平均脱硫率70%。

As compared with other two types of catalyst, ferrite catalyst gives lower yield of undesirable by-product oxygenated compounds and better selectivity for butadiene. The catalytie sites, or oxygen species, on ferrite surface active in the selective oxidation of butene to butadiene are studied by the adsorption and TPD measurement of oxygen and cis-butene-2.Three distinet active sites related to selective oxidati/e dehydrogenation, combustion and double bond isomerization are identified. By varyi g the reaction...

As compared with other two types of catalyst, ferrite catalyst gives lower yield of undesirable by-product oxygenated compounds and better selectivity for butadiene. The catalytie sites, or oxygen species, on ferrite surface active in the selective oxidation of butene to butadiene are studied by the adsorption and TPD measurement of oxygen and cis-butene-2.Three distinet active sites related to selective oxidati/e dehydrogenation, combustion and double bond isomerization are identified. By varyi g the reaction temperatures to obtain different conversions of butene, for each conversion the molar ratios of butene-1:trans-butene-2:cis-butene-2 in products are determined, the results show that cis-butene-2 is the most reactive isomer.Based upon the above experimental results and compared with the results of Bi2O3-MoO3 and Sn-P-Li catalysts reported in literature, a modified Eennard-Massoth mechanism of surface butene oxidation on ferrite is suggested. Adsorption energies of the proposed active intermediates calculated by CNDO/2 method tally well with the experimental results. Structural studies of the fresh and the 1000 hr run ferrites by XPD, NGR and IR are also carried out.

在铁系尖晶石催化剂上进行了氧吸附、丁烯吸附以及吸附氧和吸附丁烯的TPD试验,表明铁系催化剂表面上存在有分别和丁烯的燃烧、氧化脱氢及双键异构化相关的三种活性中心。根据这三种活性中心的性质以及丁烯—1、反—丁烯—2和顺—丁烯—2在该催化剂上的不同的反应速度,提出了改进的Rennard-Massoth机理。丁烯—1、反—丁烯—2和顺-丁烯—2在Fe—O正八面体晶胞上吸附络合物的CNDO/2法量子化学初步计算结果,支持所提的机理设想。分别用X射线粉末衍射、穆斯鲍尔谱及红外光谱测定了新鲜的和经过1000小时连续反应后的催化剂样品的ZnFe_2O_4,a-Fe_2O_3等晶相及Fe~(1+)的价态变化,指出该催化剂的稳定性和它的尖晶石相及a-Fe_2O_3相的稳定性密切相关。

 
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