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reverse discharge
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This paper attempts mainly to discuss the effect of geometrical parameters of rotating cascade on the theoretical reverse-discharge rate of a reverse-rotating axial fan. The paper also covers the main achievements of USSR and Poland in this research field.

本文主要讨论动叶栅的几何参数对轴流风机理论反转反风量的影响,并介绍了苏联、波兰等国家在可反风矿井轴流风机方面的研究成果。

A novel water base gel breaker for fracturing fluid-EB-1 micro-capsule gel breaker is developed,to solve the difficulty of prophase viscosity reducing and gel breaking in the later period. A layer of water-insulated capsule is covered over the ammonium persulfate, which act as a shield and release under certain condition-s, thus realizes the goal of delayed gel breaking. Laboratory tests and field applications show that it can effectively improve the concentration of gel breaker in the fracturing fluid, and...

A novel water base gel breaker for fracturing fluid-EB-1 micro-capsule gel breaker is developed,to solve the difficulty of prophase viscosity reducing and gel breaking in the later period. A layer of water-insulated capsule is covered over the ammonium persulfate, which act as a shield and release under certain condition-s, thus realizes the goal of delayed gel breaking. Laboratory tests and field applications show that it can effectively improve the concentration of gel breaker in the fracturing fluid, and the viscosity of reverse discharging fluid is lower than 3 mPa·s, while the shutting time shortened to 6-8 hours after fracturing as compared the former 12 hours or over. 80% of the capsule materials can be recycled, this is cost effective and good for environment protection. The EB-1 gel breaker has good retarding capacity; this ensures the higher cuttings transportation of fracturing fluid and avoids the breaking in advance. In addition, it can raise the effective content of gel breaking composition, improve the reverse discharging effect and minimize the damage to formation and proppant, thus enhance stimulation results.

为解决压裂液的前期降粘与后期破胶困难的矛盾,研制出了一种新型的水基压裂液破胶剂——EB-1微胶囊破胶剂。EB-1微胶囊破胶剂是在过硫酸铵表面包结一层防止水侵入的绝缘包衣,绝缘包衣对破胶剂具有屏蔽作用并在一定的条件下释放,从而达到了廷缓破胶的目的。经室内和现场应用表明,EB-1微胶囊破胶剂能提高压裂液中破胶剂的浓度,使压裂液在较短的时间内破胶化水,压裂液反排液的粘度均小于3 mPa·s,同时压裂后关井时间由原来的12h以上缩短为6-8 h;EB-1微胶囊破胶剂的生产设备采用转鼓式喷涂包衣工艺,结构设计合理,包衣材料回收率为80%,节约了成本,提高经济效益,降低了对环境的污染;EB-1微胶囊破胶剂具有良好的缓释性能,使压裂液在施工中能保持较高的携砂能力,防止压裂液提前破胶;EB-1微胶囊破胶剂能提高压裂液中破胶成分的有效含量,压裂液破胶化水彻底,提高压裂液的反排效果,减少对地层及支撑剂的伤害,提高增产效果。

This article summarizes the overseas research development for controlling the damage by means of using the temporary plugging additives in the drilling & completion fluids in recent years. Especially, it focuses on the principle of temporary plugging and some new methods, i. e. , micrometer degree alkali cellulose for temporary plugging technique, using it the well wall can be plugged rapidly, and the invasion of solid phase and filtrate of drilling fluid into formation can be prevented; the filtrate model of...

This article summarizes the overseas research development for controlling the damage by means of using the temporary plugging additives in the drilling & completion fluids in recent years. Especially, it focuses on the principle of temporary plugging and some new methods, i. e. , micrometer degree alkali cellulose for temporary plugging technique, using it the well wall can be plugged rapidly, and the invasion of solid phase and filtrate of drilling fluid into formation can be prevented; the filtrate model of multi-component solid phase fine particle in which not only the damage degree and depth of reservoir and permeability after reverse discharging can be predicated respectively, but also the distributive state of solid phase in drilling fluid can be designed optimistically; the mechanism of cleaning out mud cake during reverse discharging and using mathematic model to calculate the initial flowing pressure, result shows that the initial flowing pressure increase with the reducing of permeability and the increasing of damage depth, meanwhile, it is in linear increasing with reverse discharging velocity; using pore throats net model to simulate the processes of fine migration, aggradation and plugging and to optimize the size of temporary plugging agent; temporary plugging techniques for high permeable reservoir, due to the main factor of damage in high permeable reservoir is solid phase incursion, it needs to use temporary plugging agent to form low permeable mud cake to prevent the incursion of solids and filtrate fluids, etc. . It is necessary to further develop the technology of formation damage control.

针对近年来国外在钻井液、完井液中通过加入暂堵剂对储层进行有效保护的研究进展进行了综述,重点介绍了实施暂堵的原理和一些新的方法,即①碱溶性微米级纤维素暂堵技术,这种暂堵剂能够对井壁进行快速封堵,减少钻井液中的固相和滤液侵入储层;②固相颗粒多组分滤失模型,利用该模型,可分别预测储层岩心受钻井液污染和反排后的损害深度及对渗透率的损害程度,又可用于对钻井液中固相的粒度分布状况进行优化设计,减轻固相对储层的损害;③反排时泥饼的清除机理,用初始流动压力的数学模型计算,初始流动压力随渗透率下降而增大,并随损害深度增加而增大,同时初始流动压力与反排速度呈线形增长的关系;④孔喉网络模型,可用于模拟微粒运移、沉积及发生堵塞的过程,并可优选暂堵剂尺寸,虽天然的多孔介质并不具有规则的结构,但可通过一个网络结构代替;⑤高渗储层暂堵技术,高渗储层的主要损害因素是固相侵入,因此需使用暂堵荆来形成低渗透泥饼,以防止固相和滤液进一步侵入。总之,油气层保护技术还需要进一步向前发展。

 
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