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医药卫生方针政策与法律法规研究
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diagnosis and treatment options
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     Objective To discuss the causes, diagnosis and treatment options of adolescent uterine bleeding.
     目的探讨青春期子宫出血的病因、诊断和治疗方法。
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     Diagnosis and treatment of ureterocele
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  diagnosis and treatment options
Conclusions focus on suggestions for differential diagnosis and treatment options.
      
With improved diagnosis and treatment options, many patients have increased lifespans; consequently, issues of long-term quality of life are coming to the forefront.
      
Possible definitions, diagnosis and treatment options for T1 and T2 disease are discussed.
      
In this article risk factors, diagnosis and treatment options such as surgery, hormonal and irradiation therapy as well as "wait and see" strategy will be discussed.
      
It is important to know about the possibilities of diagnosis and treatment options.
      
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ObjectiveFractures of the hook of the hamate are rare and comm on ly not identified in the acute phase. Four cases of hamate hook fracture are pre sented, along with a review of the literature. MethodsPatients presented with a cute onset of pain localised over the ulnar aspect of the wrist and reduction in grip strength. Diagnosis was confirmed by CT scanning. 0pen reduction and inter nal fixation with screws were performed in all 4 cases. The patients were follow ed for 5 to 14 months.ResultsBone healing was...

ObjectiveFractures of the hook of the hamate are rare and comm on ly not identified in the acute phase. Four cases of hamate hook fracture are pre sented, along with a review of the literature. MethodsPatients presented with a cute onset of pain localised over the ulnar aspect of the wrist and reduction in grip strength. Diagnosis was confirmed by CT scanning. 0pen reduction and inter nal fixation with screws were performed in all 4 cases. The patients were follow ed for 5 to 14 months.ResultsBone healing was seen in all pati ents. Release of Guyon's canal was done in 4 cases, and carpal tunnel in 1 case. The clinical results were good. Mechanism, diagnosis and treatment options are discussed. ConclusionFracture of hamate hook is rare and easily misdiagnosed . CT scanning is the gold standard for diagnosis. Ulnar nerve is vulnerable in this type of frac ture, and release of the Guyon's canal is recommended.

目的 临床上钩骨钩部骨折比较罕见而常被误诊 ,故阐明其症状、影像学检查特点及手术疗效。方法 对 4例钩骨钩部骨折病史进行分析及文献复习。钩骨钩部骨折临床表现为腕部尺侧局限性压痛 ,腕部力量减弱。 4例的腕部正侧位X线片未能确诊而CT影像学表现则确诊为钩骨钩部骨折。 4例均作切开复位、螺钉内固定术和腕尺管切开术 ,其中 1例同时作腕管切开术。结果 术后随访 5~ 12个月 ,骨折均已愈合 ,症状消失。结论 钩骨钩部骨折的发病率低 ,易漏诊 ,是罕见而易被误诊的骨折。CT检查是最好的诊断手段

Objective To discuss the clinical feature, diagnosis and treatment options of adolescent endometriosis Methods The records of adolescent patients with endometriosis (11 20 years old) who were admitted to First, Second and Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhongshan University and Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital between 1990 and 2003 were retrospectively reviewed Results Forty three patients were diagnosed as endometriosis either by laparotomy or laparoscopy The chief symptoms leading to the diagnosis...

Objective To discuss the clinical feature, diagnosis and treatment options of adolescent endometriosis Methods The records of adolescent patients with endometriosis (11 20 years old) who were admitted to First, Second and Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhongshan University and Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital between 1990 and 2003 were retrospectively reviewed Results Forty three patients were diagnosed as endometriosis either by laparotomy or laparoscopy The chief symptoms leading to the diagnosis were palpable pelvic mass (18/43), dysmenorrhea (15/43), chronic pelvic mass (10/43) and acute pelvic pain (4/43) The majority of patients (53%) presented with the revised AFS r classification stage Ⅲ, 8 cases (19%) presented with stage Ⅰ, 3 cases (7%) with stage Ⅱand 9 cases (21%) with stage Ⅳ. Nine cases (21%) had complicated genital tract abnormalities Conservative operations, including salpingo oophorectomy ins cases, ovarian cystectomy in 31 cases and laparoscopic vaporization in 8 cases, were performed Surgeries were followed by hormonal suppression using oral contraceptives in a continuous or cyclic manner Conclusions Adolescent endometriosis may occur around 4 6 years after menarche The chief symptoms are palpable pelvic mass and dysmenorrhea The treatment of endometriosis in adolescence does not differ principally from that in adult women In the treatment of endometriosis and for the prevention of recurrence, it is recommended to give 3 6 months of oral contraceptives

目的探讨青春期子宫内膜异位症的临床特征、诊断和治疗方法。方法对1990~2003年中山大学附属第一、二、三医院及广东省人民医院收治的43例青春期子宫内膜异位症患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果青春期子宫内膜异位症患者诊断时,距离初潮年龄平均间隔时间为46年,发病距离就诊时间平均为1年。就诊时的主要症状为盆腔包块18例,占42%;痛经15例,占35%;慢性腹痛10例,占23%;急性腹痛4例,占9%。根据1985年美国生育协会修订的子宫内膜异位症分期(ASFr)标准,23例(53%)为Ⅲ期,8例(19%)为Ⅰ期,3例(7%)为Ⅱ期,9例(21%)为Ⅳ期。其中9例伴有生殖道畸形,占21%;12例(28%)患者进行了腹腔镜诊断和治疗。结论青春期子宫内膜异位症多发生于初潮后的5年内,主要症状为盆腔包块和痛经。青春期子宫内膜异位症患者的临床症状与成年人相似,腹腔镜是子宫内膜异位症的确诊手段,手术仍是其主要治疗手段。

Objective To discuss the causes, diagnosis and treatment options of adolescent uterine bleeding. Methods To retrospectively analyze 54 records of adolescent uterine bleeding patients, who were admitted to The Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between 1990-01 and 2004-05. Results Thirty-four patients presented with dysfunctional uterine bleeding (63.0%), fourteen patients presented with blood system diseases (25.9%), three patients presented with genital tract organic pathological changes...

Objective To discuss the causes, diagnosis and treatment options of adolescent uterine bleeding. Methods To retrospectively analyze 54 records of adolescent uterine bleeding patients, who were admitted to The Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between 1990-01 and 2004-05. Results Thirty-four patients presented with dysfunctional uterine bleeding (63.0%), fourteen patients presented with blood system diseases (25.9%), three patients presented with genital tract organic pathological changes (5.6%), and three patients presented with other diseases (5.6%). Fifty-four cases all received ultrasonography examination and 9 cases who were found abnormal were performed hysteroscopy, then 3 cases were found genital tract organic pathological changes. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding patients received sexual hormonal treatment and achieved good results. Conclusion The majority cause of adolescent uterine bleeding is dysfunctional uterine bleeding, but must excluded other diseases. Ultrasonography examination associated with hysteroscopy and diagnostic curettage are essential methods for diagnosis.

目的探讨青春期子宫出血的病因、诊断和治疗方法。方法对1990-01-2004-05中山大学附属第二医院54例青春期子宫出血病例进行回顾性分析。结果54例青春期子宫出血患者,功能失调性子宫出血(功血)共34例占63.0%,血液系统疾病14例占25.9%,生殖道器质性病变3例占5.6%,其他疾病3例占5.6%。54例均经超声检查,9例有异常发现者再接受宫腔镜检查,3例发现器质性病变。功血患者经性激素治疗均达止血效果。结论青春期子宫出血的病因以功血为多,但需排除其他疾病。超声结合诊断性刮宫和宫腔镜检查,是有力的诊断手段。

 
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