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accident
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     Accident in the meal
     就餐中的意外
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     Catastrophe of Accident
     事故的突变论
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  accident
The insurer designates the insurance premium and the insurance recovery that is paid to the client provided that the object was insured prior to the insured accident (failure).
      
If there is no penalty for nonconcluded contract (the insured accident occurs before conclusion of the contract), then the greater the ratio, the greater on the average the relative insurer's profit from the enterprise.
      
An analysis of correlations between cytogenetic indices in lymphocytes and levels of reduced glutathione in the plasma of peripheral blood in children born after the Chernobyl accident is presented.
      
Response of the glutathione system to chronic irradiation of human population after the Chernobyl accident
      
A complex relationship between glutathione level in plasma in human population (children living in radionuclide-contaminated regions and the Chernobyl liquidators) exposed to chronic low-level radiation after the Chernobyl accident was demonstrated.
      
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In this paper,the Authors analysed the loads on the windlass as well as the steering gear of Yangtze River boats. The load acting on a windlass may appear in one of the following three eases: 1.The load for hoisting anchor; 2.The load as the anchor dropped to moor the boat; 3.The load for breaking the chain as the boat in accident. The load in third ease is maximum,moderate in first case,and minimum in second case.The third case had happened before among the Yangtze River boats,hence,it should be considered....

In this paper,the Authors analysed the loads on the windlass as well as the steering gear of Yangtze River boats. The load acting on a windlass may appear in one of the following three eases: 1.The load for hoisting anchor; 2.The load as the anchor dropped to moor the boat; 3.The load for breaking the chain as the boat in accident. The load in third ease is maximum,moderate in first case,and minimum in second case.The third case had happened before among the Yangtze River boats,hence,it should be considered. However,the dimensions of machine elements of a windlass may be too clumsy,if they are determined according to the third case.The Authors propose that they may be determined by following method: to check the fatigue streugth by the maximum load at the time of hoisting the anchor;and to keep the stress of material just below the yield point at the time of breaking the ehain. Based upon some investigations,it is easy to find out that the usual service rudder angles of Yangtze River boats are all within 20°.By applying statistical method to various forms of rudder; the ratio of the maximum torque of rudder angle below 20°to the maximum torque of all rudder angles is mostly less than 50%,and only few cases are more than 50%. From the above analysis,the Authors propose that the maximum torque may be treated as a peak load,and half of the peak value is assumed as a maximum load of usual service in calculating the strength of machine elements. With above point of view,a method for calculating the strength of principal machine elements of windlass and steering gear is briefly described,and some practical examples are given. The power of motor may be determined by the torque and speed of rotation.The heavy load acting on these kind of machines is always in a very short period.In order to utilize full power of motor,the Authors propose to multiply the maximum torque of motor by a coefficient of safety to meet the corresponding maximum torque of windlass or steering gear.This coefficient of steering gear and windlass may be taken as 0.8 and 0.7 respectively.The motor is mostly operating in a low load condition,hence the influence of decreasing speed in over load may not be considered.

本文对长江船舶起锚机和舵机在工作中所承受的负荷进行了分析。起锚机的负荷可分为三种情况:1.起锚时的负荷;2.抛锚后,锚已入土将船固定时的负荷;3.当船遇险时,将锚链拉断所承受的负荷。第3种负荷最大,第1种次之,第2种最小。第3种情况在长江曾经遇到,不能不考虑。但是,若按此确定机件的尺度就会感到过于笨重。作者建议按下述原则来确定机件的尺度:按起锚时的最大负荷来核算机件的疲劳强度;当承受锚链拉断负荷时,其应力不能超过材料的屈伏极限。根据调查,发现长江船舶常用转舵角均在20°以内。统计了各种舵型在20°以内的最大转矩与在全部转角范围内的最大转矩之比值。此值绝大多数均小于50%,仅有少数舵型超过50%。根据这些情况,作者建议以最大转矩作为尖峯负荷处理,而以它的一半作为经常使用的最大转矩来计算机件的强度。应用上述观点,对起锚机和舵机常用的几个主要零件的强度计算方法作了简单的叙述;并给出一些具体例子。电动机的功率可以由转矩和转速来决定。这类机械所承受的重负荷都是短期的。为了充分利用电动机的潜在能力,建议以电动机的最大转矩乘以裕度系数来适应起锚机和舵机所需要的最大转矩。舵机裕度系数取为0.8;起锚机的取为0.7。电动机在低...

本文对长江船舶起锚机和舵机在工作中所承受的负荷进行了分析。起锚机的负荷可分为三种情况:1.起锚时的负荷;2.抛锚后,锚已入土将船固定时的负荷;3.当船遇险时,将锚链拉断所承受的负荷。第3种负荷最大,第1种次之,第2种最小。第3种情况在长江曾经遇到,不能不考虑。但是,若按此确定机件的尺度就会感到过于笨重。作者建议按下述原则来确定机件的尺度:按起锚时的最大负荷来核算机件的疲劳强度;当承受锚链拉断负荷时,其应力不能超过材料的屈伏极限。根据调查,发现长江船舶常用转舵角均在20°以内。统计了各种舵型在20°以内的最大转矩与在全部转角范围内的最大转矩之比值。此值绝大多数均小于50%,仅有少数舵型超过50%。根据这些情况,作者建议以最大转矩作为尖峯负荷处理,而以它的一半作为经常使用的最大转矩来计算机件的强度。应用上述观点,对起锚机和舵机常用的几个主要零件的强度计算方法作了简单的叙述;并给出一些具体例子。电动机的功率可以由转矩和转速来决定。这类机械所承受的重负荷都是短期的。为了充分利用电动机的潜在能力,建议以电动机的最大转矩乘以裕度系数来适应起锚机和舵机所需要的最大转矩。舵机裕度系数取为0.8;起锚机的取为0.7。电动机在低负荷情况下运转的时间较长,不必考虑超负荷时转速降低的影响。

Since 1968 several buckling accidents have happened on some parts of the 6000km. CWR tracks in China. The main causes of buckling as the authors investigated are: (1) The lack of strict observance of instructions in maintenance work; (2) Some abnormal temperature stresses which might have existed in the rails were neglected by the maintenance staffs.

自1968年以来,我国六千公里无缝线路上曾先后发生胀轨跑道事故多起。经调查及试验,认为事故的主要原因为:(1)违章作业;(2)长轨内存在着未被注意的额外温度力。在试验中证实了:(a)由于钢轨伸缩迟滞于温度变化,在长轨伸缩区可能产生比一般计算的温度力要大50吨。(b)由于在严寒季节作业,钢轨产生不正常收缩。曾发现某段钢轨锁定轨温自23℃变为4.4℃。(c)由于线路锁定不良,钢轨爬行,轨内各段锁定轨温发生变化。经调查17段长轨,发现长轨内各段锁定轨温非常混乱,有个别区段锁定轨温比工区掌握的低17.5℃之多。为确保行车安全,上述各因素在无缝线路设计及维修工作中应给予足够的重视。

This paper contains two main parts:Ⅰ.An introduction to the essential feature of the shuttle loom (for iron wire netting)equipped with the cam beating-up mechanism,as follows:1.The time for the shuttle to pass through the shed is extended so that the loomspeed is increased by 20—35 per cent.2.The breakage of the selvage is reduced.3.The time for the shuttle change is extended so that the damage of the shuttle changemechanism is reduced.4.In order to protect the shuttle from damage in case of an accident...

This paper contains two main parts:Ⅰ.An introduction to the essential feature of the shuttle loom (for iron wire netting)equipped with the cam beating-up mechanism,as follows:1.The time for the shuttle to pass through the shed is extended so that the loomspeed is increased by 20—35 per cent.2.The breakage of the selvage is reduced.3.The time for the shuttle change is extended so that the damage of the shuttle changemechanism is reduced.4.In order to protect the shuttle from damage in case of an accident of the shuttlemotion,it is necessary to provide with a strong brake device and a perfect devicefor warp-protection.Ⅱ.A discussion of the design method for the rational size of the bcating-up cam.

本文包含以下两部分内容:一、介绍凸轮打纬在窗纱织机上的应用情况,其主要特点如下:1.由于延长了梭子的飞行时间,有梭织机的车速约可提高20—35%2.边经断头率下降;3.延长了换梭机构的作用时间,减少了换梭机件的损坏;4.为防止轧梭,需具有强力煞车装置及灵敏可靠的经纱保护装置。二、讨论了如何合理确定打纬凸轮的结构尺寸。

 
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