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cognitive activity
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  认知活动
    BACKGROUND: Hippocampal structure in brain is the division related to learning and memory, generally it is closely relevant to spatial cognitive activity.
    背景:脑海马结构是与学习记忆有关的脑区,一般认为与空间认知活动密切相关。
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  cognitive activity
At follow-up of 4-8 months, physical activity, strength, people one could turn to for help, and cognitive activity increased significantly, and walking speed decreased significantly less, in participants compared to controls.
      
The Experience Corps? places older volunteers in public elementary schools in roles designed to meet schools' needs and increase the social, physical, and cognitive activity of the volunteers.
      
Problem solving is generally regarded as the most important cognitive activity in everyday and professional contexts.
      
Sex differences in cognitive activity were investigated.
      
This paper proposes that current psychometric intelligence tests are limited in evaluating cognitive activity.
      
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AIM:To investigate the changes of brain bioelectrical activities in children with mental retardation(MR),and to explore the relationship of the cognitive activity and intellectual status with the senior neuroelectrical activity. METHODS:The auditory event related potential(ERP),electroencephalogram(EEG) and brain electrical activity map(BEAM) examination were conducted in 42 MR children(study group) and 40 normal children(control group),respectively.The wave amplitude and latency of ERP P300,differentiation...

AIM:To investigate the changes of brain bioelectrical activities in children with mental retardation(MR),and to explore the relationship of the cognitive activity and intellectual status with the senior neuroelectrical activity. METHODS:The auditory event related potential(ERP),electroencephalogram(EEG) and brain electrical activity map(BEAM) examination were conducted in 42 MR children(study group) and 40 normal children(control group),respectively.The wave amplitude and latency of ERP P300,differentiation and distribution of EEG,changes of BEAM δ,θelectrical wave power were observed. RESULTS:In the study group,the latency of auditory ERP P300 was 355 ms,significantly prolonged as compared with that in the control group(316 ms)(t=3.143,P< 0.01),the differentiation of wave form was worse,and the amplitude of P300 was 5.55 μV,obviously lower than that in the control group(6.08 μV)(t=2.602,P< 0.05).The differentiation of the waves in EEG was worse,and the distribution was abnormal.The BEAM showed that the powers of θand δwaves in the study group were 26.85 μV2 and 2.30 μV2,respectively,highly and significantly different from those in the control group(18.85 μV2 and 1.64 μV2)(t=3.748,P< 0.01;t= 6.398,P< 0.001).CONCLUSION:There is a close relation between the cognitive function and high neuroelectrical activity.The results of ERP,EEG and BEAM can objectively reflect the cognitive function of children with MR.

目的:了解弱智儿童脑生物电活动的变化,探讨弱智儿童的认知行为、智能状况与脑的高级神经电活动之间的关系。方法:分别对42例弱智儿童(实验组)和40例正常儿童(对照组)进行听觉事件相关电位、脑电图和脑电地形图检测,观察其事件相关电位P300波幅和潜伏期长短、脑电图各波分化、分布及脑电地形图δ,θ电波功率的变化。结果:实验组听觉事件相关电位P300潜伏期为355ms,较对照组的316ms明显延长(t=3.143,P<0.01),波形分化较差,波幅为5.55μV,明显低于对照组的6.08μV(t=2.602,P<0.05)。脑电图各波分化较差,分布失正常规律,脑电地形图显示实验组θ,δ等慢波电功率分别为26.85μV2和2.30μV2,而对照组分别为18.85μV2和1.64μV2,两组比较差异均有非常显著性意义(t=3.748,P<0.01,t=6.398,P<0.001)。结论:脑的认知功能与其高级神经的电活动密切相关,事件相关电位和脑电图、脑电地形图检测的结果,可以较客观的反映弱智儿童的脑认知功能状况。

BACKGROUND: Hippocampal structure in brain is the division related to learning and memory, generally it is closely relevant to spatial cognitive activity. Marginal division of striatum is a latest discovered subdivision related to learning and memory function of brain, whether is its learning and memory function different from that in hippocampus﹖OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference, function and importance in learning and memory function between marginal division of striatum and hippocampus in brain and...

BACKGROUND: Hippocampal structure in brain is the division related to learning and memory, generally it is closely relevant to spatial cognitive activity. Marginal division of striatum is a latest discovered subdivision related to learning and memory function of brain, whether is its learning and memory function different from that in hippocampus﹖OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference, function and importance in learning and memory function between marginal division of striatum and hippocampus in brain and observe the difference in escape learning and memory between marginal division of striatum and hippocampus.DESIGN: Completely randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: Institute of Neuroscience in Zhujiang Hospital Affiliated to First Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: The experiment was performed in Institute of Neuroscience in Zhujiang Hospital Affiliated to First Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from March 2002 to July 2003. Totally 109 normal male adult SD rats were employed and 75 rats of them were screened as the qualified animals by twice Y-maze test. Randomly, 25 rats were divided into damaged marginal division of striatum group (DMD group), 10 rats were into bilateral fimbria-fornix transection group (FFT group), 30 rats were into the control of marginal division of striatum (MD control) and 10 rats were into the control of bilateral fimbria-fornix group (FF control). After 24 hours training in Y-maze, In DMD group, 10 g/L kainic acid 0.1 to 0.2 μL was used to damage bilateral marginal division of striatum of rats. In MD control, physiological saline of minim dose was injected in bilateral marginal division of striatum of rats. In FFT group, bilateral fimbria-fornix was transectioned. In FF control, the cortical tissue of the superficial layer of bilateral fimbria-fornix was transectioned. The operation was done on the second day after the 2nd screening. The behavior of rats in learning and memory was observed in Y-maze on the 5th day after operation (during 30 times of maze test, if success frequency ≥15, normal capacity of learning and memory was identified.).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Success frequency of rats in different groups in Y-maze learning before and after operation.RESULTS: Of 109 normal male adult SD rats, 75 rats were screened to be qualified after twice Y-maze test. During the experiment, 3 rats were died and other 32 rats fell into disuse for the drug or physiological saline was not injected accurately to the marginal division of striatum. Terminally, 40 rats entered the analysis in total, of which, 11 rats were in DMD group, 9 rats in MD control, 10 rats in FFT group and 10 rats in FF control. ① The success frequency in Y-maze learning of rats in DMD group after operation was lower than MD control, FFT group and FF control [(9.27±4.29) times, (22.56±4.25) times, (21.10±4.68) times, (22.00±4.89) times, (P=0.000)]. ② The success frequency in Y-maze learning of rats in DMD group after operation was also significantly lower than that before operation [(9.27±4.29) time, (18.27±3.07) times, (P=0.000) ]. ③ The success frequency in Y-maze learning of rats in FFT group was basically same as FF control and MD control (P=0.660 and P=0.489) and it was basically same to the success frequency in Y-maze learning before operation (P=0.700).CONCLUSION: The learning of Y-maze in rats with damaged marginal division of striatum was remarkably reduced and there was no obvious change in learning and memory between the rats with fimbria-fornix transaction and without transaction. It is verified that marginal division of striatum can reflex complex learning and memory behavior in electric Y-maze test, which cannot be achieved in hippocampus. It is further explained the difference of the two divisions in controlling learning and memory in cerebrum, the marginal division of striatum is able to control hippocampus in learning and memory function.

背景:脑海马结构是与学习记忆有关的脑区,一般认为与空间认知活动密切相关。纹状体边缘区是新近发现的脑内与学习记忆功能有关的一个亚区,其学习记忆功能是否和海马的学习记忆功能有区别?目的:比较纹状体边缘区与海马两个不同脑区在学习记忆功能上的区作用及地位,观察纹状体边缘区和海马在逃避性学习记忆方面的差别。设计:完全随机分组对照实验。单位∶解放军第一军医大学珠江医院神经科学研究所。材料∶实验于2002-03/2003-07在解放军第一军医大学珠江医院神经科学研究所完成。选择健康雄性成年SD大鼠109只,经两次Y型迷宫实验筛选后获得合格动物75只,随机分成损毁纹状体边缘区组25只、切断双侧穹窿海马伞组10只、纹状体边缘区对照组30只和双侧穹窿海马伞对照组10只。应用Y迷宫训练大鼠后24h,损毁纹状体边缘区组以10g/L海人藻酸0.1~0.2μL损毁大鼠双侧纹状体边缘区;纹状体边缘区对照组以双侧纹状体边缘区微量注射生理盐水;切断双侧穹窿海马伞组切断双侧穹窿海马伞;双侧穹窿海马伞对照组仅切断双侧穹窿海马伞浅层的皮质组织。手术在第2次筛选的次日进行。术后5d观察大鼠在Y迷宫中学习记忆的行为表现(30次迷宫测试中,正确次数≥15...

背景:脑海马结构是与学习记忆有关的脑区,一般认为与空间认知活动密切相关。纹状体边缘区是新近发现的脑内与学习记忆功能有关的一个亚区,其学习记忆功能是否和海马的学习记忆功能有区别?目的:比较纹状体边缘区与海马两个不同脑区在学习记忆功能上的区作用及地位,观察纹状体边缘区和海马在逃避性学习记忆方面的差别。设计:完全随机分组对照实验。单位∶解放军第一军医大学珠江医院神经科学研究所。材料∶实验于2002-03/2003-07在解放军第一军医大学珠江医院神经科学研究所完成。选择健康雄性成年SD大鼠109只,经两次Y型迷宫实验筛选后获得合格动物75只,随机分成损毁纹状体边缘区组25只、切断双侧穹窿海马伞组10只、纹状体边缘区对照组30只和双侧穹窿海马伞对照组10只。应用Y迷宫训练大鼠后24h,损毁纹状体边缘区组以10g/L海人藻酸0.1~0.2μL损毁大鼠双侧纹状体边缘区;纹状体边缘区对照组以双侧纹状体边缘区微量注射生理盐水;切断双侧穹窿海马伞组切断双侧穹窿海马伞;双侧穹窿海马伞对照组仅切断双侧穹窿海马伞浅层的皮质组织。手术在第2次筛选的次日进行。术后5d观察大鼠在Y迷宫中学习记忆的行为表现(30次迷宫测试中,正确次数≥15即为学习记忆能力正常)。主要观察指标∶不同组别大鼠手术前后Y迷宫学习的正确次数。结果:健康雄性成年SD大鼠109只,经两次Y型迷宫实验筛选后获得合格动物75只,实验过程中有3只死亡,还有32只因未能被准确注射药物或生理盐水到纹状体边缘区而被淘汰,最后共有40只大鼠进入分析,其中损毁纹状体边缘区组11只,纹状体边缘区对照组9只,切断双侧穹窿海马伞组10只,双侧穹窿海马伞组10只。①手术后损毁纹状体边缘区组的大鼠Y迷宫学习数据的正确次数低于纹状体边缘区对照组,切断双侧穹窿海马伞组,双侧穹窿海马伞对照组犤(9.27±4.29)次,(22.56±4.25)次,(21.10±4.68)次,(22.00±4.89)次,(P=0.000)犦。②损毁纹状体边缘区组手术后Y迷宫学习的正确次数也显著低于手术前犤(9.27±4.29)次,(18.27±3.07)次,(P=0.000)犦。③切断双侧穹窿海马伞组的大鼠Y迷宫学习成绩正确次数与双侧穹窿海马伞对照组及纹状体边缘区对照组基本一致(P=0.660和P=0.489),手术后Y迷宫学习的正确次数和手术前也基本一致(P=0.700)。结论∶损毁纹状体边缘区大鼠在Y迷宫中的学习成绩明显降低,而切断双侧穹窿海马伞大鼠学习记忆成绩与未切断穹窿海马伞大鼠比较无明显变化,证明纹状体边缘区能用反映较复杂条件反射的电Y迷宫检测学习记忆行为,而海马区则不能,进一步说明两者在调控大脑学习记忆功能上的区别,纹状体边缘区对海马的学习记忆功能有调控作用。

 
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