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Agriculture is a complex of the processes that take place within a threefold environmental framework, which consists of biophysical. socio-political and economic-technological dimensions.Sustainability of agriculture, therefore, can be generalized as a threefold definition. Ecological definition of sustainability focuses on the biophysical processes and the continued productivity and functioning of ecosystems. Longterm ecological sustainability requires the maintenance of the resource base quality, and eventually...

Agriculture is a complex of the processes that take place within a threefold environmental framework, which consists of biophysical. socio-political and economic-technological dimensions.Sustainability of agriculture, therefore, can be generalized as a threefold definition. Ecological definition of sustainability focuses on the biophysical processes and the continued productivity and functioning of ecosystems. Longterm ecological sustainability requires the maintenance of the resource base quality, and eventually its productivity, especially the sustained yield of the land. Social definition of sustainability addresses the continued satisfaction of basic humanneeds─food and shelter─as well as higher level social and cultual necessities. It commonly includes the notion of equity, including intra-generational equity and inter-generational equity. The former refers to the fair and equitable distribution of benefits from resource use and agricultural activity among and between countries, regions or social groups. The latter refers to the protection of the rights and opportunities of future generations to derive benefits from resources whichare in use today. The economic definition of sustainability is concerned primarily with the long term benefits to agricultural producers, including sustained yield and the economic performance and viability of farming.Sustainable agriculture may also be viewed as a series of interacting systems at various spatial scales. At field and farm levels, the focuses are on the technologies and management of ecological farming. At regional, national and global levels, key problems are the food supply and the equitable distribution of agricultural resources and products.Based upon the three dimensions′framework of sustainability in agriculture, this paper discusses the current situation of Chinese agriculture in relation to sustainability. The main challenges are population pressure, land degradation, environmenntal pollution, global climate change, non-agricultural activities, market uncertainty, low level of capital investment, and some policy and behavioral conditions. On the other hand, there are opportunities related to natural resources, labor, education, science and technology and some models of sustainable farming which already exist.Can Chinese agriculture be sustainable in the changing environment?The answer depends on how Chinese people will think and act. As Brundtland pointed out∶‘A new environmental ethics must enter our consciousness’. New patterns of living together with new structures of economy and society also need to be established. No single blueprint of sustainability will be found, as economic and social systems and ecological conditions differ widely among countries. Each nation will have to work out its own concrete policy implications’. How do we design Chinese sustainable agriculture?In many respects, China's long history with intensive but ecologically-adapted production systems provides a strong basis at the farm management level. The big question is at the macro-scale∶how will the production capacity─food needs equation work out?

农业是发生在生物-自然、社会-政治、经济-技术这三重环境内各种过程的综合体,因此农业的持续性也可归纳为生态、经济、社会三重定义。持续农业在不同的空间尺度上具有不同的意义,在地方和区域尺度上就是生态农业,在国家和全球尺度上,则更注意食物及其分配问题。据此,本文分析了中国持续农业面临的挑战与具有的潜力

Optimum taxation is the permanent theme in taxation system reform for every country. However, one of the basic standards of the optimum taxation or one of aims to realize the optimum taxation is the equal tax allocation. In tradition, the equity theory of tax focuses on realizing equity on the benefit and the result. However, from the view of scientific development, changes on its content and the focus must be required, namely not only paying attention to equity on chance, but also to inter-generational equity....

Optimum taxation is the permanent theme in taxation system reform for every country. However, one of the basic standards of the optimum taxation or one of aims to realize the optimum taxation is the equal tax allocation. In tradition, the equity theory of tax focuses on realizing equity on the benefit and the result. However, from the view of scientific development, changes on its content and the focus must be required, namely not only paying attention to equity on chance, but also to inter-generational equity. The inter-generational equity should be the important part of the equal value. Although we have made more perfect taxation system in the efficiency and revenue collection since 1994, the equity is still not satisfactory, especially equity on chance and inter-generation. GINI index is growing continuously. The income gap between towns and countries and between residents is increasing. Tax bearing gap among industries、regions and enterprises is contrast. Resource is unduly destroyed and the ecological environment is deteriorated. All these phenomena tell us our taxation system has many problems on realizing the equality and holding the scientific view of development. Not only form the theory research and the system design, but also form the taxation structure and the some tax’s the some factor, the current taxation system doesn’t hold the equity well, especially ignoring the value of the equity on chance and the inter-generational equity. Therefore in the new taxation system reform, we must mainly resolve how to conform to the requirements of the view of scientific development and how to realize the new goal of equity during the tax distribution under less distortion of economics.

传统的公平理论注重税收的受益公平和结果公平,科学的发展观要求税收的公平原则发生重心上的转移和内涵上的改变,即在注重税收的机会公平的同时,税收的公平原则必须引入代际公平理论。我国现行的税收制度,虽然在效率、筹集财政资金方面向税制优化迈出了一大步,但在公平目标尤其是机会公平与代际公平目标实现方面的表现却难遂人愿。为此,如何符合科学发展观的要求,在减少对经济扭曲的前提下,实现税收分配的新的公平目标,是新一轮税制改革应着力解决的问题。

 
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