The gas flows in three-dimensional straight micro channels are numerically simulated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Different cross section formations and different driving pressures are taken into considerations. The simulated results indicate the three-dimensional effect of the cross section formations on the micro channel gas flows.

The gas flows in three-dimensional straight micro channels are numerically simulated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Different cross section formations and different driving pressures are taken into considerations. The simulated results indicate the three-dimensional effect of the cross section formations on the micro channel gas flows.

The gas flows in three-dimensional straight micro channels are numerically simulated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Different cross section formations and different driving pressures are taken into considerations. The simulated results indicate the three-dimensional effect of the cross section formations on the micro channel gas flows.

It is found that there are two types of vorticity sources, the global one depends only on the acceleration property of the surface geometry, while the local one exists in both accelerated and uniform motion, consisting of tangential sources from pressure gradient and a three-dimensional effect of the surface curvature, and a normal source due to the divergence of the two-dimensional vorticity on the surface.

The size of the three-dimensional effect zone is about the half of the thickness, and the length of crack (a/W) affects the SIF distribution through the thickness and the size of the three-dimensional effect zone lightly.

In the present simple manifold, the principal three-dimensional effect is a transfer of flow to the inviscid core region from the high-velocity jets adjacent to the sides which are parallel to the magnetic field.

Three-dimensional effect on transonic rectangular cavity flows

The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a three-dimensional effect.

Because it accounts for the three-dimensional effect, this model is named as the complete depthaveraged model.

The interaction between moving bodies and fluids, a classical problem of fluid dynamics, is reexamined from the viewpoint of vorticity dynamics. In this way, we may gain some new insight into the mechanism of the interaction and can be led to a series of results which are of practical value. The present paper studies the action of a moving surface to vorticity field and gives a general incompressible theory of the generation of vorticity at the surface and its dissipation in the fluid. It is found that there...

The interaction between moving bodies and fluids, a classical problem of fluid dynamics, is reexamined from the viewpoint of vorticity dynamics. In this way, we may gain some new insight into the mechanism of the interaction and can be led to a series of results which are of practical value. The present paper studies the action of a moving surface to vorticity field and gives a general incompressible theory of the generation of vorticity at the surface and its dissipation in the fluid. It is found that there are two types of vorticity sources, the global one depends only on the acceleration property of the surface geometry, while the local one exists in both accelerated and uniform motion, consisting of tangential sources from pressure gradient and a three-dimensional effect of the surface curvature, and a normal source due to the divergence of the two-dimensional vorticity on the surface.

An infinite plate containing a finite through crack under tensile loading is analysed by Fourier transform based on Kane-Mindlin kinematic assumptions for the uasi-three-dimensional deformation of plates in extension. The asymptotic expressions of stress and displacement fields near the crack tip, the variation of stress intensity factor with the plate-thickness and the three-dimensiodal deformation zone near the crack tip are investigated. The results of analysis show that, (a) the crack-tip stress and...

An infinite plate containing a finite through crack under tensile loading is analysed by Fourier transform based on Kane-Mindlin kinematic assumptions for the uasi-three-dimensional deformation of plates in extension. The asymptotic expressions of stress and displacement fields near the crack tip, the variation of stress intensity factor with the plate-thickness and the three-dimensiodal deformation zone near the crack tip are investigated. The results of analysis show that, (a) the crack-tip stress and displacement fields accounting for the plate-thickness effects are different from the plane stress solutions and this is true even for extremely small parameter ε(=?). In a very small egion near the crack tip, plane strain solutions prevail; (b) the ratio of the stress intenity factor K_1 to the corresponding plane stress one K_1, K_1/K_1~0, approaches 1/(1-ν~2) as s tends to zero; (c) plane stress soiutions can give satisfactory results for points a distance from the crack tip greater than about three-fourths of the plate-thickness; (d) the linear elastic result for the zone of three-dimensional effects is approximately valid for an elasto-plastic material with linear strain-hardening when plastic tangential moudulas E_t is not very small.

The three-dimensional waving plate theory is developed to analyze the swimming properties of rectangular and triangular waving plates with variable wave amplitude. It is confirmed that the undulatory motion can reduce three dimensional effects. This important hydrodynamic phenomenon is the main reason that the undulation is widely used as the swimming means by a large number of aquatic animals. The transition of the anguilliform mode of propulsion to the carangiform mode is discussed. It is also...

The three-dimensional waving plate theory is developed to analyze the swimming properties of rectangular and triangular waving plates with variable wave amplitude. It is confirmed that the undulatory motion can reduce three dimensional effects. This important hydrodynamic phenomenon is the main reason that the undulation is widely used as the swimming means by a large number of aquatic animals. The transition of the anguilliform mode of propulsion to the carangiform mode is discussed. It is also confirmed that the pronounced necking of body shape anterior to the tail, which benefits the propulsive performance, is a major morphological adaptation of fishes using the carangiform mode. In addition, the corresponding form of body movement is that the amplitude of undulation increases posteriorly and no complete wavelength is apparent at any time.