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  three-dimensional effect
In the present simple manifold, the principal three-dimensional effect is a transfer of flow to the inviscid core region from the high-velocity jets adjacent to the sides which are parallel to the magnetic field.
      
Three-dimensional effect on transonic rectangular cavity flows
      
The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a three-dimensional effect.
      
Because it accounts for the three-dimensional effect, this model is named as the complete depthaveraged model.
      


Flow through a turbo machinery blade passage is very complex. The flow can be dominated by three dimensional effects. An improved approach to these flow problems is the solution of the three dimensional Euler equation. Based on the Euler equation, a method named SIMPLEC was used in order to calculate the velocity and pressure. A new method of the wall fastening condition is proposed and it makes the calculation more easier.

水力机械内部流动非常复杂,是强三维流动,只有用三维数值方法计算才能获得比较满意的结果。本文对水轮机转轮内高度复杂的流动进行了三维无粘数值计算。计算建立在三维Euler方程基础上,速度场和压力场的求解方法为速度、压力修正算法即SIMPLEC算法,并且对固壁条件的给出提出了一种新的方法。最后对一真实的模型转轮进行了计算

In the light of the difficulty of the continuous construction of RCCDs in high temperature season, the authors have raised a concept that the water cooling pipe measure could be used to reduce the dams' internal temperature. One only need to embed the pipes in the local areas of the dam bodies, which are constructed during high temperature seasons. A new and mathematically strict numerical procedure has been creatively suggested to analyze the three dimensional effect of the measure on the dam temperature...

In the light of the difficulty of the continuous construction of RCCDs in high temperature season, the authors have raised a concept that the water cooling pipe measure could be used to reduce the dams' internal temperature. One only need to embed the pipes in the local areas of the dam bodies, which are constructed during high temperature seasons. A new and mathematically strict numerical procedure has been creatively suggested to analyze the three dimensional effect of the measure on the dam temperature distribution. Due to the water in the pipes are moving the problem of numerical solution of the usteady temperature field is rather difficult. The convergence solution to the thermal control problem has to the gotten by finite element method with iterative computations. The numerical simulation of the whole continuous construction process of a RCCD has been implemented. The results from the simulation make clear that the concept and the procedure are of great useful in practice, and the concept is a good and high effective thermal control measure directly to improve and control the internal temperatures of dam bodies. It is of specially effective and sensitive to cut off the internal summit temperature in dam bodies. Therefore, it is of high valuable to extent the concept to ensure the safe uninterrupted construction of RCCDs in high temperature season.

针对碾压混凝土坝 (RCCD)高温期难以连续施工的问题 ,笔者提出在大坝的高温期连续施工区局部采用冷却水管 ,并对冷却水管三维导热降温的作用提出一种有限单元法计算技术。由于水管中的冷却水是流动的 ,需通过迭代求解才能得到问题的收敛解。通过对某一大坝混凝土施工全过程的动态仿真计算 ,分析了冷却水管温控措施对RCCD高温期连续施工时温度场的控制性影响作用。结果表明 ,本文的方法具有一定的工程应用前景 ;在局部区铺设冷却水管可改善和控制RCCD内部的温度分布 ,是一种有效的温控手段 ,尤其对大坝的削峰降温敏感有效 ,可作为确保RCCD高温期也能连续施工的一种值得推广的温控措施

It′s usually difficult to determine the actual safety factors of rock masses in ordinary 2D stability analysis if the safety factors of different cross sections in the rock mass vary significantly.Besides actual slope,arch dam abutment,and actual foundation of a high building,another example is that the different cross sections of the foundation in a monolith of a gravity dam vary significantly,just like the condition at the overflow dam in Baise Project.3D stability analysis method based on the upper-bound...

It′s usually difficult to determine the actual safety factors of rock masses in ordinary 2D stability analysis if the safety factors of different cross sections in the rock mass vary significantly.Besides actual slope,arch dam abutment,and actual foundation of a high building,another example is that the different cross sections of the foundation in a monolith of a gravity dam vary significantly,just like the condition at the overflow dam in Baise Project.3D stability analysis method based on the upper-bound theorem is employed to solve this problem.The parameters used in the analysis are obtained from the geomechanical tests as well as continuity simulations of the random distributed joints.Two failure patterns against sliding are analyzed.One pattern is that the foundation slides along deep seated planes which are determined by calculations.Another pattern is that the foundation slides along the planes across the bottom of the high steps in the foundation pit.The results indicate that a special overflow dam monolith can be considered to be safe in case considering three-dimensional effect.However,a key wall with a depth of 5 m must be constructed at the upper side of this monolith in order to ensure the safety of the foundation.

百色水利枢纽位于广西百色市郁江上游的右江河段,其溢流坝段深层抗滑稳定问题受到高度关注。由于溢流坝段不同断面的二维安全系数相差较大,很难确定整个坝段的抗滑稳定安全系数,采用基于上限定理的三维极限分析方法来分析这一问题。计算中采用的岩体参数通过地质力学试验以及节理随机网络模拟确定,分析了两种最可能的滑动模式。结果表明,在考虑三维效应之后,溢流坝段可以认为是安全的。然而,为进一步确保坝基的安全,需要在溢流坝段坝踵位置建造一个5m深的齿槽。

 
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