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three-dimensional effect
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  three-dimensional effect
In the present simple manifold, the principal three-dimensional effect is a transfer of flow to the inviscid core region from the high-velocity jets adjacent to the sides which are parallel to the magnetic field.
      
Three-dimensional effect on transonic rectangular cavity flows
      
The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a three-dimensional effect.
      
Because it accounts for the three-dimensional effect, this model is named as the complete depthaveraged model.
      


A complex method is used in optimization of angular momentum distribution for radial inward flow turbines. Firstly, select a number of points {X j}={(λ 1 λ 2 … λ n) T j} which satisfy all restriction conditions and are taken as the apexes of an initial complex. Then, at every kind of angular momentum distribution ( λ 1 λ 2 … λ n) T j do computation of the main flow field for the S 2 flow surface and for the S 1 flow surface of the turbine impeller, do computation of momentum...

A complex method is used in optimization of angular momentum distribution for radial inward flow turbines. Firstly, select a number of points {X j}={(λ 1 λ 2 … λ n) T j} which satisfy all restriction conditions and are taken as the apexes of an initial complex. Then, at every kind of angular momentum distribution ( λ 1 λ 2 … λ n) T j do computation of the main flow field for the S 2 flow surface and for the S 1 flow surface of the turbine impeller, do computation of momentum thickness of the blade’s two dimensional turbulent boundary layer, and do correction of the three dimensional effect on the thickness. By that, estimate the impeller efficiency η . Finally, it can make object function f (X)=1-η have a minimum value. This method can also suit centrifugal impellers. In this paper, an application example is given for a radial inward flow turbine. This optimization of angular momentum distribution can make the turbine have isentropic efficiency 86% and have better off design characteristics.

以 n条子午流线 ,给出满足约束条件的各自角动量分布的若干不同组合构成初始复合形 ,做复合形每一顶点处该向心透平叶轮 S2 流面与跨叶片面势流场分析 ,并以二元紊流边界层动量厚度计算经三元修正 ,分析叶轮效率 ,最终使复合形法成功应用于向心透平叶片角动量分布的优化。该方法也适用于离心叶轮中叶片加载量的优化。

The thermal and flow conditions between two separating stages of a rocket are investigated numerically using finite volume method.The AUSM+ scheme is employed to solve the unsteady axisymmetric three-dimensional Faver-averaged Navier-Stokes equations.The results demonstrated that the effects of the vent deployment on the thermal and flow field are mainly appeared in the chamber surrounded by the rocket shell and the vents.Because the high velocity of the jet in the nozzle,the three dimensional effects...

The thermal and flow conditions between two separating stages of a rocket are investigated numerically using finite volume method.The AUSM+ scheme is employed to solve the unsteady axisymmetric three-dimensional Faver-averaged Navier-Stokes equations.The results demonstrated that the effects of the vent deployment on the thermal and flow field are mainly appeared in the chamber surrounded by the rocket shell and the vents.Because the high velocity of the jet in the nozzle,the three dimensional effects caused by the vents have little influence on the flows in the nozzles.This can provide basis for the design of the stage separation part for a rocket and the thermal protection of the engine.

针对多级火箭级间热分离这一复杂环境条件下的级间段流场进行了数值研究。计算采用AUSM+有限体积格式,针对相应的流场假设,分别求解了非定常轴对称和非定常三维Faver平均的Navier-Stokes方程。两种计算结果的比较表明,由级间排气口的分布而引起的三维效应主要集中在喷管与火箭外壳所围成的空腔内部,而喷管内部由于流速很高,排气口带来的三维效应对管内上游流动影响很小。计算结果可为级间分离段和发动机热防护的设计提供参考。

>=The nature convection heat transfer in a cavity heated below is a classical theory model with wide engineering background. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional model are used to do numerical simulation about nature convection heat transfer in a cavity heated below. According to the comparing with calculation results, the three-dimensional effect on flow and heat transfer of this problem is analyzed. The SIMPLE algorithm with QUICK scheme is used as numerical method The numerical result suggests that...

>=The nature convection heat transfer in a cavity heated below is a classical theory model with wide engineering background. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional model are used to do numerical simulation about nature convection heat transfer in a cavity heated below. According to the comparing with calculation results, the three-dimensional effect on flow and heat transfer of this problem is analyzed. The SIMPLE algorithm with QUICK scheme is used as numerical method The numerical result suggests that when the transverse aspect ratio increases, the longitudinal rolls become align to the shorter X side. The Nu calculated by three-dimensional model are all smaller than the two-dimensional model’s, and the Nu calculated by empirical equation in a reference is intervenient. When Ra=5×103 or Ra=104, the Nu calculated by three-dimensional model is smaller than the empirical equation’s by 10%, and the two-dimensional result is larger than it by 17% and 10%. When the transverse aspect ratio increases, the gap decreases, when Ra=10000,the influence of transverse aspect ratio upon Nu become weaker.

底部加热的方腔内自然对流换热是一个具有广泛工程背景的经典理论模型。该文分别采用二维和三维模型对底部加热的方腔内自然对流换热进行了数值计算,并根据计算结果的比较,探讨了该问题流动和换热的三维效应。所采用的数值方法为具有QUICK差分格式的SIMPLE算法。数值结果表明,随着宽高比增大,对流涡卷的轴向发生改变,从平行于Y轴转变到平行于X轴,即平行于短轴。采用三维模型计算所得到的平均Nu均小于二维模型所获得的结果,而参考文献中给出的经验公式的计算结果介于两者之间。当Ra=5×103和Ra=104时,三维模型平均Nu的计算结果比经验公式的结果大约小10%,二维模型的结果比经验公式的结果分别大17%和10%左右。随着宽高比的加大,三维数值计算得到的平均Nu相应增加,但当Ra=104时,宽高比对其影响变得很小。

 
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