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protection
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     Protection and Sustainable
     云南石斛的保护和可持续利用
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     Environmental Protection
     注重环境保护
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     (d)Personal protection;
     (4)做好个人防护;
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  protection
Demands for medicines to treat existing, reemerging and new diseases will escalate and intellectual property rights and patent protection will be increasingly challenged.
      
The amylose 1 was selectively converted into 2 without protection of the other hydroxyl groups by allylation at the all O-6 positions in excess base.
      
In the ultrasonic field, stable silver colloids were produced by the reduction of AgNO3 with the protection of PVP using KBH4 or N2H4·H2O as reductant.
      
In the synthesis of Compound A, the reactive processes used by us included the protection of amino group of lysine, acetylation, and intramolecular cyclizative condensation reaction.
      
Benzoxycarbonyl chloride was selected as amino group protection agent, and the yield was elevated by replacing sodium bicarbonate with triethyl amide as the acid's neutralizer.
      
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Acute toxicity experiment consisted of one single intraperitoneal injection, while subacute toxicity experiment consisted of one injection daily for 14 days, of tartar emetic and a subsequent 3-day holding period. The mortality of mice from tartar emetic was observed after concomitant injections of 5 testing drugs (procaine-HCl, sodium phenyl acetate, sodium α α'-dimercaptoadipate, sodium mercaptosuccinate and sodium thiosulfate). The effective detoxicants were mixed up with tartar emetic and then injected intraperitoneally,...

Acute toxicity experiment consisted of one single intraperitoneal injection, while subacute toxicity experiment consisted of one injection daily for 14 days, of tartar emetic and a subsequent 3-day holding period. The mortality of mice from tartar emetic was observed after concomitant injections of 5 testing drugs (procaine-HCl, sodium phenyl acetate, sodium α α'-dimercaptoadipate, sodium mercaptosuccinate and sodium thiosulfate). The effective detoxicants were mixed up with tartar emetic and then injected intraperitoneally, once daily for 14 days, to infected mice. The mice were killed after a holding period of another 14 days. Basing on the average number of worms remained in each mouse, the effects of detoxicants on the antibilharzial activity of tartar emetic were compared. The results were as follows: (1) In mice the acute and subacute LD_(50) after intraperitoneal injection of tartar emetic were found to be 38 and 35 mg/kg/day respectively. (2) The mortality of mice from tartar emetic could be markedly reduced by simultaneous injection of procaine, sodium phenyl acetate, sodium α α'-dimercaptoadipate and sodium mercaptosuccinate, while sodium thiosulfate did not afford any protection. (3) Procaine, sodium phenyl acetate, sodium α α'-dimercaptoadipate and sodium mercaptosuccinate did not decrease the therapeutic. activity of tartar emetic, and, moreover, procaine could significantly augment its therapeutic activity against schistosomiasis japonica.

本文叙述了5种药物(盐酸普鲁卡因、苯乙酸钠、aa′-二巯基己二酸钠、巯基丁二酸钠及硫代硫酸钠)对小白鼠腹腔注射吐酒石急性(注射1次,观察3天)及亚急性(注射14天,观察3天)中毒死亡的影响;并将其中有效解毒药分别和吐酒石混合後腹腔注射小鼠14天以治疗日本血吸虫病,然後停药14天解剖,根据平均每鼠余存虫数比较各药对於吐酒石疗效的影响。结果如下: (一)小白鼠腹腔注射吐酒石急性及亚急性LD_(50)分别为38及35毫克/千克/天。 (二)普鲁卡因、苯乙酸钠、aa′-二巯基己二酸钠及巯基丁二酸钠能使小鼠腹腔注射吐酒石急性及亚急性中毒死亡率明显地减低,而硫代硫酸钠则无效。 (三)普鲁卡因、苯乙酸钠、aa′-二巯基己二酸钠及巯基丁二酸钠4种解毒药并不减低吐酒石之疗效,其中普鲁卡因尚能提高吐酒石治疗日本血吸虫病之疗效。

1. In this study which has been carried on since 1949,attempts were made toanalyse factors involved in the outbreaks of stripe rust of wheat in North Chinawith a view of giving some clues for forcasting.Five periods of the developmentof an epidemic of the stripe rust in this region are recognized:(1) the infectionand divelopment period of the rust on wheat seedlings in the autumn,(2) the over-wintering period,(3) the over-springing period,(4) the development period in thelate spring,and (5) the over-summering...

1. In this study which has been carried on since 1949,attempts were made toanalyse factors involved in the outbreaks of stripe rust of wheat in North Chinawith a view of giving some clues for forcasting.Five periods of the developmentof an epidemic of the stripe rust in this region are recognized:(1) the infectionand divelopment period of the rust on wheat seedlings in the autumn,(2) the over-wintering period,(3) the over-springing period,(4) the development period in thelate spring,and (5) the over-summering period.For each of the above stated peri-ods,the degrees of the stipe rust development are described and the main factorseffecting the development are analysed. 2. In the autumn,if field conditions were favorable for infection,the earlier ??the date of sowing,generally the heavier the wheat crops would be rusted.Therewere little or no stripe rust developed when the date of sowing wes later than thelast part of September although the condition might be varied appreciably withdifferent localities.Besides temperature,the period of high concentration of air-bornespores was the most important factor determining the disease severity in the earlysown wheat fields. 3. The stripe rust organism was capable of over-wintering in the form of dormant mycelium within infected leaves under the weather conditions of North Chinaplain.Heavy infection of wheat seedlings was the prerequisite of over-wintering,which was also influenced by micro-environmental conditions such as air temperat-ure,soil moisture and protection from wind.Air temperature was probably the mostessential factor. 4. The dry weather and the low moisture contents in the soil in the earlyspring were unfavorable to the development of the rust.Under these conditions,the over-wintering rust might be completely killed off or much lessened,while hig-her soil humidity usually favored the overspringing of the rust organism.Furtherdevelopment of the disease appeared to depend on the amount and frequency ofprecipitation.However,in flooded areas where the soil moisture was excessivelyhigh,epidemics might occur under dry weather. 5. The over-wintering inoculum was most important for local epidemics in spring,although long distance air-borne spore might also have some influence on the rustdevelopment in the later part of the wheat growing season. 6. Uredospores of stripe rust were not capable of over-summering on volunteerwheats in North China plain.Stripe rust collections from Elymus chinense andAgropyron spp.were capable to infect certain wheat varietes when inoculated arti-ficially,but under natural conditions these grasses appeared to play little part inthe aestivation of this rust in the vast wheat growing areas of North China.Theresults of spore-trapping indicated that Chang-Chia-Kow region and certain partsof inner Mongolia where spring wheats mature as late as the end of August weremost probably the reservoir of over-summering fungus which serve as the mainsource of autumnal infection. 7. Since there are great diversity of types of farming in North China,i.e.,(1)the dry land,(2) the well and river-irrigated land,(3) the low land and river-irrigated land of the mid-part of Shansi Province,and (4) the autumn floodedland,and as the environmental factors effecting the first four stages of stripe rustdevelopment were varied,consequently,the rust development in each type of landwas obviously different from others.The disease struck most severely in the wellor river-irrigated and the autumn-flooded lands. 8. Based on the foregoing results,the writers suggest that by means of timelyobservations and inspections on the stripe rust development during autumn and onthe amounts of the Survival after over-wintering and over-springing along with theweather forecasting data,it is possible to make fairly accurate forecast of the striperust epidemics in North China.

1.华北区小麦条銹病主要的流行区域是井水地、渠澆地及水涝地。2.在秋季田間环境对侵染有利的情况下,小麦播种愈早的發病愈重。播种期晚于一定期限(各地不同,一般是9月下旬)發病就很輕或根本不發病。除温度外,空中孢子在秋季集中时期是决定早播病重的最重要原因。3.条銹菌可在华北北部平原的一般气候条件下以菌絲越冬。越冬的条件有二:首先是麦苗發病严重;其次是小气象适合。后者包括温度、土壤湿度与遮蔽物的有無等,其中起主导作用的是温度。4.春季的土壤湿度愈高,对条锈菌的“越春”愈有利。锈菌越春以后的流行一般是决定于雨水的多寡。但土壤湿度过大时(水涝地),也可以不依賴雨水多寡而在小区域內流行。5.春季菌源是多元的,但本地越冬菌起决定性作用,外地吹来的孢子只在后期起輔助作用。地面發病的严重程度和时期与空中孢子發現日期及濃度成正相关。6.条锈菌不能在华北平原的自生麦上和用抱子形态越夏,禾本科杂草中碱草及綠鬚鵝冠草锈菌用人工接种,虽可以發生枯斑反应或长出少数条锈病斑,但在分类上与小麦条銹菌不同,在大面积上不起越夏桥梁作用。根据秋季空中孢子捕捉和地面調查結??果,北方張家口专区壩土及內蒙古平地泉行政区等晚熟春麦区作为小麦条銹菌越夏菌源...

1.华北区小麦条銹病主要的流行区域是井水地、渠澆地及水涝地。2.在秋季田間环境对侵染有利的情况下,小麦播种愈早的發病愈重。播种期晚于一定期限(各地不同,一般是9月下旬)發病就很輕或根本不發病。除温度外,空中孢子在秋季集中时期是决定早播病重的最重要原因。3.条銹菌可在华北北部平原的一般气候条件下以菌絲越冬。越冬的条件有二:首先是麦苗發病严重;其次是小气象适合。后者包括温度、土壤湿度与遮蔽物的有無等,其中起主导作用的是温度。4.春季的土壤湿度愈高,对条锈菌的“越春”愈有利。锈菌越春以后的流行一般是决定于雨水的多寡。但土壤湿度过大时(水涝地),也可以不依賴雨水多寡而在小区域內流行。5.春季菌源是多元的,但本地越冬菌起决定性作用,外地吹来的孢子只在后期起輔助作用。地面發病的严重程度和时期与空中孢子發現日期及濃度成正相关。6.条锈菌不能在华北平原的自生麦上和用抱子形态越夏,禾本科杂草中碱草及綠鬚鵝冠草锈菌用人工接种,虽可以發生枯斑反应或长出少数条锈病斑,但在分类上与小麦条銹菌不同,在大面积上不起越夏桥梁作用。根据秋季空中孢子捕捉和地面調查結??果,北方張家口专区壩土及內蒙古平地泉行政区等晚熟春麦区作为小麦条銹菌越夏菌源基地的可能性最大。7.預測預报应該着重地面的發病檢查,根据冬前秋苗上發生情况和越冬率及越春率等3次發病檢查再参考气象預报,可以真作为短期或較长期的預测預报。

(1) In white mice, intraperitoneal injections of mixture of procaine (70 mg/ kg/day) and tartar emetic for 14 days reduced the toxicity of tartar emetic, raising the LD_(50) of the latter from 35 to 45 mg/kg/day. (2) This detoxication effect is primarily due to procaine per se, not due to its hydrolytic products (PABA and DEAE). (3) In guinea pigs, procaine showed no protection against the acute mortality from tartar emetic. (4) In rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum, intravenous injections of...

(1) In white mice, intraperitoneal injections of mixture of procaine (70 mg/ kg/day) and tartar emetic for 14 days reduced the toxicity of tartar emetic, raising the LD_(50) of the latter from 35 to 45 mg/kg/day. (2) This detoxication effect is primarily due to procaine per se, not due to its hydrolytic products (PABA and DEAE). (3) In guinea pigs, procaine showed no protection against the acute mortality from tartar emetic. (4) In rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum, intravenous injections of mixture of procaine (10 mg/kg/day) and tartar emetic for 14 days could increase the therapeutic activities of tartar emetic. Injections of mere procaine showed no antibilharzial effcct.

(一) 普魯卡因(70毫克/千克/天)和吐酒石混合腹腔注射小白鼠14天,能減低吐酒石之毒性,使吐酒石LD_(50)從35升至今5毫克/千克/天。 (二) 這個解毒效能主要是由於普魯卡因本身,不是由於其水解產物(對氨基苯甲酸及二乙胺代乙醇)。 (三)在豚鼠身上,普魯卡因對急性吐酒石中毒死亡無保護作用。 (四)對感染日本血吸蟲病免,普魯卡因(10毫克/千克/天)和吐酒石混合靜脈注射14天,能增加吐酒石之療效,而單獨注射普魯卡因並無療效。

 
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