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primary forest     
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  原生林
     A few acorns of Q. serrata remained in both primary forest and secondary forest (0.20±0.70/m 2 and 0.10±0.31/m 2, respectively), and also a few germinated (0.50±1.82/m 2 and 0.20±0.89/m 2, respectively);
     树在原生林和次生林中都存留有少量完好的种子 (分别为 0 .2 0± 0 .70个 /m2 和 0 .10± 0 .31个 /m2 )和少量萌发种子 (分别为 0 .5 0± 1.82个 /m2 和 0 .2 0± 0 .89个 /m2 ) ;
短句来源
     Species diversity index in primary forest (1. 43 ) is slightly lower thanthat in secondary forests (1. 85 and 1. 46), shrubland (1. 64 ) or abandoned farmland (1. 66 ), whichresults from habitat degradation.
     但原生林的物种多样性指数(1.4305)略低于次生林(1.8475和 1、4610)、灌丛(1.6398)和弃耕地(1.6566)。
短句来源
     The investigation of soil seed bank of two Fagaceae species showed that no Q. variabilis acorns remained in primary forest, while a few acorns (0.15±0.37 /m 2) remained only in the litter of secondary forest.
     ③土壤种子库中 ,栓皮栎在原生林中没有存留完好的种子 ,而在次生林的落叶层中存留有少量完好的种子 (0 .15± 0 .37个 /m2 ) ;
短句来源
     The N mineralization rate in disturbed forest soil which had recovered for several years was similar to that in primary forest soil,but decreased significantly when the forests were converted to agricultural land.
     对西双版纳6种常见土地利用方式的土壤氮储量和氮循环速率的研究表明,受过严重干扰的季节雨林在恢复多年后土壤中养分的转化速率与原生林接近,而林地被转化为农业或经济林用地后氮储量和氮矿化速率均显著降低.
短句来源
     Small mammals of forest type are mainly distributed in shrubland,secondary forests and primary forest, which are clustered into one group.
     灌丛、原生林和次生林中主要分布有森林型小型哺乳动物,聚为一类,为森林群落型;
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  原始林
     The prediction of current primary forest showed that it was steady during the next 300 year period, the number of trees and the biomass of Korean pine changed very little.
     对现实原始林预测显示,森林未来300年变化稳定,红松株数和生物量变化很小。
短句来源
     In Labagoumen forest region, the virgin forest has disappeared, but the forests of \%Quercus mongolica\% and \%Juglans mandshurica\% in parts of the region have been well preserved which have the characteristics of primary forest.
     在喇叭沟门自然保护区 ,已经不存在原始林 ,但在局部地段仍然较好地保存着具有原生性森林景观特征的蒙古栎林和胡桃楸林 .
短句来源
     Most studies suggest that selective logging increases the diversity and abundance of generalists or common species with wide distributions but reduces the diversity and abundance of specialists or rare species with limited distributions which require primary forest.
     大多数研究认为 ,在采伐迹地中 ,分布范围广或广适应种的物种多样性或丰富度将增加 ,而适应于原始林的专化种或狭生种的物种多样性或丰富度将下降。
短句来源
     There are four bird communities distinguished according to the habitat. The analysis about the bird diversity of the different habitats suggests that 1)the highest similarity of the bird community is the replanted forest and the shrub meadow, and the lowest is the shrub meadow and the primary forest;
     对不同生境鸟类多样性的分析结果表明:1)人工林和灌丛草地生境间的鸟类群落相似性指数最高,灌丛草地和原始林之间鸟类群落相似性最低;
短句来源
     3)the primary forest has the most species of birds protected nationally, and the national endemic species is fewer than the secondary forest;
     3)原始林内国家级保护鸟类最多,特有种仅次于次生林;
短句来源
  原始森林
     Primary Forest Vegetation in Hungou, Zhongtiaoshan, Shanxi Province——Research about Geographical Natural Resource Heritage
     山西中条山混沟原始森林植被——地质自然资源遗产初探
短句来源
     The decayed fungi was investigated in primary forest of Fenglin Natural Preserve, and log yard of Tangyuan;
     在黑龙江省丰林国家级自然保护区原始森林。 汤原牙签厂贮木场等地对寄生在桦木上的主要腐朽菌进行了调查研究;
短句来源
     This district was very rich in biological resources. There was surviving primary forest in some areas,it was of great importance to research and economy and sightsee as well.
     生物资源极其丰富,局部保存有原始森林,具有重要的科研、经济价值;
短句来源
  原生森林
     Polar Ordination and Classification of the Primary Forest Vegetation at Huoditang Forest Region
     火地塘林区原生森林植被极点排序及分类
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      primary forest
    A large number of studies show that the "nutrition habitats" associated with primary forest soils are typically dominated by NH4+ rather than NO3-, generally with NO3- content much lower than NH4+.
          
    One site was located in a primary forest, one in a peri-urban area, and one in a region with intensive agriculture.
          
    The carbon stocks of aboveground, soil organic and fine root within primary forest, reforestation and agricultural land were estimated through field data collection.
          
    Soil samples were taken in the primary forest under Oenocarpus bacaba and Eschweilera spp., in secondary regrowth with Vismia spp., under two non-timber tree species (Bixa orellana L.
          
    Litter decomposition in primary forest and adjacent fire-disturbed forests in the Gran Sabana, southern Venezuela
          
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    By the survey,17 forest stands were divided in Langxiang forest region. The importance values of main species in primary forest stand and the elevation follow the regular patterns.The importance value of korean pine is maximized between elevation 300--500, while the elevation exceeds 500m, it is sharply decreased. The same to the natural regenerated pine species in the mountainous poplar-birth forest where its importance values reach maximum between 300--500m above sea level.The formula used to calculate...

    By the survey,17 forest stands were divided in Langxiang forest region. The importance values of main species in primary forest stand and the elevation follow the regular patterns.The importance value of korean pine is maximized between elevation 300--500, while the elevation exceeds 500m, it is sharply decreased. The same to the natural regenerated pine species in the mountainous poplar-birth forest where its importance values reach maximum between 300--500m above sea level.The formula used to calculate the importance values in this paper is as follows:Importance values=Relative Density (Tree D_(1.3≥5cm)+Relative Frequency (Trees D_(1.3)≥5cm)+Relative Dominance (Trees D_(1.3)≥5cm)The way of recovering the mixed broad leaf-pine forest can be accomplished by the means of graduate space cutting of poplar-birth forest and regenerating korean pine within one season.The specific stand characteristics and the site conditions are listed in table-2.In the elevation between 300--600m,several space cuttings are required in the poplar-birth forest with the cutting intensity 10% to 20% at intervals of ten years. After the initial cutting 1000 seadlings per hacter are planted and the 90% survival rate is required. The predicted final stratum of stand is composed of 1/3 of korean pine, Fir and spruce, hard broadleaf species respectively.When the regeneration finished in 30 years, the stand quality and the recovery speed will be much better than generated by the natural succession regions.

    通过调查把朗乡林区的森林划分成17个林型。朗乡林区原生主要林型中主要树种的重要值随海拔高度明显的变化规律。红松的重要值在海拔300—500m间最大,海拔高超过500m红松重要值急剧下降。山地杨桦林中天然更新的红松重要值也以300—500m间最大。 文中采用的重要值求算公式为: 重要值=相对密度[D_(1.3)≥5cm的林木)(%)+相对频度[D_(1.3)<5cm的有效更新频度](%)+相对优势度[D_(1.3)≥5cm的林木](%) 把杨桦林恢复成阔叶红松林的途径,可采取逐步间伐杨桦林并一次更新红松的办法加以完成。 此途径适用山地杨桦林,具体林分特徒及立地条件参阅正文表2、用于海拔300—600m对杨桦林进行株数、强度10—20%的多次间伐,间隔期10年,初次间伐后植入红松1000株/ha,成活率要求90%以上,最终予期红松、云冷杉、硬阔的重要值各占1/3左右,近似于原始阔叶红松林的重要值组成。 上述(?)径从实施到完成约30年、林分质量和恢复速度优于同期间的自然演替林分。

    Dendrolimus punctatus Walker is the primary forest pest in Zhejiang province. In the past, monoparasitism and multiparasitism were genarally known about egg parasite. Investigation on 55539 eggs of D. punctatus discovered associated parasitism of egg parasite. Parasitic rate was 0.05% in biological control site, 0.01% in the control.

    马尾松毛虫(Dendirlimus punctatus Walker)是我省的主要成灾性森林害虫。过去对卵蜂的寄生行为仅见单寄生和复寄生。本试验通过对55539粒松毛虫卵的考查,发现有卵蜂共寄生现象。在生物防治区寄生率为0.05%,对照区为0.01%。

    Tropical region in China is located on the margin of Asian tropics, so-called northern tropics. In the floristic division, this region belongs to the part of Indomalaysian floristic realm. Large area of limestone mountain is situated in the southwestern Guangxi. There is alsoa certain area of primary forests, which are called limestone seasonal rain forests.Although the community types of limestone seasonal rain forests are various, some types dominated by Burretiodendron hsienmu occupy larger...

    Tropical region in China is located on the margin of Asian tropics, so-called northern tropics. In the floristic division, this region belongs to the part of Indomalaysian floristic realm. Large area of limestone mountain is situated in the southwestern Guangxi. There is alsoa certain area of primary forests, which are called limestone seasonal rain forests.Although the community types of limestone seasonal rain forests are various, some types dominated by Burretiodendron hsienmu occupy larger area and have great economic utility. By analysing the population composition and ecological characteristics of different species in community, most edificators belong to the normal type of population, in other words, their individuals distribute in all layers of community, including big tree, small tree, sapling and seedling, with larger number and frequency. They grow very luxuriantly. It shows that they can fit the variation of environment in the whole community carrying on normal growth and regeneration. If there is no human disturbance, they will keep their edificator position in a long period. Some heliophytes only have big trees of upper layer and several small trees of middle and lower layers, but their sapling and seedling are seldom seen. It is obvious that it is difficult to regenerate under shade condition of community. It may be said that they belong to degenerative type of population. But the variation of crown density in a comm- unity may be often occurred, so it is not easy to remove them from the community. They usually get the growing chance in the border of the forest or some part of crown gap which have enough sunshine and they grow very quickly and occupy certain space. However, their individuals are always limited. In such zonal community type, plants which belong to the adventicous type of population are seldom seen. It means that those species, which have a lot of sapling and seedling, are possible of developing into dominant or edificator, but recently lacking trees of upper layers. Because of dominants and edificators in community grow and develop well, the community composition and environment are controled by them and the companion species are relatively steady, it is very difficult to invade the community for other species. All these show that the formation and development of limestone seasonal rain forests is quite suited to the local environmental conditions and it is in a more mature stage of relative stable community type. If there is no anthropogenic disturbances and other strong influence of factors, causing essential change of the crown, thewhole community will not take place obvious variation. Even if there occurs some breaking in some parts of crown, it can also recover quickly. Of course, population change of different species in the community will be frequent.In general, limestone seasonal rain forest characterized by Burretiodendron hsienmu mostly is composed of various species with different age in natural condition. In order to promote the regeneration and development of Burretiodendron hsienmu, it must be used that clear cutting in small area and remaining about 15 individuals of parents trees in 1 ha. In such a case, the natural regeneration of Burretiodendron hsienmu will obtain rapid development, then green mountains may be remained by means of selection method and sustained yield working. Recently, it urgently needs to establish natural protected areas, carrying on close hillsides to facillate afforestation, on the one hand, it may be better conserved original natural forests; on the other hand, it is possible to quickly recover some cutting blanks into forest. Now four reserves have been established in the centre of distributional area of Burretiodendron hsienmu, more effective management, brings into play multipurpose role of reserve, mentioned above goal will certainly reach.

    在世界热带范围内,石灰岩地区的分布面积并不很大,因此对于热带石灰岩地区森林群落的研究并不很多。Chin See-chung在其研究马来西亚石灰岩植物区系的专著中,曾指出石灰岩森林是马来西亚三大森林类型之一。Whitmore在其远东热带雨林一书中,也对石灰岩地区森林作了简略的论述。中国的热带位于亚洲热带的比缘,我们称之为比热带。这个区域在植物区系区划上属于印度—马来西亚植物区系区的一部分,大面积石灰岩山地集中分布于广西西南部,那里还保存有一定面积的原生性森林。由于所在地气候、土壤环境的独特性,形成了一个特殊的中越边植物区系省,原生性森林类型为石灰岩季节性雨林。长期以来,由于过分的采伐已使得森林面积日益缩小,环境恶化,森林更新困难。因此,加强对现有森林的管理,大力进行荒山造林,以保证资源的持续利用,是当前急待解决的问题。现分下列几方面加以论述。

     
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