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  failure
The system is subject to failure and it fails once the total cumulative damage level first exceeds a fixed threshold.
      
Upon failure the system must be replaced by a new and identical one and a cost is incurred.
      
If the system is replaced before failure, a smaller cost is incurred.
      
Reliability analysis for a repairable parallel system with time-varying failure rates
      
In this paper, the failure rates are expressed in polynomial configuration.
      
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This paper describes the dynamic behaviors of a selfbiased bistable multivibrator by the use of waveform analysis with special attention to the switching action of the isolation diodes and the effect of the symmetrical triggering pulse. Seven typical forms of transi-tion and four typical forms of failure are introduced in which the monotonic transition case with the grid voltage intersection point at the leading edge of the triggering pulse gives the highest dynamic stability. Experimental results are...

This paper describes the dynamic behaviors of a selfbiased bistable multivibrator by the use of waveform analysis with special attention to the switching action of the isolation diodes and the effect of the symmetrical triggering pulse. Seven typical forms of transi-tion and four typical forms of failure are introduced in which the monotonic transition case with the grid voltage intersection point at the leading edge of the triggering pulse gives the highest dynamic stability. Experimental results are included to illustrate the main points.

在研究触发器的动态过程中,我们考虑了隔离二极管的开关作用和触发脉冲的影响,介绍了一种简单直观的分析方法. 文中概括出触发器的七种典型翻转过程和四种破坏情况,指出“交点在前沿的单调翻转过程”的动态可靠性最高.文中主要论点都有实验验证.

The main difficulty of the one-electron theory of optical activity lies in the calculation of the so-called vicinal actions. This may be overcome, as suggested in the present investiga- tion by assuming that the vicinal actions are due to the interactions of various chemical bonds in the molecule with the chromophoric electron. For the calculation of these interactions the charge distribution of a single covalent bond is assumed to consist of two nuclei, each of unit positive charge, separated by the bond distance...

The main difficulty of the one-electron theory of optical activity lies in the calculation of the so-called vicinal actions. This may be overcome, as suggested in the present investiga- tion by assuming that the vicinal actions are due to the interactions of various chemical bonds in the molecule with the chromophoric electron. For the calculation of these interactions the charge distribution of a single covalent bond is assumed to consist of two nuclei, each of unit positive charge, separated by the bond distance and two electrons with opposite spins and a spherically symmetrical orbital eigenfunction represented by (?) where r is the distance measured from a certain point on the bond axis and near the center of the bond. The location of this point is so determined that the model will give the proper dipole moment of the bond. The exponent α, which determines the extent of diffusivity of the electron cloud, is obtained by an approximate variational treatment. The quadruple moment of this model, calculated for the C-H bond, agrees very well with that estimated by Lassettre and Dean from a study of the potential barrier hindering the internal rotation of the ethane molecule. To test the theory and also to illustrate the procedure which is followed in calculating optical rotations using the new model of vicinal actions, the optical rotations of several methyl derivatives of cyclopentanone have been calculated and the following conclusions have been reached: (1) The proposed model gives rise to optical rotations in agreement with the observed values. (2) The effect of the internal rotation of the methyl group on the molecular rotation [M]_D of 3-methylcyclopentanone is large, [M]_D being +44° and -130° for the cis- trans-conformations, respectively. (3) The observed [M]_D may be regarded as composed of two parts, namely, the contribution from the multipole terms and that from the orbital overlapping. The latter corresponds to the "incomplete screening of atomic nuclei", and has been regarded as the most important vicinal action in earlier calculations. In the present work, it is shown, however, that this effect contributes only a few percent of the total [M]_D, unless the perturbing group is very near to the chromophoric group as it is in the case of 2-methyl- cyclopentanone. The failure of the previous calculations is, therefore, due mainly to the omission of the multipole (especially the quadrupole) terms. (4) The absolute configuration of 3-methylcyclopentanone, indicated by the present calculation, is the opposite of the one suggested by Eyring, since he based on the overlapping contribution alone, which bears a sign opposite to that of the total [M]_D (5) That the observed [M]_D of 2,4,5,5-tetramethylcyclopentanone is considerably smaller than that of 2,4-dimethylcyclopentanone may be due to one or both of the following possibilities: (a) that the conformation of the 2- and 4-methyl groups slightly deviates from the trans-position in the tetra-methyl compound, due to the presence of the two additional methyl groups; (b) that the two additional methyl groups in 5,5-positions are not exactly symmetrical with respect to the ring so that they make contributions to [M]_D.

本文在量子力學的單電子旋光理論的鄰近作用問題上,作了如下的貢獻: 1.指出旋光度應由分子中各化學鍵,而不是分子中各原子(如像前人所假定的)對於生色團電子的微擾作用來計算,兩者的主要不同點在於是否考慮鍵的多極矩。 2.建議在旋光度的計算中,共價單鍵可以看作是由兩個處於鍵端的正電荷和一個以單中心狀態函數,表示出來的電子雲所組成。根據這個假定計算了環戊酮的甲基衍生物的旋光度,其結果與實驗值甚爲一致(詳見結果討論)。 3.計算結果證明甲基的內旋轉對於旋光度的影響很大,例如順式和反式構型的3-甲基環戊酮的旋光度,應分別為+44°和-30°。 4.指定了3-甲基環戊酮的絕對構型,其結果Eyring所指定者相反。

The action of Wave on vertical wall is one of the important problem. in wave theory. The invstigation of it is valuable not only because of the fiact that it will enable us to learn more deeply the important phenomena of the wave motion of the ocean. Since Sainflou established his theory of standing wave, many famous scientists have been waking researches on that problem. This problem should be studied not only theoretically and experimentally, but also should be studied in the light of experiences of the breakwater...

The action of Wave on vertical wall is one of the important problem. in wave theory. The invstigation of it is valuable not only because of the fiact that it will enable us to learn more deeply the important phenomena of the wave motion of the ocean. Since Sainflou established his theory of standing wave, many famous scientists have been waking researches on that problem. This problem should be studied not only theoretically and experimentally, but also should be studied in the light of experiences of the breakwater failures occured in the past. Therefore when-ever a failure of breakwater occurs in any part of the world, the investigatort attention will be at once taken upon it. On the 19th Feb. 1955, a great damage of the breakwater at port Genoa, Italy occured. At the suggestion of the Soviet specialist A. A. Kasparson(A. A. ), then working with us, a model test for investigating the cause of failure of breakwater at Port Genoa was conducted in our laboratory. After observing and analyzing many times the failure of breakwater in the process of this experiment, We find that it may be classified as concern to the phenomena of failure into two types, namely, types of long-wave failure and that of short-wave failure. As to the failure which occured at port Genoa, it belongs to the type of short-wave failure. In this experiment, the ware pressure on the face of the vertical wall has also been measured. Besides that, for the purpose of increasing the wall's ability to resist against long-wave failure, several tests of strengthening the stone bed near the harbour side are made.

波浪对直立堤的作用是波浪理论中的一个重要问题。这个问题的研究不仅是进行港口设计所必需的,而且还有助于我们深入地了解海洋中的波浪运动。 自从森弗罗(Sainflou)建立了他的立波理论以来,许多知名的科学家进行了这方面的工作。这今问题不仅是需要在理论上和在实验室内加以研究,而且还应该深入地去研究已经发生了的外堤破坏事故。因此一旦在某处发生这类的事故,就必然会引起各国科学家们的注意。 1955年2月19日,在意大利热那亚港发生了一件巨大的外堤破坏事故。那时苏联专家A.A.卡斯巴申(A.A.Каспарсон)还在我院工作,在他的建议下,在我们的实验室内进行了模型试验以研究热那亚港外堤的破坏原因。 在实验中,我们观察和分析了外堤的许多破坏现象,根据这些观察和分析,我们可以把破坏按其现象分成二类:即长波破坏和短波破坏。而热那亚港的破坏事故则属于第二类。 在这个实验中,我们还测了直立堤上的波压力。此外,为了增加外堤抵抗长波破坏的能力,我们还做了几个加强港侧基床的试验。

 
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