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and measurement
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  计量
     Nanometrology and Measurement Technology in Nanometer Scale
     纳米计量学与纳米计量测试技术(一)
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     ISO9001:2000 Quantity Managerment System and Measurement Qualified Confirmation
     ISO9001:2000质量管理体系与计量合格确认
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     the second chapter sketches the basic theory including enterprise core capability theory, enterprise information asymmetry theory, accounting recognition and measurement theory.
     第二章简述企业核心能力信息披露会计问题研究的理论基础,包括企业核心能力理论、企业信息披露相关理论(包括企业契约理论、信息不对称理论、有效市场理论)以及会计确认与计量理论。
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     Introduces the standard methods of information analysis and measurement on WWW, and discusses the theory and method of webometrics.
     介绍在互联网上进行信息分析与测量的标准方法,论述利用Web技术进行计量设计和计量测量的理论与方法。
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     The differences of counting and measurement data were detected by χ2 test and analysis of variance.
     计数及计量资料差异性测定采用χ2检验和方差分析。
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     Molecular Cloning of 5' Flanking Region and Introns of 20 a Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Gene,Structure Analysis and Measurement on their Activities of Regulation Gene Expression
     20α羟类固醇脱氢酶基因5'侧翼区和内含子结构的分子克隆、结构分析及其对基因表达调控活性的测定
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     Study on Wavelet Transform Applications to Fault Diagnosis and Measurement of Electric Machine
     小波变换在电机故障诊断与测试中的应用研究
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     Study of GaAs Threshold Voltage Uniformity and Measurement System
     GaAs阈值电压均匀性与测试系统的研究
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     Research on Theory and Measurement of Environmental Literacy
     环境素养的理论与测评研究
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     Numerical Calculation and Measurement of Parameters of Large Gronding Grids in Industry Frequency
     大型接地网工频接地参数的计算和测量
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     Test & Measurement
     测量与测试
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     Measurement of Convexity
     凸性的度量
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     Scattering and its measurement
     光散射及其测量
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     The Resistance of Acupoint and Its Measurement
     穴位电阻的含义与测量
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  and measurement
Simulation and measurement results show that LMSD can improve 29% of the noise performance compared with the typical multiplication method.
      
However, the third feedback scheme gives a compromise between information acquisition and measurement disturbance.
      
The sample preparation and measurement itself does not take more than 30 min.
      
Computer simulation and measurement of microaccelerations on the "Mir" orbital station
      
Calculation and measurement of conical beams of three-dimensional periodic internal waves excited by a vertically oscillating pi
      
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Rankin (1944) in his review of the genus Halipegus recorded 11 species, of which he recognised only 7 as valid. Up to the present there are about 15 species of Halipegus described by parasitologists (Skrjabin 1955). Some of them need revision-Since adult trematodes of this group are very much alike in structure, the differentiation of species depends much on the morphology of the developmental stages. So far as is known, there are only three species of Halipegus, life histories of which have been elucidated....

Rankin (1944) in his review of the genus Halipegus recorded 11 species, of which he recognised only 7 as valid. Up to the present there are about 15 species of Halipegus described by parasitologists (Skrjabin 1955). Some of them need revision-Since adult trematodes of this group are very much alike in structure, the differentiation of species depends much on the morphology of the developmental stages. So far as is known, there are only three species of Halipegus, life histories of which have been elucidated. During 1947, a species of Halipegus was found in Foochow, in the mouth cavity of Rana nigrotnaculata reinhardtii and Rana limnocharis. Natural infection of a Planorbid snail, Hipeutes contort Benson was also found harbouring the larval stages. In 1956, experiments were conducted to infect Hipeutes cantori with eggs of Halipegus. The subsequent development resulted with various stages found in the liver of the infected snails. Morphological studies and measurements were made and briefly given as follows:

1.1947年作者在福州金綫蛙(Rana nigromaculata)的口腔內发現有尾胞吸虫的寄生,这一种尾胞吸虫属(Halipegus)吸虫在前此国內尚无报告过。不久后在本地的平卷貝(Hipeutes cantori Benson)体內发現天然感染的尾胞吸虫的尾蚴。1956年夏天檢查本地的澤蛙(Rana limnocharis)在它的口腔舌下找到了本种吸虫,感染率10%,感染强度平均每只阳性蛙含有1—2只虫,最多达到6条虫。 2.在1936年8月至10月间作者将从澤蛙口腔舌下所檢得的尾胞吸虫在培养皿中产出的卵以及从虫体子宫末端解剖出来的成熟的卵,用作人工感染平卷貝(Hipeutes cantori)幼螺的試驗, 并詳細观察其各期的发育,确定本吸虫只有一代胞蚴和一代裂蚴。从感染的平卷貝体內排出的尾胞幼虫用来喂飼劍水蚤(Mesocyclops leuckarti),21日后解剖劍水蚤,在它体腔內找到有成熟的后期尾蚴。 3.Halipegus属吸虫具有世界性的分布。关于东亚尾胞吸虫种类的问题尚未解决,山口左仲(Yamaguti,1936)认为日本的尾胞吸虫和H.occidualis Stafford有区别,系为一...

1.1947年作者在福州金綫蛙(Rana nigromaculata)的口腔內发現有尾胞吸虫的寄生,这一种尾胞吸虫属(Halipegus)吸虫在前此国內尚无报告过。不久后在本地的平卷貝(Hipeutes cantori Benson)体內发現天然感染的尾胞吸虫的尾蚴。1956年夏天檢查本地的澤蛙(Rana limnocharis)在它的口腔舌下找到了本种吸虫,感染率10%,感染强度平均每只阳性蛙含有1—2只虫,最多达到6条虫。 2.在1936年8月至10月间作者将从澤蛙口腔舌下所檢得的尾胞吸虫在培养皿中产出的卵以及从虫体子宫末端解剖出来的成熟的卵,用作人工感染平卷貝(Hipeutes cantori)幼螺的試驗, 并詳細观察其各期的发育,确定本吸虫只有一代胞蚴和一代裂蚴。从感染的平卷貝体內排出的尾胞幼虫用来喂飼劍水蚤(Mesocyclops leuckarti),21日后解剖劍水蚤,在它体腔內找到有成熟的后期尾蚴。 3.Halipegus属吸虫具有世界性的分布。关于东亚尾胞吸虫种类的问题尚未解决,山口左仲(Yamaguti,1936)认为日本的尾胞吸虫和H.occidualis Stafford有区别,系为一新种定名为日本尾胞吸虫(H.japonicus Yamaguti,1936)东亚尾胞吸虫和H.occidualis在成虫的形态构造上尤其是卵的大小上有些微差异。如H.occidualis卵的大小是0.050—0.001mm×0.021-0.026mm,卵絲长0.160—0.200mm;而日本尾胞吸虫的卵是0.045—0.048mm×0.016—0.018—mm.卵絲长0.3mm。福建标本的卵也比较小0.037—0.047mm×0.014—0.022mm,卵絲长0.136—0.22mm。因此如果单从成虫的形态构造以及卵的大小来鉴定福建标本无疑是属于日本尾胞吸虫。通过本项生活史研究看出福建标本的生活史中各期幼虫的形态构造和H.occidualis发育各期的形态构造极为相似。因此作者认为H.Japonicus Yamaguti,1936是H.occidualis的同物异名。

The discovery of the larval form of the species of Asymphylodora Looss (1899) dated back to the time of von Baer (1827), who described Cercaria paludinae impurae, De Filippi (1854) recorded from the same snail host a distome bearing the same name. For one and half century knowledges regarding the developmental life history of the well-known type of the genus, A. tincae, have gradually accumulated. Small as it is, the worm, however, has received the attention of many a distinguished helminthologists such as Diesing...

The discovery of the larval form of the species of Asymphylodora Looss (1899) dated back to the time of von Baer (1827), who described Cercaria paludinae impurae, De Filippi (1854) recorded from the same snail host a distome bearing the same name. For one and half century knowledges regarding the developmental life history of the well-known type of the genus, A. tincae, have gradually accumulated. Small as it is, the worm, however, has received the attention of many a distinguished helminthologists such as Diesing (1858), Looss (1899). Lithe (1809), Fuhrmann (1916), Dubois (1909), Wesenberg-Lund (1934) and Skrjabin (1955). The recent work of Deblock, Capron and Biguet (1957) elucidated the life cycle of a new subspecies, A. tincae var. mediagraba, while other workers like Serkova and Bykhovskii (1940), Biguet, Deblock and Capron (1956) and Stunkard (1959) described the development of several progenetic species, The significance of progenesis to the phylogeny of Digenea is discussed by Stunkard (1959). Inspire of the above-mentioned important advances on the knowledge of this genus, there still remain much to be worked out regarding the biology of this group.The present communication repoorts life history studies on Asymphylodora macostoma Ozaki, 1925 and A. japonica Yamaguti, 1928.The adults of A. macrostoma were obtained from Puntia sp. (Cyprinidae) occurring in the mountain stream of Yungan, Central Fukien. Their structure and measurements were described in detail. They are indistinguishable from the original description of Czaki (1925) and Yamaguti (1938). The molluscan intermediate host of A. macrostoma in Fukien is Melania peregrinorum Heude inhabiting the mountain stream among rocks and under stones.The sporocyst stage was not discovered in natural infection. The second generation redia measures 1.39mm in length and 0.274mm in width. The gut contains numerous brownish granules derived from the host tissue. The general shape of the redia is sac-like. It possesses no muscular feet. In the body of a mature redia there are 5 or 6 cercariae and some germ-balls observed.The cercariaeum is a comparatively large distomate larva 0.3-0.37mm in length and 0.11-0.13mm in width. It is brownish yellow ia color especially in its posterior part. The cuticle is covered with spines distributed in transverse rows. The oral sucker measures 0.08-0.09mm by 0.09-0.097mm in diameter. The ventral sucker is smaller, measurihg 0.068 in diameter. On the dorsal wall of the oral sucker there are four rows of short conspicuous spines lining two-thirds of the inner surface of the sucker. There are also 3-8 big flat spines attached to the inner surface. The acetabulum is also armed with small conspicuous spines on its entire inner surface, Such spinulation is not present in the cercariaeum of A. japonica but is rather similar to that described in Cercariaeum squamosum by Deblock, Carpron and Biguet (1957). The oral sucker is followed by a short prepharynx, which leads to a globular pharynx. The esophagus is long, bending several times and bifurcating in front the acetabulum into two intestinal caeca. On both sides of the esophagus four bundles of penetration glands are present, occupying the area between the pharynx and acetabulum. There are altogether 40-42 unicellular gland cells. Four bundles of ducts proceed anteriorward along the medial and lateral regions to arrive at and open on the inner dorsal wall of the oral sucker. The penetration glands become graduallv diminished as the cercariaeum grows more mature, so that in the adolescaria stage their contents are greatly reduced. The posterior tip of the body is armed with a number of long and sharp spines, which probably help the larva in its creeping movement.The excretory system is complicated. Since the body of the cercariaeum is full of cystogenous cells, which obscure the capillary tubules connecting the flame cells, their arrangement cannot be traced, and yet when the cercariaeum has encysted, while still in the snail host, most of the gland cells have disappeared rendering the tiny excretory tubules observable. The excretory bladder is a sinuous tube, making one or two left and right bendings as it advances anteriorward. The bladder is lined with a series of large epithelial cells. From the anterior aspect of the bladder, there arise two collecting tubules, which extend obliquely foreward to both lateral fields. They continue to advance to the level of esophagus and then turn posteriorly to about the mid region of the whole length of the collecting tubule and divides into two branches. The anterior branch gives off branches two times resulting in three groups of solenocytes. The first group consists of five cells, while the other two have three calls cach. The posterior branch divides into two main sub-branches with seven and three flame cells in each group. The total number of flame cells is about 42. The pattern of their arrangement can be better understood by tracing the development of the excretory system from the germ-ball to the mature cercaria. Four stages were observed:1. In the early germ-ball stage, when the oral sucker and the phraynx are being differentiated, the collecting tubulesare formed. They are connected to a small bladder situated at the posterior end of the body. The two tubules having passcd anteriorly and reached about two-thirds of the body length, make a characteristic loop and divide into an anterior and a posterior branch Their arrangement can be depicted as 2(1+1)=4. 2. In the second stage, when the ventral sucker is formed, both the anterior and posterior branches divide into three flame cells cach. The formula is reprsented as 2(3+3)=12.3. In the third stage the division of the anterior branch into three smaller branches is witnessed. The posterior branch is not subdivided. It still possesses three solenocytes. The formula of arrangement is 2[(2+2+4)+(2+1)]=22.4. The fourth or the cercaria stage shows great increase of cells, especially in the posterior branch. Their arrangement are indicated in the foregoing description. The formula can be expressed as follows: 2[(3+3+5)+(3+3+4)]=42.It was observed that the number of cells and the pattern of their arrangement are not exactly homologous between the left and right sides of the body. The above description indicates that the cell formula is constant only in relative sense that is they differ in different stages of development.Specimens of Asymphylodora japonica were secured from Pscudorasbora parva (Temm. aud Schle.) and also from Cyprinus carpio L. The structure and measurements of the adult are fully described. They resemble the original description of Yamaguti's closely. A. japonica develops in Parafossarulus eximius (Frauenfeld) and P. striatulus (Benson). Both molluscs inhabit the ponds and rivulets in Foochow area. Dissections of the snails reveal stages of rediae and cercariae. Spororcysts were not found in the natural infection. The second generation redia is elongated in shapeIt measures 1.5mm in length and 0.45mm in transverse diameter. The fully mature redia contains seven to eight cercariae in its body.The cercariaeum is elongated or spindle-shaped, measuring 0.5-056mm in length and 0.16mm in greatest width. The cuticle is armed with spines transversely arranged. Oral sucker is round in shape with a diameter of 0.1mm. Ventral sucker, larger than the oral sucker, has a diameter of 0.12-0.13mm. There is a short prepharynx followed by a glubose pharynx. The esophagus is long. It bifurcates in front of the acetabulum into two intestinal caeca, which extend posteriorly to one fourth of the body length from the hind extremity. Four groups of unicellular penetration glands occupy the region between the oral and ventral suckers, numbering altogether about 36-38. Four bundles of gland-ducts lead forward and open on the inner dorsal wall of the oral sucker. The excretory system resembles that of cercariaeum of A. macrostoma. The excretory bladder is a long sinuous tube, similar to that of cercariaeum A. macrostoma.The metacercariae of A. japonica, probably in the pre-encystment stage, were frequently encountered in the snail host. It is larger in size than the cercariaeum, measuring 0.8-1.00mm in length and 0.4mm in greatest width, Oral sucker 0.038-0.11mm in diameter, is smaller than acetabulum, The later is 0.132-0.149 mm in diamcter. The oral sucker is smaller than acetabulum. The later is 0.132-0.149 mm in diam- eter. The oral sucker is followed by a prepharynx, which is connected to a glubose pharynx 0.049-0.50mm in diameter. The esophagus is long It bifurcates before the ventral sucker into two intestinal caeca extending to the hind end of the testis. The genital organs alrsady begin to develop. A single oval testis, measuring 0.30 by 0.20mm is situated at the posterior part of the body. Immediately anterior to the testis, an ovary triangular or oval in shape is present. Its diameter is 0.10mm. On the right side of the acetabulum the primordium of the cirrus pouch and metraterm appear as two columns of nuclei. The metacercariae can encyst in the same snail host. They can also migrate to another snail of the same species. The cyst measures 0.332-0.365mm in diameter. Under cover-glass pressure, it measures 0.500mm in diameter.Experiments were performed to infect Puntia sp., secured from places where no Melanin snails were found, and members of which were found to be free from infection, by feeding them with from Melanin peregrinorum. Fifteen days after infection, the fishes were dissected and adult worms similar to A. macrostoma were found. One experimentally infected fish died five days after infection wite forth immaure worms found. They were all very similar in size and development. Experiments were also performed to secure adult A. japonica by feeding laboratory-reared gold fishes (Carassius auratus) with cysts from Parafossarulus exiraius (F.) Fifteen days after infection, ad

1.福建省的两种側殖吸虫,巨口侧殖吸虫(Asymphylodora macrostoma Ozaki,1925)及日本侧殖吸虫(A. japonica Yamaguti,1928)的生活史均經闡明。2.巨口侧殖吸虫的终末宿主为刺鲃(Punctius sp.),貝类的中間宿主为川蜷贝(Melania peregrinorum Heude)。日本侧殖吸虫的终末宿主为麦穗魚(Pseudorasbora parva (T. and S.)),及鯉魚(Cyprinus carpio L.),貝类中間宿主为两种的纹沼螺(Parafossarulus eximius (Fruenfeld)及P. striatulus (Benson))。3.幼虫各期的形态經观察和叙述,特別关于排泄系統的构造經詳細的探討。4.两种侧殖吸虫幼虫期的形态,特别关于排泄囊的构造以及穿刺腺的存在,与侧殖Asymphylodora Looss,1899原属有很大的不同,作者建議创立一个新属Orientotrema Tang,1962 Gen. Nov.借以容納有管状排泄囊的种类。属的特征經叙述,末后并附侧殖亚科(Asymphylodorinae)各属...

1.福建省的两种側殖吸虫,巨口侧殖吸虫(Asymphylodora macrostoma Ozaki,1925)及日本侧殖吸虫(A. japonica Yamaguti,1928)的生活史均經闡明。2.巨口侧殖吸虫的终末宿主为刺鲃(Punctius sp.),貝类的中間宿主为川蜷贝(Melania peregrinorum Heude)。日本侧殖吸虫的终末宿主为麦穗魚(Pseudorasbora parva (T. and S.)),及鯉魚(Cyprinus carpio L.),貝类中間宿主为两种的纹沼螺(Parafossarulus eximius (Fruenfeld)及P. striatulus (Benson))。3.幼虫各期的形态經观察和叙述,特別关于排泄系統的构造經詳細的探討。4.两种侧殖吸虫幼虫期的形态,特别关于排泄囊的构造以及穿刺腺的存在,与侧殖Asymphylodora Looss,1899原属有很大的不同,作者建議创立一个新属Orientotrema Tang,1962 Gen. Nov.借以容納有管状排泄囊的种类。属的特征經叙述,末后并附侧殖亚科(Asymphylodorinae)各属檢索表的修訂。5.本类吸虫的生活史及习性問题經詳細討論。

The anodic oxidation of benzyl alcohol on smooth platinum electrode was studied by means of potential sweep voltametry,, charging curve method and measurement of instantaneous a-c impedance. Experimental results show that on anodic polarized platinum electrode benzyl alcohol is electrochemically oxidized with discharge mechanism. Moreover, the effect of adsorption of benzyl alcohol on anodic formation of oxide and/or adsorbed oxygen on the platinum surface has been discussed.

本工作根据铂电极的电流-电位曲线、阳极充电曲线和交流阻抗等实验结果表明苯甲醇在铂电极上阳极氧化是按照直接放电机理进行的,证实苯甲醇在铂电极上的吸附现象,同时讨论苯甲醇的吸附对铂表面阳极氧化和吸附氧形成过程的阻化作用.

 
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