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major epidemic factor
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     Choose the major
     选专业不要“雾里看花”
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     The major results are:
     主要结果是:
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     Hainan province has been one of the major malaria epidemic areas in China.
     海南省是我国疟疾的主要流行区,近年来发病率居于全国首位,在海南省的传染病发病中居前三位,严重影响了当地居民的身体健康和生产劳动。
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     EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON TAENIASIS AND CYSTICERCOSIS IN MAJOR EPIDEMIC AREAS OF SHANDONG PROVINCE
     山东省带绦虫病与囊虫病重点疫区流行现状调查研究
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     CHINA' S HIDDEN EPIDEMIC
     严重危害中国人健康的潜在因素—吸烟
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The ryegrass rust (Puccinia coronate) may infect many grasses, particulary ryegrass. A systematic investigation from 1992 to 1994 has made cleary that the regular season pattern ekisted in field of rye grass rust and there were two disease peaks in a year. Temperature and humidity are the major epidemic factors when abundant rain and humidity and low sunshine, the disease is epidemic.

黑麦草冠锈病是由禾冠柄锈菌所致,除危害黑麦草外还可侵染多种禾本科牧草。经1992-1994年系统调查,初步明确冠锈病的田间流行有明显的季节性变化,全年有两个发病高峰。在带菌奇主大量存在和雨量充沛多雾少日照的环境条件下,温度是影响病害流行的主导因素。

Objective To understand the epidemic characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Guangxi from 1993 to 2002 and develop preventive measures.Methods Data from regular case reporting system and laboratory records in this 10 years were analyzed.Results A total of 47 305 typhoid and paratyphoid fever cases were reported in Guangxi this 10 years. Average annual incidence was 10.27/100 000. The highest age specific incidence was in aged 15-19 (14 50/100 000). The incidence of male was higher than...

Objective To understand the epidemic characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Guangxi from 1993 to 2002 and develop preventive measures.Methods Data from regular case reporting system and laboratory records in this 10 years were analyzed.Results A total of 47 305 typhoid and paratyphoid fever cases were reported in Guangxi this 10 years. Average annual incidence was 10.27/100 000. The highest age specific incidence was in aged 15-19 (14 50/100 000). The incidence of male was higher than that of female. The average annual case fatality rate was 0.10%. Peasant cases accounted for 41.09% and majority cases (51 99%) were found in Guilin city. The peak of case onset was from June to October accounted for 61.56%. A total of 22 outbreaks were reported in this 10 years and most outbreaks occurred in rural middle schools and suburban colleges. The epidemic was spreading from Guilin city to other areas. 216 strains isolated from 1994 to 1998 were S. Typhi. Whereas 92.64% (630/680) isolates were S.Paratyphi A after 1999. The sensitivity rates of both S. typhi and paratyphi A to norfloxacin and chloramphenicol were over 90%, whilst 25% and 77% to sulfamethoxazole respectively. The major epidemic factors were poor water supply and non proper sewerage system in countryside, delayed case reporting, misdiagnosis, poor sanitation in campuses and insufficient case management. Conclusion In the past decade, incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever remained high in Guangxi. The predominance strains shifted from S.Typhi to S.Paratyphi.

目的 探讨广西伤寒、副伤寒流行特征 ,为制定有效的防治对策提供科学依据。方法 分析广西 1993~ 2 0 0 2年伤寒、副伤寒疫情报告资料及实验室检测资料。结果  1993~ 2 0 0 2年广西共报告伤寒、副伤寒病例 4 730 5例 ,年均发病率 10 2 7/ 10万 ,以 15~ 19岁最高 (14 5 0 / 10万 ) ,男性发病高于女性 ,年均病死率 0 10 % ;病例以农民为主 (占 4 1 0 9% ) ,主要分布在桂林市及所辖区 (占 5 1 99% ) ;发病高峰在 6~ 10月份 (占 6 1 5 6 % ) ;年均发病年龄以 10~ 4 4岁为主 (占 86 5 2 % )。 10年间共发生暴发疫情 2 2起 ,传播方式大多为水型 (占 77 2 7% ) ,多数发生在农村学校和城乡结合部的大中专院校 ,并有以桂林市及所辖区为重点向其他地区扩散的趋势 ;1994~ 1998年实验室分离的菌株 2 16株 ,均为伤寒沙门菌 ,自 1999年以后以甲型副伤寒为主 ,占 92 6 4 % (6 30 / 6 80 )。伤寒和甲型副伤寒沙门菌对氟哌酸、氯霉素等常用抗生素的敏感率...

目的 探讨广西伤寒、副伤寒流行特征 ,为制定有效的防治对策提供科学依据。方法 分析广西 1993~ 2 0 0 2年伤寒、副伤寒疫情报告资料及实验室检测资料。结果  1993~ 2 0 0 2年广西共报告伤寒、副伤寒病例 4 730 5例 ,年均发病率 10 2 7/ 10万 ,以 15~ 19岁最高 (14 5 0 / 10万 ) ,男性发病高于女性 ,年均病死率 0 10 % ;病例以农民为主 (占 4 1 0 9% ) ,主要分布在桂林市及所辖区 (占 5 1 99% ) ;发病高峰在 6~ 10月份 (占 6 1 5 6 % ) ;年均发病年龄以 10~ 4 4岁为主 (占 86 5 2 % )。 10年间共发生暴发疫情 2 2起 ,传播方式大多为水型 (占 77 2 7% ) ,多数发生在农村学校和城乡结合部的大中专院校 ,并有以桂林市及所辖区为重点向其他地区扩散的趋势 ;1994~ 1998年实验室分离的菌株 2 16株 ,均为伤寒沙门菌 ,自 1999年以后以甲型副伤寒为主 ,占 92 6 4 % (6 30 / 6 80 )。伤寒和甲型副伤寒沙门菌对氟哌酸、氯霉素等常用抗生素的敏感率均超过 90 % ,但对磺胺的敏感率较低 ,分别为 2 5 %和 77%。影响流行的因素主要有城镇和农村的供水和污水处理严重滞后、学校卫生安全存在薄弱的环节、迟报疫情和误诊、传染源的管理不善等。结论 近 10年广西伤寒、副伤寒维持较高的发病水平 ,优势菌型由?

 
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