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buses
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  客车
    Market Analysis and Development Tendencies of Large and Medium Buses in 2001 Year
    大中型客车2001年市场分析及发展趋势
短句来源
    A 40. 7% output increase and a 42. 71% sales quantity increase were found in China large and medium bus market from Jan. to Oct. in 2001 compared with the same period in past year. the import was reduced and export increased with a large magnitude. It is predicted that in 2002, the sales in large and medium buses shall be 66 430 units, a 6. 31% increase compared with the same rime in past year.
    2001年我国大中型客车市场 1月~10月产量同比增长 40.7%,销量同比增长 42.71%,进口量下降,据预测.我国2002年大中型客车销量66430,同比增长6.31% ;
短句来源
    The special-used large and medium buses chassis shall have a further growth.
    大中型客车专用底盘的增长速度将较快;
短句来源
    the luxurious buses in large bus market shall slow their growth speed, the popular city public buses shall become a main product in large bus market, the medium buses with 7m-9m length in medium and high grades in medium bus market shall be in better sales.
    大型客车市场中豪华型客车增速将放缓,普通型城市公交客车将成为大型客车主导产品; 中型客车市场中车长为7m~9m的中高档中型客车将热销。
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  “buses”译为未确定词的双语例句
    This paper discusses the issues of performance demandof future capital buses, development scale and purchase,and at last give a prognosis of the demand of bus market.
    本文介绍了首都对未来公交车的性能要求、发展规模和采购方面的问题,对其市场需求作了预测。
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  buses
An adjacent table-based simplified model of distribution networks containing medium voltage buses of a substation is established.
      
We study the basic behaviors of buses using bus route models (BRM) by introducing a special kind of noise induced by impacts of other vehicles.
      
The peak where the maximum velocity of buses exists shrinks in low noise conditions, which is worth the further study.
      
Furthermore, we extend the model to take into consideration more realistic and important parameters, such as the number of passengers, the capacity of buses, and the possibility of overtaking, for performing simulations of the first loop.
      
Suggestions on the choice of the number of buses and the maximum velocity are provided for the practical operation.
      
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Currently,developing an accurate and feasible reactive power pricing is an important task for power system restructure.Such reactive power price can not be obtained by traditional optimal power flow models because the production cost of reactive power is ignored in these models.In this paper,both reactive power production cost of generators and investm ent cost of capacitors are included in total system operation cost.There are totally eightcases tested,in which we use different types of objective functions...

Currently,developing an accurate and feasible reactive power pricing is an important task for power system restructure.Such reactive power price can not be obtained by traditional optimal power flow models because the production cost of reactive power is ignored in these models.In this paper,both reactive power production cost of generators and investm ent cost of capacitors are included in total system operation cost.There are totally eightcases tested,in which we use different types of objective functions to observe reactive power prices under different OPF models and adopt different system operation conditions to observe how these conditions effectreactive power prices.According to the test results from a sample 5 -node system,some conclusions are reached: 1 After the inclusion of reactive power generation costs,the variations of the reactive power prices obtained by OPF computation over different buses become smaller. 2 The revenue of reactive power based on marginal price is much higher than the actual production cost of reactive power. 3 A consumer can install capacitor bank to avoid high marginal price of reactive power,and other consumers at nearby buses may also be benefited from this considerably. 4 The voltage control of a certain bus can lead to intensive fluctuations of reactive power marginal prices at nearby buses,and active power marginal prices may get affected as well.

无功功率服务价格是电力工业重组中的一个重要的研究课题。由于传统的最优潮流数学模型不考虑无功功率的生产成本,因此无法得到合理的无功功率价格。文中在引入了无功功率的发电成本和无功补偿器的成本之后,运用最优潮流方法,分析了各种不同的优化目标及不同的约束条件对以经济学为基础的无功电价的影响及无功电价的特点。以一个实例系统对无功功率价格进行了研究,揭示了无功电价的一些基本规律,取得了有指导意义的成果

A new model for multi-period generation bidding and transaction in the electricity market is described based on thenonlinear formulation. Pump station is considered in the multi-period model. The effect of security constraints and1transmission losses on generation schedule is considered. Nonlinear programming is used to get the most profitable valueaccording to the power flow and the bids offered by plants. The transaction schedule for a 6-bus system with a pump stationis calculated to demonstrate the...

A new model for multi-period generation bidding and transaction in the electricity market is described based on thenonlinear formulation. Pump station is considered in the multi-period model. The effect of security constraints and1transmission losses on generation schedule is considered. Nonlinear programming is used to get the most profitable valueaccording to the power flow and the bids offered by plants. The transaction schedule for a 6-bus system with a pump stationis calculated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results show that the security constraints andtransmission losses have important impact on transaction schedule, and by multi-period model the transaction schedule mayobtain more profitable value.

采用非线性规划方法解决电力市场中机组多时段报价与发电计划问题。建立了考虑抽水蓄能电站的多时段发电计划模型 ,在排序的基础上考虑输电约束和网损对发电计划的影响 ,用非线性优化方法进行计算 ,得到满足报价和电网约束的最优发电计划。对一个 6节点母线系统进行了多时段发电交易计划分析 ,结果显示电网输电约束和传输损失对发电计划产生影响 ,多时段发电计划优化能带来更大的全局经济利益

The development of public transportation willresult in the expanded demand of passenger cars and busis one of the optimal choices. Dieselization, lower floorand luxus are the tendency of bus market growth trend.Much attention is given to Gas Vehicles, Bi-fuel Vehiclesand electric Vehicles. This paper briefs the production andsales of passenger cars in major countries, and forcaststhe growth trend of global passenger car market.

发展公共交通将带动客车需求的扩大,公共汽车是最佳选择之一。柴油化、低地板化、环保化、高档化是公共汽车的发展趋势,燃气汽车、双燃料汽车、电动汽车也越来越得到重视。本文还介绍了主要国家客车的产销情况,并对全球客车市场未来的发展趋势做了预测。

 
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