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first principle     
相关语句
  第一性原理
     First principle study on optical properties of KTa_(0.5)Nb_(0.5)O_3
     光折变晶体KTa_(0.5)Nb_(0.5)O_3光学特性的第一性原理研究
短句来源
     First Principle Studies on Fine Structure for Ba_xSr_(1-x)TiO_3
     Ba_xSr_(1-x)TiO_3精细结构的第一性原理研究
短句来源
     First principle study on β-SiC(001)-(2×1) surface structure
     β-SiC(001)-(2×1)表面结构的第一性原理研究
短句来源
     First Principle Predictions of High Density Phases of BC_2N and B_2CN
     BC_2N和B_2CN高密度相的第一性原理预测
短句来源
     First Principle Studies on Behaviors of Cd and Te Atoms on Clean and As-passivated Si(211) Surface
     As钝化Si(211)表面上Cd、Te原子行为的第一性原理研究
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  第一原理
     First principle investigations of electronic structure and stability of RMg_2Ni_9(R=Ca,La)
     RMg_2Ni_9(R=Ca,La)合金的电子结构与稳定性的第一原理研究
短句来源
     First principle study on Au_nPd(n=1~5)clusters
     Au_nPd(n=1~5)团簇的第一原理研究(英文)
短句来源
     First Principle Studies on the Structure and Stability of AlP_m and AlP_m~- (m = 2~9) Clusters
     第一原理对AlP_m和AlP_m~-(m=2~9)团簇结构与稳定性的研究
短句来源
     THE FIRST PRINCIPLE STUDY ON ZrV_2 SYSTEM
     ZrV_2体系的第一原理研究
短句来源
     The First Principle Calculation of the Atomic Structure of a Surface Alloy Cu(001)c(2×2)-Pd
     表面合金Cu(001)c(2×2)-Pd原子结构的第一原理计算研究
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  第一原则
     Cogito ,as the first principle of Descartes’metaphysical system, opens modern philosophy ofconsciousness and becomes modern and contemporary western philosophical discourse’s sources and objectof discussion.
     笛卡儿以“我思”作为形而上学体系的第一原则,开创了近代意识哲学,成为近现代西方哲学话语的源头和讨论对象。
短句来源
     Arbitrariness,which was proposed as the first principle of language by Saussure,father of the modern linguistics,contributes to the versatility and flexibility of language.
     语言符号的任意性被现代语言学之父索绪尔称之为语言的第一原则或基本真理,它有助于语言的多样性和灵活性。
短句来源
     While acknowledging a close relationship between a work and the author's personal life, Wharton took transmutation as the first principle of art.
     她认为变形为艺术的第一原则,原原本本的摹写永远不能取代创作与想象,成功的虚拟世界反而比真实的世界更具真实感,作者应该相信读者自己的判断力,反对作者以道德说教者自居而突兀于作品之中,从而破坏作品的艺术性;
短句来源
     The passions is the first principle inthe Confucius's theory on Benevolence.
     情感是孔子仁学的第一原则
短句来源
     ARBITRARINESS, SAUSSURE'S FIRST PRINCIPLE
     任意性:索绪尔的第一原则
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  首要原则
     The first principle of insurance contract is utmost good faith;
     保险合同首要原则是最大诚信原则,保险合同双方都必须遵守这个原则。
短句来源
     During the course of design and realization,the first principle is to protect users' investment and reduce the cost while designing Distributed Information Release System.
     在具体设计实现时,我们以保护用户投资和节省成本为我们设计分布式信息发布系统的首要原则.
短句来源
     Reality is the life of news,authentic principle is the first principle of news.
     真实是新闻的生命,真实性原则是新闻的首要原则
短句来源
     The first principle of WTO non-discrimination principle is commonly realized through most-favoured-nation treatment and national treatment.
     WTO的首要原则———非歧视原则 ,是通过最惠国待遇和国民待遇共同实现的。
短句来源
     To establish a Principal form in the historic characters , the first Principle is the social circulation, and the second is the systematic nature, if necessary, with reference to the motivation of character, the standing of the historic forms in dynastic dictionaries.
     历史字形主形的确立原则与汉字规范中的优化原则既相通又不同:历史字形的整理以社会通行度为首要原则,以系统性为第二原则,必要时再参照字形的理据、区别度和当时的字书。 历史字形之间的关系和各字形的历史地位需要通过多维原则共同确立。
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      first principle
    The principle of virtual power here is so formulated that, when combined, forreal velocity fields, with the first principle of thermodynamics in global form, it yields directly the socalled energy theorem both in the bulk and at the singular surface.
          
    Due to the complexity and highly nonlinearity of the process, the modeling of the process based on the first principle is difficult and involve too many unknown parameters.
          
    The safety first principle and capital market equilibrium
          
    As a first principle, I assume that in any decision-making situation in which organisational leaders must choose between their own welfare and the welfare of their employees, they will almost always select the selfish course of action.
          
    The first principle, "method noise", specifies that only noise must be removed from an image.
          
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    The so-called "truss rigid frames" are those rigid frames with trusses as their horizontal beams, of which the two ends are rigidly connected to columns. Within the author's knowledge, all the methods available at present for analyzing such rigid frames are based on Certain special assumptions such as (1) that the positions of the points of contra-flexure in all the columns are previously known; (2) that the end rotations of a truss may be reprensented by that of its assumed line of axis as in the case of an...

    The so-called "truss rigid frames" are those rigid frames with trusses as their horizontal beams, of which the two ends are rigidly connected to columns. Within the author's knowledge, all the methods available at present for analyzing such rigid frames are based on Certain special assumptions such as (1) that the positions of the points of contra-flexure in all the columns are previously known; (2) that the end rotations of a truss may be reprensented by that of its assumed line of axis as in the case of an ordinary beam; or (3) that the end verticals of trusses may be given certain prescribed deformations. Of course, the adoption of any of such assumptions leads to only approximate results inconsistent with the actual deformations of such rigid frames under any loading. Heretofore, the author did not know any correct method for analyzing such rigid frames. In this paper, the author presents two principles of the correct analysis of truss rigid frames. The first principle is that of "moment action on column" for computing the angle change constants of columns, and the second principle is that of "effect of span-change in truss" for computing the angle and span change constants of trusses.As, for computing the angle change constants of a truss, the dummy unit moment is a couple applied to its end verticals, so, for computing the angle change constants of a column, the dummy unit moment must also be a couple applied to the section of column rigidly connected to the end of a truss, in order to effect a consistent deformation at the joint of the two. This is the first principle.A truss just like a curved or gabled beam of which the effect of span-change can not be neglected, so truss rigid frames belong to the same category of what may be called "span-change" rigid frames such as rigid frames with curved or gabled beams. Therefore the span-change constants of trusses should be included besides their angle-change constants for analyzing truss rigid frames. This is the second principle.With the constants of columns and trusses are all computed in accordance with respectively the first and second principles mentioned above, truss rigid frames may be analyzed by any method including the effect of span-change as in the case of rigid frames with curved or gabled beams, and the results thus obtained will be exactly the same as by the method of least work or deflections without any special assumptions.In this paper, after the two principles are described and the formulas for computing the constants of columns and trusses are derived, the correctness of the two principles are then proved by the methods of least work, deflections and slope-deflection. A two-span truss rigid frame is analyzed under the following three conditions:Ⅰ. Applying both of the two principles to obtain the correct results.Ⅱ. Applying only the first principle to show the discrepancies of neglecting the effect of span-change in trusses as born out by comparing the results of Ⅱ with Ⅰ.Ⅲ. Applying neither of the two principles, and the truss rigid frames being analyzed by the special assumption (2) mentioned above with the line of axis at the bottom chord of truss, in order to show the discrepancies of neglecting the moment action on column as born out by comparing the results of Ⅲ with Ⅱ. For the sake of brevity, only the results are given in Tables 1 to 5 without computations in details.Although the discrepancies of neglecting the moment acticn on column are only slight as shown by comparing the results of Ⅲ with Ⅱ in Tables 2, 4 and 5, there is no reason why special assumptions should not be replaced by the correct principle of moment action on column to obtain correct results. As shown by comparing the results of Ⅱ with Ⅰ in Tables 2, 4 and 5, the discrepancies by neglecting the span change in trusses are generally considerable and, in certain particular part, as large as 3000%. Therefore, for the safe and economical design of truss rigid frames, the effect of span-change in trusses should not be neglected in their analysis.Finally, for analyzing co

    所謂“桁架剛構”即以桁架為横梁与柱相剛接之剛構。現下採用分析剛構之任一方法,以分析此項剛構时,均須採用種種特殊之假定而得近似之結果。據著者所知,中外書刊中似尚无此項剛構之正確分析法。於本文中,著者發表关於桁架剛構正確分析之兩項原理,即柱頂力矩作用与桁架跨变影響之兩项原理。前項原理使柱頂段之角夔与桁架端豎桿相同,以符合柱与桁架剛接处之連续性。後項原理指出桁架与曲梁(即拱)及折梁(即山墙式梁)相同係一種“跨变横梁”,故桁架刚構亦与拱式及山墙式剛構相同,係一種“跨变剛構”。若根據此兩项原理,分别计算柱与桁架兩端的撓曲常数,再用分析跨变刚構之任一分析法以分析此項刚構,則所得之枯果,与不作任何特殊假定用最少功法或变位法所得者完全相同。本文先說明此兩项原理及根據此兩項原理计算柱与桁架撓曲常數之方法。次取一最簡單之桁架刚構为例,證明此丙項原理之正確性。桁架刚構既与拱式及山墙式刚構同属於跨变刚構一類型,分析後者之任何方法均可用以分析前者,本文无須贅述。但取一兩跨之桁架刚構為例,列举所得之正確結果,与用近似法所得者相比较,藉以顯出近似法有相當巨大之差誤。關於階形之複式桁架刚構之分析,本文用“代替桁架”之辦法,但只說明其原則,不...

    所謂“桁架剛構”即以桁架為横梁与柱相剛接之剛構。現下採用分析剛構之任一方法,以分析此項剛構时,均須採用種種特殊之假定而得近似之結果。據著者所知,中外書刊中似尚无此項剛構之正確分析法。於本文中,著者發表关於桁架剛構正確分析之兩項原理,即柱頂力矩作用与桁架跨变影響之兩项原理。前項原理使柱頂段之角夔与桁架端豎桿相同,以符合柱与桁架剛接处之連续性。後項原理指出桁架与曲梁(即拱)及折梁(即山墙式梁)相同係一種“跨变横梁”,故桁架刚構亦与拱式及山墙式剛構相同,係一種“跨变剛構”。若根據此兩项原理,分别计算柱与桁架兩端的撓曲常数,再用分析跨变刚構之任一分析法以分析此項刚構,則所得之枯果,与不作任何特殊假定用最少功法或变位法所得者完全相同。本文先說明此兩项原理及根據此兩項原理计算柱与桁架撓曲常數之方法。次取一最簡單之桁架刚構为例,證明此丙項原理之正確性。桁架刚構既与拱式及山墙式刚構同属於跨变刚構一類型,分析後者之任何方法均可用以分析前者,本文无須贅述。但取一兩跨之桁架刚構為例,列举所得之正確結果,与用近似法所得者相比较,藉以顯出近似法有相當巨大之差誤。關於階形之複式桁架刚構之分析,本文用“代替桁架”之辦法,但只說明其原則,不列出公式及算例。

    The blade (lug) of a blade-wheel is the basic element to interact with the soil. The driving profile of a double-curved-profile blade is the profile to obtain thrust and lift characteristics. It's geometrical parameters have highly significant effect on the mobility performance of the rigid wheel at wet paddy field.In order to develop and to design the geometrical parameters of the driving profile, there are two fundamental principles that must be kept in mind. The first principle is the fundamental law...

    The blade (lug) of a blade-wheel is the basic element to interact with the soil. The driving profile of a double-curved-profile blade is the profile to obtain thrust and lift characteristics. It's geometrical parameters have highly significant effect on the mobility performance of the rigid wheel at wet paddy field.In order to develop and to design the geometrical parameters of the driving profile, there are two fundamental principles that must be kept in mind. The first principle is the fundamental law of conjugate action between two meshing profiles, when two profiles are designed to produce a constant angular velocity ratio during meshing, they are said to have conjugate action. In order to transmit motion at a constant angular velocity ratio, the pitch point P must remain fixed, and the line of action must remain intersected the horizontal line at a constant pressure angle. The second principle is that the rolling motion and locus of any point of a slipping wheel must be used in developing the parameters of a blade.The rate of slip of a slipping driving wheel is the main parameter which relates with all other geometric parameters of blades. It acts some thing like the 'module m' of a gear profile.This paper analyses and deals with nine geometrical parameters of the driving profile of a blade. Those are.Top circle pitch circleBase circle Inclined anglePressure angle Radial height of profileContact length Arc length of profileRolling wheel angle within meshing The author derives the following equations to relate the nine parameters.1 . Rate of slip 5 and radius of pitch circle r, radius of top circle2 . The inclined angle (y) equation 0=1- ^-HULjSY-.3. The pressure angle (a) equationcos (tga) -tgasin (tga)b _ jTo compute the above two equations, the author develops his program using the Programmable casio fx-1 calculator, and obtains the value y and a with respect to 6, and plots the curves of the above equations. The curves intersect at a point which represents optimum value of inclined angle and pressure angle with respect to the rate of slip (y = a = 26.5%, o=14.87%) .4 . Radius of base circle (rg)rg = rcoscc = r0 (1-5) cosacos (tga) -tgasin (tga) = r0 -------- ------------- cosa5. The radial height (h)h"=r0 (1 -5) ( 1 -cosa) 6 . The arc length of profile (s) s= -i-rgtg2a0r20 sin2a 2rg7. Contact length (L)L = r0sina8. The rolling wheel angle within meshing? - L ro sina , 昬A + eA2=-^ + Y = - - - + Yrs rgFor a blade profile with 26.51? inclined angle and pressure angle, the rolling angle of wheel within meshing is 60. 08? and thus the minimum blades in one wheel are six. Six blades are sufficient to assure that there is always a blade in meshing with the soil.This paper lists out three tables of tractor test data which reveal the performance of 30? inclined angle blade wheel mounted on wheel tractors, riding tractors, and boat-type tractors. The data shows that the tractive efficiency of these three kinds of tractors with blade wheels are 48-54%, but for other wheels they are 10-43%.The author designs the optimum geometrical parameters of 26.50?blade wheels and compares them with the parameters of the 30癰lade wheels.The author hopes that the advanced theoretical study of the driving profile of a blade will give the tractor more tractive efficiency,and thus increasing the tractor's pull and obtaining the higher fuel efficiency. The fuel saving will give from 5 to 9 % for the paddy field wheel tractors.

    木田叶轮的轮叶是参与土壤相互作用的基本元件。轮叶驱动面是轮叶产生推力、承力性能的工作面。轮叶驱动面的几何形状参数对驱动轮的工作性能和整机牵引性能有重要影响。本文提出确定轮叶驱动面几何参数的两个基本原则:一是机械原理的共轭啮合基本定律,要求啮合过程节点位置不变,压力角维持一定;二是符合驱动轮的滑转滚动轨迹和规律。本文提出以滑转率δ为最基本参数建立其他参数关系式。本文对轮叶驱动面下面九个几何形状参数进行分析:顶圆、节圆、基圆、倾角、压力角、轮叶高、叶形曲率弧长、啮合线长、以及一个轮叶与土壤啮合过程中的轮子转角。本文推导出上述几何参数与滑转率的八个关系式。其中,对轮叶倾角和压力角作了详细的分析,用编程序的电子计算器Casio·Pro·Fx-1将倾角、压力角与滑转率关系式(δ=1-(2sinγ-tgγ)/γ,δ=1-cos(tgα)-tgαsin(tgα)/1-tg~2α)进行连续计算并绘出两曲线,得出交点可作为倾角与压力角最佳值γ=α=26.51°,其相应最佳滑转率值为14.87%。根据上述原则,可推算出一个轮叶与土壤啮合接触过程的轮子转角,对于压力角及倾角等于26.51°的轮叶来说,轮子转角为68.08°,这样表...

    木田叶轮的轮叶是参与土壤相互作用的基本元件。轮叶驱动面是轮叶产生推力、承力性能的工作面。轮叶驱动面的几何形状参数对驱动轮的工作性能和整机牵引性能有重要影响。本文提出确定轮叶驱动面几何参数的两个基本原则:一是机械原理的共轭啮合基本定律,要求啮合过程节点位置不变,压力角维持一定;二是符合驱动轮的滑转滚动轨迹和规律。本文提出以滑转率δ为最基本参数建立其他参数关系式。本文对轮叶驱动面下面九个几何形状参数进行分析:顶圆、节圆、基圆、倾角、压力角、轮叶高、叶形曲率弧长、啮合线长、以及一个轮叶与土壤啮合过程中的轮子转角。本文推导出上述几何参数与滑转率的八个关系式。其中,对轮叶倾角和压力角作了详细的分析,用编程序的电子计算器Casio·Pro·Fx-1将倾角、压力角与滑转率关系式(δ=1-(2sinγ-tgγ)/γ,δ=1-cos(tgα)-tgαsin(tgα)/1-tg~2α)进行连续计算并绘出两曲线,得出交点可作为倾角与压力角最佳值γ=α=26.51°,其相应最佳滑转率值为14.87%。根据上述原则,可推算出一个轮叶与土壤啮合接触过程的轮子转角,对于压力角及倾角等于26.51°的轮叶来说,轮子转角为68.08°,这样表明叶轮的最少叶数为六个,便可保证任何时刻都有轮叶与土壤啮合接触。本文列出多年来按上述原则设

    Solid state physicists witnessed notable progress in single electron energy band theories during the past decade. It is now possible to compare informations from sophisticated experimental measurements, with not only energy band structure but also various physical expectation values that can be calculated with energy eigenfunctions. The local density functional theory initiated by Hohenberg, Kohn and Sham, aiming at supplying a rigorous basis for single particle energy band description of ground state properties,...

    Solid state physicists witnessed notable progress in single electron energy band theories during the past decade. It is now possible to compare informations from sophisticated experimental measurements, with not only energy band structure but also various physical expectation values that can be calculated with energy eigenfunctions. The local density functional theory initiated by Hohenberg, Kohn and Sham, aiming at supplying a rigorous basis for single particle energy band description of ground state properties, also provides accurate and practical methods of calculation starting from first principles. The present article is a review on recent progress of Local Density Functional (LDF) theory——energy band methods. We first give a general introduction to the theoretical background and then show the readers their successes through discussions of applications to various physical systems.

    在过去十年中,单电子能带理论取得了重大的进展。现在,已不仅可以将能带结构,并且可以将用能量本征函数计算的各种物理的期望值,与精密的实验测量相比较。意图为基态的单粒子能带描述准备严格基础的由Hohenberg,Kohn和Sham创始的局域密度泛函理论,也提供了从第一性原理出发的准确而有用的计算方法。本文评述局域密度泛函(LDF)理论—能带方法的新近进展。我们首先对于理论的背景作一般性的介绍,然后通过对于各种物理系统的应用的讨论,让读者了解,它们所取得的成就。

     
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