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  hanging
Experiments with hanging drops allow us first to discard any influence of convection in the gas phase on the drop dynamics.
      
Investigation of a "hanging" shock wave near a generating point
      
The hodograph method is used to plot a "hanging" shock wave in the plane nonequilibrium supersonic flow of an ideal gas.
      
"Hanging" discontinuities in the saturation with the filtration of immiscible liquids in inhomogenous media
      
A study is made of "hanging" discontinuities of the saturation arising at the points of the breakaway of the absolute permeability, taking account of capillary forces and of the force of gravity.
      
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Objective Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in neonatal rats may induce sensorimotor functional and behavioral deficits. It was found that environmental stimulation could influence brain structure and function, and play an important role during brain development. Environmental stimulation can also improve the functional outcome of cerebral infarction in adult rats. The purpose of present study was to observe the influence of environmental stimulation on functional outcome of HIBD in neonatal rats. Methods...

Objective Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in neonatal rats may induce sensorimotor functional and behavioral deficits. It was found that environmental stimulation could influence brain structure and function, and play an important role during brain development. Environmental stimulation can also improve the functional outcome of cerebral infarction in adult rats. The purpose of present study was to observe the influence of environmental stimulation on functional outcome of HIBD in neonatal rats. Methods Seven days old postnatal male SD rats (n=51) were used in this study. HIBD models (n=36) were established as follows: the right common carotid artery was dissected and ligated. After 4 h of recovery, the litters were exposed to 8% oxygen-92% nitrogen gas mixture for 2 h. The HIBD rats were randomly divided into two groups: intervention group and non-intervention group. The sham-operation rats were served as normal control group. Seven rats died during the hypoxic procedure and 5 rats died later. Intervention group (n=12) received the neonatal handling and was kept in an enriched environment for 30 days. Non-intervention group (n=14) and control group (n=13) were kept in a standard condition without the neonatal handling and enriched environment. One behavioral task (discrimination learning in tri-equal-arm maze) and 2 sensorimotor functional tests (suspension test and beam-walking test) were used to evaluate the functional outcome. The extent of brain damage in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus were assessed histologically at last. Results The numbers of trails to reach the learning criterion were 45±9, 27±5 and 24±8 for non-intervention, intervention and control groups, respectively. The learning ability of non-intervention group reduced and was much lower than those of intervention group and control group (P<0.01). The sensorimotor function of non-intervention group was also lower than those of intervention group and control group (P<0.01). In the suspension test, the time necessary for hanging on to the rope was (15±3) s in the non-intervention group as compared with (22±4) s in the intervention group and (36±6) s in the control group. In the beam-walking test, the time crossed the beam for non-intervention group was (7.0±1.1) s, while for intervention group and control group were (4.0±0.8) s and (4.0±0.5) s, respectively. The percentage of dead neurons in intervention group was (35.7±8.9)% in cortex and (38.5±6.3)% in hippocampus compared with (39.1±10.9)% and (39.3±10.4)%. There was no significant difference with regard to the degree of brain damage between intervention group and non-intervention group (P>0.05). However, there was a positive correlation between behavioral test and the extent of hippocampus damage (r=0.915, P<0.01). Sensorimotor function was correlated with the degree of cortic damage (P<0.01). Conclusion The environmental stimulation can improve the sensorimotor functional outcome and the discrimination learning ability of neonatal rats with HIBD.

目的 探讨环境刺激对缺氧缺血性脑损伤 (hypoxic ischemicbraindamage,HIBD)新生大鼠脑功能的影响。方法 选用 7日龄雄性SD大鼠 5 1只 ,其中 36只通过结扎右侧颈总动脉 ,吸入氧体积浓度为 (8 0± 0 5 ) %的氮氧混合气体 ,制作新生大鼠HIBD模型 ,制模后的大鼠分为干预组和非干预组 ;正常对照组大鼠 15只 (假手术动物 )。采用早期触摸 (neonatalhandling)和丰富环境 (enrichedenvironment)刺激进行干预 ,干预时间为 30d ,干预结束后进行感觉运动功能 (悬吊试验、行走试验 )和行为检测 (三等分迷宫试验 )以判断干预效果。结果 非干预组大鼠分辨学习能力较干预组和正常对照组差 (P <0 0 1) ,达到学会标准所需的训练次数分别为 :非干预组 (4 5± 9)次、干预组 (2 7± 5 )次、正常对照组 (2 4± 8)次 ;非干预组大鼠感觉运动功能低于干预组和正常对照组 (P <0 0 1) ,悬吊试验时间分别为非干预组 (15± 3)s、干预组 (2 2± 4)s、正常对照组 (36± 6 )s;行走试验时间分...

目的 探讨环境刺激对缺氧缺血性脑损伤 (hypoxic ischemicbraindamage,HIBD)新生大鼠脑功能的影响。方法 选用 7日龄雄性SD大鼠 5 1只 ,其中 36只通过结扎右侧颈总动脉 ,吸入氧体积浓度为 (8 0± 0 5 ) %的氮氧混合气体 ,制作新生大鼠HIBD模型 ,制模后的大鼠分为干预组和非干预组 ;正常对照组大鼠 15只 (假手术动物 )。采用早期触摸 (neonatalhandling)和丰富环境 (enrichedenvironment)刺激进行干预 ,干预时间为 30d ,干预结束后进行感觉运动功能 (悬吊试验、行走试验 )和行为检测 (三等分迷宫试验 )以判断干预效果。结果 非干预组大鼠分辨学习能力较干预组和正常对照组差 (P <0 0 1) ,达到学会标准所需的训练次数分别为 :非干预组 (4 5± 9)次、干预组 (2 7± 5 )次、正常对照组 (2 4± 8)次 ;非干预组大鼠感觉运动功能低于干预组和正常对照组 (P <0 0 1) ,悬吊试验时间分别为非干预组 (15± 3)s、干预组 (2 2± 4)s、正常对照组 (36± 6 )s;行走试验时间分别为 (7 0± 1 1)s、(4 0± 0 8)s、(4 0± 0 5 )s;干预组和非干预组大鼠大脑皮层死亡细胞百分数分别为 (35 7± 8 9) %和 (39 1± 10 9) % ,海马部位分别为 (38 5± 6 3) %和 (39 3± 10 4) % ,干预组与非干预组脑损伤程度差异无显

ObjectiveTo explore the clinical characteristics and therapeutic efficiency of supracristal ventricular septal defects(SPVSD).MethodsOne hundred ninety-four cases of SPVSD were treated by operation, including patched repair in 182 cases and direct suture in 12 cases. The 8 cases complicated with moderate to severe aortic valvular insufficiency(AVI)were treated by valvuloplasty, plication and hanging operation of aortic valves. Results Four out of 194 patients died(mortality 2.1%),the others recovered...

ObjectiveTo explore the clinical characteristics and therapeutic efficiency of supracristal ventricular septal defects(SPVSD).MethodsOne hundred ninety-four cases of SPVSD were treated by operation, including patched repair in 182 cases and direct suture in 12 cases. The 8 cases complicated with moderate to severe aortic valvular insufficiency(AVI)were treated by valvuloplasty, plication and hanging operation of aortic valves. Results Four out of 194 patients died(mortality 2.1%),the others recovered satisfactorily,142 patients among them were followed up for 3 months to 16 years, their symptoms generally disappeared and could engage in normal activity. No residual fistula and new occurrence of aortic insufficiency were found.Conclusions SPVSD should be treated mainly with patched repair, but it would be better to treat the complicated AVI with plication stitches.

目的探讨小儿干下型室间隔缺损(SPVSD)的临床特点和治疗效果。方法对 194例小儿SPVSD进行了手术治疗 ,其中补片修补182例 ,直接缝合 12例。对 8例合并中至重度主动脉瓣关闭不全 (AI)采用主动脉瓣成形术和主动脉瓣折叠悬吊术。结果死亡 4例 ,病死率2 .1%。存活 190例 ,效果满意 ,14 2例随访 3个月至 16年 ,自觉症状基本消失 ,能参加正常活动 ,无残余漏和新的主动脉瓣关闭不全发生。结论对SPVSD治疗以补片修补为主 ,采用主动脉瓣折叠悬吊术治疗合并有AI者效果较好

To investigate the effects and mechanisms of dietary calcium or vitamin D deficiency on bone growth and mineralization in young growing rats. Four groups of fifteen weaning male wistar rats were fed normal(0.5% Ca,2000IU/kg vitD),low calcium(0.15%) Ca,2000IU/kg VitD),vitamin D deficient (0.5% Ca,without VitD) or both low calcium and vitamin D deficient (0.15% Ca, without VitD) diets.Animals were housed in stainless steel hanging cages in a lightcontrolled environment and porvided distilled water ad...

To investigate the effects and mechanisms of dietary calcium or vitamin D deficiency on bone growth and mineralization in young growing rats. Four groups of fifteen weaning male wistar rats were fed normal(0.5% Ca,2000IU/kg vitD),low calcium(0.15%) Ca,2000IU/kg VitD),vitamin D deficient (0.5% Ca,without VitD) or both low calcium and vitamin D deficient (0.15% Ca, without VitD) diets.Animals were housed in stainless steel hanging cages in a lightcontrolled environment and porvided distilled water ad libitum for 6 week.One third of rats in each group were killed at 0,3,6, week respectively.Serum Ca,P,25 OHD 3,none specific alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin(OC) levels were assayed.Tibia and femur length,fat free dry bone weight,ash weight and bone mineral composition were also determined. After 3 week depletion,bone growth and mineralization in the three experiment groups lagged behind normal rats significantly.The tibia and femur length,fat free dry bone weight,ash weight were lower compared with those of corresponding controls.All measured bone mineral levels including Ca,P,Mg,Na were also reduced except for potassium.Serum OC levels were decreased as the experiment time went on. [Conclusions] Calcium or vitamin D deficiency during the period of skeletal development compromises both the quantity and quality of bone.The impaired bone growth seems to be mediated through the effects on osteoblast activity.

【目的】 探讨钙与维生素D营养缺乏对幼鼠骨骼生长和矿化的影响及机制。 【方法】 建立单纯钙缺乏、维生素D缺乏和钙与维生素D同时缺乏的幼鼠动物模型 ,追踪其长骨的生长发育 ,并监测血清Ca、P、2 5 ODH3 、骨碱性磷酸酶 (B ALP)水平及骨矿含量的构成的改变 ;观察反映骨形成和成骨细胞功能的生化标志—血清骨钙素水平。 【结果】 钙缺乏、维生素D缺乏和两者同时缺乏大鼠的长骨生长发育明显落后于正常大鼠 ;其胫骨重、骨灰重均显著降低 ;对骨矿成分的分析显示 ,除K以外Ca、P、Mg、Na均有不同程度减少 ;实验组大鼠的血清骨钙素水平随实验期延长呈进行性下降。 【结论】 钙和维生素D缺乏影响成骨细胞的功能 ,使骨形成和矿化过程受阻 ,从而导致骨骼生长发育质和量的异常

 
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