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Effect of forest vegetation on runoff and sediment production in sloping lands of Loess area


Thirdly, based on gray cognate analyses of factors affecting runoff and sediment production in sloping land, the factors of stand canopy density and herb and litter biomass were the most significant ones, whose gray incidence degree exceeded 0.6.


Microstructures and properties of semisolid billet and thixoforging product prepared by vibrating wavelike sloping plate (VWSP)


By using selfmade vibrating wavelike sloping plate (VWSP) setup, the process of preparing semisolid billets of light alloys by semicontinuous casting and thixoforging process were studied.


Semisolid billets with fine spherical or rosette grains were prepared by the proposed process, and the solidified shell on the sloping plate surface can be effectively avoided.

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 In 1st part of this paper,we have calculated the distribution of the mean heat sources and sinks in lower troposphere.The Local change of the mean temperature,or the 1000—500mbthickness h,isAssuming a steady state,and taking mean over the range of integration,we obtain.where Q is the heat gained or lossed by ùnit mass of air in unit time.ω=dp/dt is the verticalvelocity,(?),as a constant, p_0=1000 mb,(?)=500 mb,m represents the meanover 1000—500 mb.Using the mean charts of 1000—500 mb thickness and 700 mb topography,we... In 1st part of this paper,we have calculated the distribution of the mean heat sources and sinks in lower troposphere.The Local change of the mean temperature,or the 1000—500mbthickness h,isAssuming a steady state,and taking mean over the range of integration,we obtain.where Q is the heat gained or lossed by ùnit mass of air in unit time.ω=dp/dt is the verticalvelocity,(?),as a constant, p_0=1000 mb,(?)=500 mb,m represents the meanover 1000—500 mb.Using the mean charts of 1000—500 mb thickness and 700 mb topography,we can calculatethe 1st term of(2)by geostrophic approximation.(Fig.5—6)Vertical velocity at 500 mb surface is calculated by the mean divergence at 1000 mb and 500mb surface with due consideration to the sloping current due to earth's topography,assumingthat ω is linearly decreasing along vertical,we can obtain the mean vertical velocity ω_m(Fig.3—4).The 1000 mb divergence is calculated from the mean surface vector wind,and the 500 mbdivergence,as follows:Introducing the vertically integrated wind velocity components(?)To the steady state tendency equation,we obtain(?)where w_0 is the surface vertical velocity.(?) and (?) are used as mean wind components at 500 mbsurface.Mean 500 mb divergence is then calculated from the mean 500 mb topography,meansurface pressure and mean w_0 due to earth's topography.(Fig.1—2)The hemispheric mean charts of heat sources and sinks in lower troposphere for Jan.andJuly are given as Fig.7 and Fig.8 respectively.From the numerical calculations,it is found that the 2nd term of(2)is as important asthe 1st term,especially in summer season.Qualitative discussion on the formation of the heat sources and sinks in terms of heat energyof condensation,sensible heat and radiation is given.Finally,a detail comparision of present results with those of others is made.  在本研究题目的第—部分中,作者由热量方程利用高空温压场和表面风的平均资料,计算了北半球1月和7月对流层下半部热源和热汇的分布,并讨论了它们的地理分布的特点。作者利用辐射、凝结和湍流等加热过程来解释热源和热汇的分布情况。并将热源和热汇的水平分布图和沿纬圈方向的平均值,与过去其他人的工作在源汇强度和分布形势上予以详细比较。  The F_1 of Shorthorn×Mongolian cross adapts itself very well to the environmental conditions of the northern part of Hopei Province.They are strongbuilt, with low succeptibility to diseases. The F_1 has highly improved conformation over the Mongolian cattle, being more symmetrical, with refined head, increased body width; back and loins are straight, wide and long; ribs wellsprung, length of legs increased.They are more meaty than the Mongolian cattle.But their hind quarters are still not well developed and... The F_1 of Shorthorn×Mongolian cross adapts itself very well to the environmental conditions of the northern part of Hopei Province.They are strongbuilt, with low succeptibility to diseases. The F_1 has highly improved conformation over the Mongolian cattle, being more symmetrical, with refined head, increased body width; back and loins are straight, wide and long; ribs wellsprung, length of legs increased.They are more meaty than the Mongolian cattle.But their hind quarters are still not well developed and rather narrow, some of them with sloping and ridgeshaped hips. The udders of the F_1 cows are better developed, with thicker and more curved milk veins, and longer teats.The hair of the crossbred cattle is short and lustrous.The predominant coat color is red or roan, cattle of black, black and white, yellow, yellow and white colors are next numerous, while those of brown, white, steel grey, and wild cat are still less in number. The development and growth of F_1 attained a higher level.Average birth weight of bull calves is 25.13kg, and of heifer calves 23.14kg, they increased by 31.36% and 32.46% respectively than the Mongolian calves.Their weight at 6 months increased by 26.12% and 32.48% respectively, at 12 months by 65.85 and 90.10% respectively.Average weight of F_1 cows at 1st freshening is 399.04kg, 2nd freshening 405.80kg, 3rd freshening 436.00kg, an increase of 41.75%, 26.54% and 31.92% as compared with Mongolian cows at respective freshenings.F_1 bulls at 3 years of age weigh 577.5kg, at 4 years 750.0kg. The height at withers of mature bulls is 141.00cm on the average, body length 175.00cm, heart girth 215.0cm, increased by 17.50%, 17.69% and 20.14% respectively.The average height at withers of mature cows is 124.61cm, body length 146.17cm, heart girth 181.71cm, increased by 1198%, 10.40% and 10.03% respectively. Average length of lactation period of F_1 cows is 267.82 days, an increase of 108.24 days.Average production of milk is: 1st lactation 1,625.25kg, 2nd lactation 1,977.53kg, 3rd lactation 2,342.43kg, increased by 290.36%, 285.27% and 302.22% respectively as compared with Mongolian cows.Cows with milk production over 2,000kg at 1st lactation amounted to 30.80% of the total number of cows, the highest producer gave 3,337.2kg.Average fat content is 4.60%, they range from 3.93% to 5.5%.  短蒙一代杂种牛,对察北地区自然条件的适应性良好,生活力强,体格健壮,疾病较少。短蒙一代杂种牛在体型外貌方面比蒙古牛有了很大程度的改善,全身结构均称、头清秀、体躯宽度显著增加、斜尻有了改善、背腰平宽长、肋骨开张、四肢增高、肌肉组织亦较蒙古牛丰满充实。但后躯仍嫌狭小,有的牛仍显现耕尻和屋脊状尻。一代杂种母牛乳房增大、乳静脉变粗、有弯曲、乳头长度增加。被毛短、有光泽。毛色以红、红白色为数最多,黑、黑白,黄、黄白色次之,狸、褐、白、青等色较少。短蒙一代杂种牛的生长发育较快,公犊平均初生体重为95.13公斤,母犊为93.14公斤,比蒙古牛分别提高31.36％与39.46％,6个月龄体重提高39.48％与96.12％,12个月龄体重提高90.10％与65.85％。短蒙一代杂种母牛平均体重第一产399.04公斤,第二产405.80公斤,第三产436.00公斤,比蒙古牛分别提高41.75％、96.54％与31.92％。一代杂种公牛3岁体重为577.50公斤,4岁为750.0公斤。短蒙一代杂种牛各年龄体格较蒙古牛为大,成年公牛鬐甲高141.0厘米,斜体长 175.0厘米,胸围215.0厘米,较蒙古牛分别增加17.50％、17.... 短蒙一代杂种牛,对察北地区自然条件的适应性良好,生活力强,体格健壮,疾病较少。短蒙一代杂种牛在体型外貌方面比蒙古牛有了很大程度的改善,全身结构均称、头清秀、体躯宽度显著增加、斜尻有了改善、背腰平宽长、肋骨开张、四肢增高、肌肉组织亦较蒙古牛丰满充实。但后躯仍嫌狭小,有的牛仍显现耕尻和屋脊状尻。一代杂种母牛乳房增大、乳静脉变粗、有弯曲、乳头长度增加。被毛短、有光泽。毛色以红、红白色为数最多,黑、黑白,黄、黄白色次之,狸、褐、白、青等色较少。短蒙一代杂种牛的生长发育较快,公犊平均初生体重为95.13公斤,母犊为93.14公斤,比蒙古牛分别提高31.36％与39.46％,6个月龄体重提高39.48％与96.12％,12个月龄体重提高90.10％与65.85％。短蒙一代杂种母牛平均体重第一产399.04公斤,第二产405.80公斤,第三产436.00公斤,比蒙古牛分别提高41.75％、96.54％与31.92％。一代杂种公牛3岁体重为577.50公斤,4岁为750.0公斤。短蒙一代杂种牛各年龄体格较蒙古牛为大,成年公牛鬐甲高141.0厘米,斜体长 175.0厘米,胸围215.0厘米,较蒙古牛分别增加17.50％、17.69％与20.04％;成年母牛鬐甲高124.61厘米,斜体长146.17厘米,胸围181.71厘米,此蒙古牛分别提高11.98％、10.40％与10.03％。短蒙一代杂种牛泌乳期平均为267.82天,此蒙古牛增长108.42天,泌乳300天以上者占39.03％,比蒙古牛增多5.18倍。平均泌乳量第一产为1,625.25公斤,第二产为1,977.53公斤,第三产以上为2,342.43公斤,此蒙古牛分别提高290.36％、285.27％与302.22％。第一产泌乳量在2,000公斤以上者有30.80％,最高达3,337.2公斤。平均乳脂率为4.60％(范围3.93—5.5％)。  Mongolian cattle are raised mainly on the Mongolian plateau.They are distributed in the whole of Inner Mongolia and its neighboring provinces.They are well adapted and acclimated to the cold and dry climate of the plateau and can stand poor feeding and management conditions. The body of the cow is rectangular, the head being somewhat large, horns long and fine, chest narrow and deep, hind quarters a little narrow, hips sloping, shortlegged with bowedin hind legs, back, straight, thighs not full, udders... Mongolian cattle are raised mainly on the Mongolian plateau.They are distributed in the whole of Inner Mongolia and its neighboring provinces.They are well adapted and acclimated to the cold and dry climate of the plateau and can stand poor feeding and management conditions. The body of the cow is rectangular, the head being somewhat large, horns long and fine, chest narrow and deep, hind quarters a little narrow, hips sloping, shortlegged with bowedin hind legs, back, straight, thighs not full, udders small with short and small teats.The color patterns are mostly yellowish brown, black, and black and white; cows of reddishbrown and wild cat are lesser in numbre, occasionally with grey or white hair. Average weight of heifer calf at birth is 17.47kg, at 6 months 102.53kg.Yearling heifers weigh 131.37kg on the average, 3 year olds 281.5kg, 5 year olds 330.5kg, and 7—9 year olds 365—370kg.The average height at withers of adult cow is 112.61cm; body length 135.96cm; heart girth 167.72cm; and the circumference of the ankle is 15.55cm. The average.length of lactation is 159.4 days, 51.64% of the cows between 121— 210 days.Milk production averages: for 1st lactation 416.35kg, 2nd lactation 513.29kg, 3rd lactation 582.38kg, 4th lactation and onwards 651.06kg, 48.37% of the cows yield between 500—1,100kg.Highest production record was 2,195.8kg, and highest daily production was 14.13kg.The average fat content was 5.22% (range from 3.1% to 9.0%), mostly between 5.0%—5.9%, which amounting to 55.38%.  蒙古牛主要产在蒙古高原。分布在我国内蒙全境及其临近的西北、东北、华北各省的部分地区。蒙古母牛体躯呈长方形,头稍大,角细长,胸扁深,后躯稍窄,尻部较倾斜,四肢短,后肢内缩,背腰平直,后腿肌肉不够丰满,乳房小,乳头细短。被毛以黄褐、黑及黑白色最多,红褐、狸色灰之,间有青灰和白色。母牛体重,初生平均为17.47公斤,6个月102.53公斤,12个月131.73公斤,3岁281.5公斤,5岁330.5公斤,7—9岁母牛为365—370公斤。成年母牛鬐甲高平均为112.61厘米,体长135.96厘米,胸围167.72厘米,管围15.55厘米。蒙古牛泌乳日数平均为159.4天。第一产泌乳量平均为416.35公斤,第二产为 513.29公斤,第三产为582.38公斤,第四产和以后各产为651.06公斤。产乳在500—1,100公斤者为多,占全群牛数的48.37％,泌乳期最高产量达2,195.8公斤,最高日泌乳量14.13公斤。乳脂率平均为5.22％(范围3.1—9.0％)。   << 更多相关文摘 
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