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    Fundamental Paramenters Method in X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis
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In the second example, we obtain a proof of the Chalyh-Veselov conjecture that the Calogero-Moser system with integer parameter is algebraically integrable, using the results of Felder and Varchenko.
      
As an application of the results we prove a generalization of Chevalley's restriction theorem for the classical Lie algebras.
      
We apply these results to intersection theory on varieties with group actions, especially to Schubert calculus and its generalizations.
      
In this paper, we prove three types of rigidity results related to CAT(-1) spaces, namely the rigidity of the isometric actions on CAT(-1) spaces under the commensurability subgroups, the higher rank lattices and certain ergodic cocycles.
      
This extends the results and simplifies the proof for the classical orbit structure description of [10] and [11], which applies whenF=Z.
      
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The extent of coprecipitation of copper with ferric hydroxide in the am- monium chloride-ammonia process has been studied. Pentavalent arsenic and antimony may be present up to 10 mg, and phosphate, 50 mg. Aluminum exerts little effect. It is found that this method yields satisfactory results. The amount of copper coprecipitated in the ferric hydroxide precipitate is negligible in practical analysis.

用氫氧化銨及氯化銨以分離銅與鐵,結果很好。氫氧化鐵中所留銅量,在實用分析上,已少至毋須考慮。用此法自多量鐵中分離少量銅份,可直接用此色法测定。五價砷與銻存在時,如不超過10毫克,或磷酸根不超過50毫克時,不影響銅與鐵的分離。鋁對分離更無影響。

In view of the necessity of a rapid and accurate process for the deter-mination of fluorine applicable in the analysis of sodium fluoride and otherfluorine compounds,the author has established a new volumetric processconsisting in the titration in aqueous-alcoholic medium with ferric nitrate asstandard solution and sodium salicylate as indicator.All of the methods,published by Guyot,Greeff,Fairchild andVisintin proposed for the determination of fluorine using ferric solutionas standard,are based on the reaction:6NaF+FeCl_3→Na_3FeF_6+3NaCl....

In view of the necessity of a rapid and accurate process for the deter-mination of fluorine applicable in the analysis of sodium fluoride and otherfluorine compounds,the author has established a new volumetric processconsisting in the titration in aqueous-alcoholic medium with ferric nitrate asstandard solution and sodium salicylate as indicator.All of the methods,published by Guyot,Greeff,Fairchild andVisintin proposed for the determination of fluorine using ferric solutionas standard,are based on the reaction:6NaF+FeCl_3→Na_3FeF_6+3NaCl. But the sodium ferric fluoride thus formed is fairly soluble in water and makesthe end-point unclear,therefore the titration can not be performed accurately.This seems to be due to the fact that the following two reactions advancesimultaneously,and accordingly the formation of sodium ferric fluoride is in-complete in aque(?)us medium:3NaF+Fe(NO_3)_3→FeF_3+3N_aNO_33NaF+FeF_3→Na_3FeF_6Nevertheless,these reactions,according to the author's experiments;proceedalmost quantitatively in meda.containing at least 50% by volume of alcohol.This paper reports the xperimental results obtained in the fundamentalstudies on the various factors influencing the accuracy of the volumetry,namely,the sensitivity and the necessary amount of sodium salicylate used asindicator,the pH value,the alcoholic concentration of the titration medium,the concentration of the fluoride taken for the determination and the timewhen alcohol should be added in the course of titration.Furthermore,a rapidvolumetric process with high accuracy is proposed together with its applicationsin ordinary analyses of sodium fluoride and other fluorine compounds.The proposed method is characteristic in using sodium salicylate asindicator,which shows sharp violet color with minute amount of ferric ion inmedium of pH 3 controlled with buffer solution,then titrating with standardferric nitrate,and adding proper amount of alcohol(the alcoholic concentra-tion at the end-point should be above 50%)during the titration,when themedium becomes orange yellow in color.The method may be summarized as follows:Take 5 ml of neutral sodiumfluoride solution of about 0.3 N in a small Erlenmeyer flask,add 2.5 mlof Walpole's buffer solution of pH 3(formed by dissolving 34.0 g ofcrystalline sodium acetate and 20 ml of 38% HCl in water,and making upto 250 ml)and 1 ml of 0.1 M sodium salicylate dissolved in 50% alcohol.After sufficient stirring,titrate with standard 0.3 N(0.05 M)ferric nitratesolution,using micro-burette until the medium becomes orange yellow,thisstep being reached after addition of about 4 ml of titrant.Then decolorizethe solution by adding 12.5 ml of absolute alcohol(or 13 ml of 95% alcohol),previously purified by redistillation with lime;stirring is necessary during theaddition.Further continue the titration until the light pink color formeddoes not fade after stirring for 30 seconds when observed over a white surface. In the analyses of sodium fluoride and other fluorine compounds con-taining interfering substances,such as divalent and polyvalent metallic ions,phosphate,silicate,borate,carbonate,sulfide ions and reductants acting on ferricion,it is necessary to separate fluorine from these interfering substances bythe distillation with sulfuric acid according to the method of Willard andWinter(20).Then the distillate is neutralized with dilute sodium hydroxideand adjusted to the proper pH with hydrochloric acid using p-nitrophenol asindicator.The solution is ready for titration as described.But in the caseof absence of these interfering substances except carbonate,for example,inthe determination of the concentration of sodium fluorde solution obtained bythe extraction of the crude product,produced industrially by fusing fluorsparwith sodium carbonate and silica,the above separation of fluorine by dis-tillation is dispensable.The anaIytical results obtained by the proposed method are in goodagreement with those obtained by the lead chlorofluoride process(8),whichis recognized as official method for the determination of fluorine in agriculturalproducts.

本文介绍一容量分析氟的新方法和在工业制品上的应用,并分析了一种工业制备的氟化钠液,所得的结果和氟氯化铅法所得的极为一致。对于影响该分析法准确度的各种因素:指示剂的灵敏度和滴定时适宜的用量、溶液的 pH 值、应加的乙醇量、操作中加乙醇的次序、以及氟离子的适宜浓度,均加以研究并找出适宜的情况。本法用硝酸铁为标准液,水杨酸钠作指示剂,在 pH=3左右作滴定;当溶液呈橙黄色时,加入适量的乙醇,使其浓度在终点时仍不低于50%。如有干扰物质如二价及多价金属离子、磷酸根、矽酸根、硼酸根、碳酸根、硫化物和还原物质可能与三价铁起作用者,均应分离之。

An electrophotometric method has been worked out for the determination of magnesium in cast iron using titan yellow as indicator.Briefly,the method consists of dissolving the sample in dilute sulphuric acid,separating iron and other metals such as copper and nickel by electrolysis with mercury cathode and precipitating manganese from ammoniacal solution with ammonium persulfate.Ammonimn salt,silica and traces of aluminaare thenremoved. Finally,the prepared titan yellow reagent is added to the solutionand the...

An electrophotometric method has been worked out for the determination of magnesium in cast iron using titan yellow as indicator.Briefly,the method consists of dissolving the sample in dilute sulphuric acid,separating iron and other metals such as copper and nickel by electrolysis with mercury cathode and precipitating manganese from ammoniacal solution with ammonium persulfate.Ammonimn salt,silica and traces of aluminaare thenremoved. Finally,the prepared titan yellow reagent is added to the solutionand the magnesium content determined from the electrophotometric reading.The time required for each determination is approximately 5 hours. The effect of interfering elements which are likely present in cast iron such as manganese, silicon,phosphorus, aluminum, copper, nickel and vanadium as well as ammonium ion and alkali and alkaline earth metals has been studied and discussed.It has been shown that manganese, silicon, aluminum,copper,nickel,iron and ammonium ions can be removed down to such low values as to cause no significant interference.Phosphorus under 0.4% has no appreciable effect.Vanadium is not separated in the present method,but fortunately it is usually present in insignificant amounts in ordinary cast iron.The effect of calcium is compensated by the introduction of saturated calcium sulphate solution before the titan yellow addition. Potassium and sodium have no appreciable effect when present in small amounts. The results obtained by the present method for the determination of magnesium in 11 known samples are good,the average difference being 0.002% in a range of 0.000% to 0.140% Mg.The data obtained by the present method are also in good agreement with those obtained by gravimetric methods On seven nodular iron samples made by the Metallurgical Division of our Institute.A detailed procedure for the determination of magnesium in cast iron has been suggested and included in this paper.In view of its rapidity and fair accuracy,the new photometric method might prove useful for the purpose of control in a nodular iron foundry.

本文报告将地丹黄比色法应用於测定铸铁中之镁的试验结果.如将铁、锰、铝、矽等干扰物质预先除去,则镁的测定并无困难.依照本文所擬的方法分析,所需时间约为五小时,较重量法迅速得多.

 
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