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   substitutability 的翻译结果: 查询用时:0.013秒
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substitutability     
相关语句
  替代性
     Scarcity, substitutability and heterogeneity as three conceptions of economics has impacted health policy and health resource allocation.
     经济学在稀缺性、替代性和异质性等3个基本概念上对卫生政策与卫生资源的合理配置产生了深刻的影响;
短句来源
     The Study on the Relationship between Product Substitutability and the Firm′s Tacit Collusion
     产品替代性程度与企业共谋合作关系的研究
短句来源
     This paper studies the relationship between product substitutability and the firm′s collusion in the long run by mathematical model of repeated game.
     通过建立重复博弈数学模型,从数量上研究了产品替代性程度与企业长期共谋合作之间的关系.
短句来源
     Strategic Substitutability,Cannibalization and Incentives of Entrepreneurs
     战略替代性、内部竞争与创业企业家激励
短句来源
     (2)there appears to exist some degree of substitutability between two pairs: privatization and corporate governance, and privatization and competition;
     (2)在产权与公司治理,以及产权与竞争之间,存在着某种程度的替代性;
短句来源
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  替代
     Our paper took this issue into account,and forecasted the scale in an indirect way,using VAR(Vector Autoregression)model to testify the substitutability of Internet and CDMA(Code Division Multiple Address),and adopting the number of Internet users to forecast the number of 3G network users.
     为此,在充分分析3G用户群特点的基础上,采用间接预测方法,把向量自回归模型(VAR:Vector Autoregression)引入3G用户规模预测中。 通过建立CDMA(Code Division Multiple Address)用户数、互联网用户数、2G用户数的三变量的VAR模型,验证了宽带网络用户与CDMA用户之间的相互替代关系,并采用宽带网络用户数间接预测了3G未来网络用户规模。
短句来源
     Scarcity, substitutability and heterogeneity as three conceptions of economics has impacted health policy and health resource allocation.
     经济学在稀缺性、替代性和异质性等3个基本概念上对卫生政策与卫生资源的合理配置产生了深刻的影响;
短句来源
     The Study on the Relationship between Product Substitutability and the Firm′s Tacit Collusion
     产品替代性程度与企业共谋合作关系的研究
短句来源
     This paper studies the relationship between product substitutability and the firm′s collusion in the long run by mathematical model of repeated game.
     通过建立重复博弈数学模型,从数量上研究了产品替代性程度与企业长期共谋合作之间的关系.
短句来源
     Strategic Substitutability,Cannibalization and Incentives of Entrepreneurs
     战略替代性、内部竞争与创业企业家激励
短句来源
更多       
  可替代性
     There are three assumptions hidden in the orthodox microeconomics: the connotation invariance, extension independence, perfect substitutability of preference.
     正统经济学的微观理论范式隐含了三个基础性假设:偏好的内涵不变性、偏好的外延无关性和经济资源的完全可替代性
短句来源
     The application of high resolutionremote sensing technique to investigation of urban green space is one of the important fields of urban remote sensing, and it has become the main data source in urban green space investigation, monitoring and management for its high space recognition ability, wide area coverage, rough simultaneousness, short cycle of data acquisition, substitutability, and easy computer manipulation.
     高分辨率卫星遥感数据由于其较高的空间识别能力、覆盖范围广、准同时性、获取数据周期短、可替代性和便于计算机处理等特点,已成为城市园林绿地调查、监测和评价和管理的主要数据源。
短句来源
     In the game,because of the different technical condition and market environment,the negotiating power of each factor owner is an integration of the following factors: the relative contribution to the enterprise output,the ability of financial hostage of the enterprise operational risk,the resource scarcity or substitutability,the supervision on the resource usage,the resource specificity and the degree of worrying the failure of negotiation.
     在博弈过程中,面对不同的技术条件和市场环境,各要素所有者的谈判力是以下六种因素综合作用的结果:对企业总产出的相对贡献、对企业经营风险的财务抵押能力、资源的稀缺性(或可替代性)、资源使用的可监督性、资源的专用性(或可塑性)以及对谈判破裂的担心程度等。
短句来源
     Next to the impact of large-scale high-tech product pricing internal factors, contract factors and environmental factors analysed, and from applicability, maturity, monopolistic, life expectancy, the cost of production, investment income and substitutability created large high-tech product pricing indices, based on the indicators factor in the price of a share, given the corresponding monthly.
     其次对影响大型高新技术产品定价的内在因素、合同因素和环境因素进行了分析,并从产品技术的先进性、适用性、成熟性、垄断性、寿命期、生产成本、投资收益以及可替代性建立了大型高技术产品定价指标体系,根据各指标因子在价格构成中的比重,赋予相应的分值。
短句来源
     And the mental accounting discovered by behavioral economists abrogate the assumption of perfect substitutability of economic resources.
     思维会计原理作为多元的结构化过程,取消了经济资源的完全可替代性
短句来源
更多       
  替代度
     Product Substitutability and Price Competition In A Distribution Channel
     产品替代度与分销渠道的价格竞争
短句来源
     Equilibrium analysis of distribution channels based on product substitutability
     基于产品替代度的分销系统的均衡分析
短句来源
     Product substitutability is the key factor to study the competition between manufacturers in distribution channels,and which is supposed to have characteristic of "double direction" in most previous studies.
     产品替代度是研究分销渠道中生产商层次竞争的关键因素,以前大量的研究都是假设两个生产商之间产品的替代度具有“双向”性。
短句来源
     Based on this assumption,this article studies the impact of product substitutability and channel power structure on equilibrium results of manufacturers and retailer,and comparison with the model of "double direction" is given at the end.
     基于这样的假设,本文探讨了产品替代度、渠道权力结构对生产商、零售商均衡结果的影响作用,并在最后与以前的替代度“双向”模型进行了比较、讨论。
短句来源
     In this paper,based on the assumption that the PS is different,the impacts of product substitutability and different channel power structures on equilibrium results of partners are studied,and the results are compared with those by using previous models.
     基于这样的假设,该文探讨了产品替代度、不同的渠道权力结构对参与各方均衡结果的影响作用,并与以前的替代度相同模型进行了比较、讨论;
短句来源

 

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      substitutability
    Control of a manufacturing system with random product yield and downward substitutability
          
    We also assume downward substitutability (i.e., customers who require a given product will be satisfied by a higher quality product at the same price).
          
    Moreover the case where injured workers are irreplaceable is more difficult than its counterpart with perfect substitutability.
          
    It appears that funding receives low justification with a welfare criterion which assumes a high substitutability between consumptions of successive cohorts, implying a low concern for intergenerational equity.
          
    Emphasis is placed on the behavior of costs over output, the derived demand and substitutability of inputs due to changes in factor prices and technology, and the resulting effects on product prices.
          
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    Abstract for ecologists sustainability connotes presevastion of the status and function of ecological systems;for economists ,the maintenance and improvement of human living standards Disagreements about the salient elements of the concept hamper determination of appropriate responses for achieveing sustainabiligty.Key topics about which disagreement arieses include intergenerational fairness,the substitutability of natural and other resources and the carrying capacity of natural ecosystems ,Disparate...

    Abstract for ecologists sustainability connotes presevastion of the status and function of ecological systems;for economists ,the maintenance and improvement of human living standards Disagreements about the salient elements of the concept hamper determination of appropriate responses for achieveing sustainabiligty.Key topics about which disagreement arieses include intergenerational fairness,the substitutability of natural and other resources and the carrying capacity of natural ecosystems ,Disparate perspectives on these topics might be bridged through the concept of the safe minimum standard which posits a socially determined demarcation between moral imperatives to preserve and enhance natural resource systems and the free play of resource tradeoffs.

    “可持续性”定义的困难TheDifficultyinDefiningSustainability¥MichaelA.TomanAbstract:forecologistssustainabilityconnotespresevastionofthes...

    With continuing progress made in language pedagogy, people recognize that conventional passive dictionaries cannot meet the requirements of language learning and teaching, and lexicographers have started to compile and publish a great number of active dictionaries for learners. But most of them still apply the conventional necessary and sufficient conditions to lexical definition, following strictly the principle of substitutability . Thus the lexicographic definition has not been improved as...

    With continuing progress made in language pedagogy, people recognize that conventional passive dictionaries cannot meet the requirements of language learning and teaching, and lexicographers have started to compile and publish a great number of active dictionaries for learners. But most of them still apply the conventional necessary and sufficient conditions to lexical definition, following strictly the principle of substitutability . Thus the lexicographic definition has not been improved as expected. This paper calls into question the existing approaches and principles of lexicographic definition by probing into the cognitive framework for explaining the formation and actualization of natural lexical meaning. It is suggested in this paper that we should look for new approaches to the definition through an analysis of the conceptual structure, semantic structure and syntactic structure of natural language, so as to change entirely the conventional methods and principles of definition and improve greatly the productivity of the dictionary. To do this, we should probe into the mental representation of natural language and get to know the mapping between syntactic form and meaning, which is governed by projection rules (or correspondence rules) and various well-formedness rules. It is assumed that there exists a single level of mental representation, the conceptual structure, at which linguistic, sensory and motor information is compatible. The possible conceptual structure is characterized by an innate system of conceptual well-formedness rule and bound by grammatical and cognitive constraints; it would be involved in different characterizations according to different linguists, such as necessary and sufficient conditions, family resemblance, prototype and preference rules , etc. From the point of view of lexicography, the preference rule system, as a part of lexical decomposition, can be decomposed into primitive value, default value and preference value, etc., capable of accounting for family resemblance, prototype, vagueness and graded concepts of linguistic phenomena and for other cases in which the conventional necessary and sufficient conditions failed to perform correctly. By using the preference rules, the definition can represent the significant structures of natural language in a single formulation.

    随着教育事业的不断发展,人们认识到传统消极型词典不能适应学习和教学的需要,着手编纂并出版了大量的积极型学习词典。但大多数学习词典仍采用传统的“充分必要条件”进行释义,继续严格遵循“替代性”原则,使释义的质量难以得到根本的提高。本文从自然语言语义生成的心理表征入手,对现行的释义方式和原则提出质疑,指出应采用自然语言的概念结构、语义结构和句法结构,在各种规范化规则和语用规则的制约下进行释义,从根本上改变传统的释义方法和原则,提高积极型学习词典的释义质量。

    Taking advantage of the substitutability of the framework and the modifiability of the surface, the structural characteristics and the surface properties of MCM-41 were adjusted and controlled by transition-metal substitution. Owing to the accessibility of active site.and lower diffusion resistance, transition-metal substituted MCM-41 materials were chosen as catalysts for the hydroxylation of aromatics.Isomorphous substituted MCM-41 materials with well-ordered structrues were hydrothermally synthesized...

    Taking advantage of the substitutability of the framework and the modifiability of the surface, the structural characteristics and the surface properties of MCM-41 were adjusted and controlled by transition-metal substitution. Owing to the accessibility of active site.and lower diffusion resistance, transition-metal substituted MCM-41 materials were chosen as catalysts for the hydroxylation of aromatics.Isomorphous substituted MCM-41 materials with well-ordered structrues were hydrothermally synthesized by adding Al or Ti, Fe, Cr and Ni compounds to the reaction mixtrue. Not only do the long-range characterisitcs and local structures vary with the nature and amount of the heteroatom, but the characteristics of the pore structure can also be adjusted to some extent by isomorphous substitution. Meanwhile, the surface acidity and the surface hydrophilicity of MCM-41 increased after inserting Al or transition metal elements into the framework, while the results of benzene and methanol-TPD show that the surface hydrophobicity of MCM-41 decreased.Transition-metal substituted MCM-41 materials were used as catalysts for the liquidphase hydroxylation of aromatics. The catalytic activities of substituted MCM-41 are influenced by both the redox properties of the transition elements and the surface hydrophilicity/hydrohobicity. owing to its Lewis acid nature and the hydrophobic surface, Ti-MCM-41gives high conversion of benzene and high chemical selectivity to the intermediate productphenol. The chemical selectivity can be controlled by matching the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the MCM-41 catalyst, and the polarity of the solvent to the polarities of the reacantbenzene and intermediate product-phenol. MCM-41 exhitits some geometrical selectivity because of the narrow distribution of pore diameters. The accessible active sites, lower diffusio n resistance and unique surface properties result in a better catalytic performance than microporous TS-1 in the hydroxylation of benzene. The MCM-41 catalysts can be reactived by calcination.

    制备了Ti,Fe,Cr,Ni改性的MCM-41,采用XRD、低温N2吸附及TPD手段研究了改性MCM-41的结构特征和表面性质.过渡金属可同品取代骨架Si,同品取代的能力与过渡金属离子半径有关.过渡金属改性MCM-41均具有较好的长程有序结构、均一的孔径分布和较高的比表面积.引入不同的过渡金属可以改变MCM-41表面酸性和亲水/憎水性.考察了改性MCM-41对苯氧化的催化性能.

     
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