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Four different kinds of water treatment were applied to examine the photosynthetic characteristics of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) seedlings in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir area.
      
distichum takes on the features of a water-tolerant and hydrophilic plant, which can be considered as one of the species for the building of a forest protection system for the hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.
      
Effects of reforestation on the hydrological function of a small watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
      
Four different kinds of water treatments were applied to study the photosynthetic eco-physiological characteristics of Taxodium ascendens seedlings in the environment of the Three Gorges hydro-fluctuation belt.
      
To establish a protection forest system in the hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, the species T.
      
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Since 1958, in connection with the design of several hydraulic engineering projects, the Research Group of arch-abdomen Dam has made extensive laboratory studies on new types of dam, such as: arch abdomen, arch-abdomen with wide transverse joints, and arch shaped arch-abdomen, with a view to improve the stress condition of dam, to increase the capability of resisting overloading and to save material. This paper chiefly describes the general character of stress distribution of the arch shaped arch-abdomen dam....

Since 1958, in connection with the design of several hydraulic engineering projects, the Research Group of arch-abdomen Dam has made extensive laboratory studies on new types of dam, such as: arch abdomen, arch-abdomen with wide transverse joints, and arch shaped arch-abdomen, with a view to improve the stress condition of dam, to increase the capability of resisting overloading and to save material. This paper chiefly describes the general character of stress distribution of the arch shaped arch-abdomen dam. which, under the combined arch action in horizontal plane and arch in transverse cross section, will significiently improve the stress distribution in the dam and around the holes, galleries and arch-abdomen. The arch shaped arch- abdomen dam is more economical and better adaptable to narrow river gorges in central and southern part of China, characterized by large flood discharges. This arrangement will better solve the contradiction between the power house and flood discharging structures, and usually will be an effective measure to save large amount of power house excavation.

58年以来结合某些水利工程设计,从改善坝体应力,加大超载能力和节约的角度对 新坝型如腹拱坝、宽缝腹拱坝和拱形腹拱坝进行了实验研究。本文着重介绍拱形腹拱坝 的坝体应力的一般规律。拱形腹拱坝在水平拱和剖面拱的共同作用下,大大改善坝体应 力以及腹拱和孔洞周边应力,它是较经济的坝型,较适合我国中部和南方河流窄河谷, 大洪水流量的特点,较好地解决了厂房和洩洪布置上的矛盾,往往是大量节约厂房开挖 的有效措施。

Research in fluvial geomorphology in China during the past 30 years was mainly along the lines of valley geomorphology, channel geomorphology, estuaries and deltas. A great amount of systematic investigations has been carried out in the fields such as valley evolution history and features of Changjiang River(Yangtze River) and Huanghe River(Yellow River) and their relations with geology, climate, neotectonic movement, etc. Field evidence suggests that the course of Sanxia(the Three Gorges) of Changjiang were...

Research in fluvial geomorphology in China during the past 30 years was mainly along the lines of valley geomorphology, channel geomorphology, estuaries and deltas. A great amount of systematic investigations has been carried out in the fields such as valley evolution history and features of Changjiang River(Yangtze River) and Huanghe River(Yellow River) and their relations with geology, climate, neotectonic movement, etc. Field evidence suggests that the course of Sanxia(the Three Gorges) of Changjiang were formed as early as at the end of the Cretaceous, and then the Yangtze valley was sharply cut down from the uplifting Exi planation surface, and took shape of a series of deep gorges into limestone strata. Investigations have also found that the upper reach of Jinsha River near Dengke once flowed southeastward into Yalong River. Recently the study of river valley geomorphology of the Xizang Plateau reveals that Yaluzangbu River is an antecedent river and that the Daguaiwan gorge in the east of it is neither an elbow ot capture nor a tributary flowing westward to join the Indus as were formerly taken to be. Research into channel geomorphology developed somewhat later, but has made rapid progress. A grade separation system has been put forward for the classification of channel patterns, and attentions given to the dynamic characteristics of the formation and evolution of channel patterns by using C_v(variation factor of the peak discharge) and ρo/ρp(the ratio of incoming sediment concentration to the sediment carrying capacity in a channel) as indexes to indicate the stabilities of different channel patterns and the mutual transformations among them. By analyzing many rivers with heavy sediment concentration, a wandering index has been derived. Rivers having the value of greater than 5 are called shifting and less than 2 unshifting. In the middle and lower Changjiang, the latest research of meanders and relatively stable channel patterns has had some results. Observations and simulation experiments con the fluvial processes of the channels above and below reservoirs reveal that the channel of Huanghe below Sanmenxia Reservoir, after baving been washed by clear water, still remains shifting for a long time, and the headward silting end of Weihe channel above the reservoir stretches out or draws back within a certain limit. The investigations of deltas point out that since the Quaternary the mouth of Changjiang has been extending southeastward and that there exist imbricate fossil deltas under the water. As for the Huanghe delta, it is evident that since the diversion of the river course in 1855, a new delta with an area of 5,450 km~2 has been built up. Penetrating research has also been made on the geomorphological features and processes of the evolution of Qiantang River. Field survey discovers that the main source of Changjiang is Tuotuo River rising in Geladandong snowberg, and that of Huanghe is Kariqiu River originating in Geshigeya Mountain of the Bayankala Mountains.

三十年来我国河流地貌的研究主要为河谷地貌、河床演变和河口三角洲。其中,河谷地貌研究提出了长江三峡在白垩纪末已经形成,其后从鄂西期夷平面下切于石灰岩层内而形成一系列峡谷。发现金沙江上游在邓柯附近曾向东南流入雅砻江。论证了雅鲁藏布江横贯喜马拉雅山脉的为先成河,并非由于河流袭夺的结果。河床演变的研究提出了游荡指标>5为游荡,<2为非游荡。以C_v和ρ_o/ρ_p两值作为河型稳定和转化的指标。对三门峡、丹江口等水库上下游的河床演变进行了观测和模拟试验。研究了长江、黄河和珠江等三角洲的形成演变,提出了新的见解。经过实地考察发现长江的正源为沱沱河,发源于各拉丹冬雪山;黄河的正源为卡日曲,发源于巴颜喀拉山脉的各式各雅山。

The Hanjiang storage area of the Danjiangkou Reservoir is situated in the lower reach of the upper Hanjiang River. Naturally, the river flows in mountain gorges in this reach, and the reservoir is consequently of river-type.The Danjiangkou reservoir had been impounded to its normal high level in 1973. During the six-year period of 1973-1980, the inflow discharge was low, the storage level varied in a wide range, and the reservoir had been operated in a low level for a long period of time. Besides, there...

The Hanjiang storage area of the Danjiangkou Reservoir is situated in the lower reach of the upper Hanjiang River. Naturally, the river flows in mountain gorges in this reach, and the reservoir is consequently of river-type.The Danjiangkou reservoir had been impounded to its normal high level in 1973. During the six-year period of 1973-1980, the inflow discharge was low, the storage level varied in a wide range, and the reservoir had been operated in a low level for a long period of time. Besides, there was the valley geomorphic effect. All of the factors mentioned above exerted a deep influence on the channel changes in the variable backwater zone.According to the analysis of the data collected from the field survey and measurement, the following characteristics of the channel change in the variable backwater zone have been obtained,1.The main factor controlling the change of channel in the variable backwater zone is the reservoir operation, which determines the forms of the deposition and the distribution of the sedimentation, and affects the process of its erosion and deposition.2. The change of channel depends on the process of deposition. The sediment deposited on the river bed at the beginning, and now the cross section is reforming very slowly.3. The fining of bed material composition and the segregation of the sediment size along the stream course are very noticeable.4. The geomorphic conditions, bending, narrow valley and longitudinal sawtoothed profile along the thalweg give a considerable effect on the channel changing.5. The changes of channel intensely affect the flow pattern. Along the stream course, the water level is raised in different degree and the surface slope is reduced. The bars and reefs are submerged and then many local deflecting current, rapids and whirl flow are moderated or even disappeared. As a whole, the flow trends gentle. Some new local flow patterns appear due to the formation of new sand wave movements.6. Every year, the variable backwater zone is subjected to one deposition stage during the flood season and two erosion stages during the level falling period in low flow season and filling the reservoir at the beginning of the flood period respectively. Since Hanjiang storage area is situated in narrow valley with sufficient runoff, steep flood peak and low sediment concentration, the function of the two erosion stages will help to achieve "the long-term operation of the reservoir" , and to erode the pre-stage deposits and thus to reduce the harm from the backwater deposits extending upstream.Finally, this paper discusses some problems of sedimentation in the backwater zone of the Sanxia Reservoir in future.

本文在概述了(1)汉江回水变动区河谷地貌特点及对河道形态的影响,(2)典型的山区河流来水来沙特性,(3)在蓄水后水库调度及淤积分布等三个问题的基础上,分析了建库后汉江干流回水变动区纵横剖面变化,再造床过程中河道形态的演变、年内的冲淤变化及河床地貌等四个方面的问题。由此初步归结出河床演变的几个特点:1.坝前水位的调度是回水变动区河床演变的控制性因素;2.堆积过程是河床演变的主导;3.河床显著细化,泥沙沿程分选强烈;4.库区弯曲狭窄、纵泓剧烈起伏的地质地貌条件对河床变形的影响显著;5.河床变形对水流的影响强烈,同时出现一些新的流态,6.回水变动区每年都经历“汛期淤积、枯季消落冲刷和汛初充水冲刷”的“一淤二冲”的变形过程。最后,简要地讨论了三峡水库库尾泥沙淤积的几个问题。

 
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