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Four different kinds of water treatment were applied to examine the photosynthetic characteristics of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) seedlings in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir area.
      
distichum takes on the features of a water-tolerant and hydrophilic plant, which can be considered as one of the species for the building of a forest protection system for the hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.
      
Effects of reforestation on the hydrological function of a small watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
      
Four different kinds of water treatments were applied to study the photosynthetic eco-physiological characteristics of Taxodium ascendens seedlings in the environment of the Three Gorges hydro-fluctuation belt.
      
To establish a protection forest system in the hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, the species T.
      
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The discovery of the first skull-cap of Peking Man by Pei Wenzhong on December 2, 1929 opened a new page in the history of human evolution. It was soon accepted by anthropologists of the world that Peking Man was the most primitive human beings.By the end of the nineteenth century, Eugene Dubois of Holland discovered a skull-cap of small brain size of about 900 cc. and it was named Pithecanthropus erectus (now Homo erectus). He insisted, then and for the rest of his life, that it was neither ape nor human,...

The discovery of the first skull-cap of Peking Man by Pei Wenzhong on December 2, 1929 opened a new page in the history of human evolution. It was soon accepted by anthropologists of the world that Peking Man was the most primitive human beings.By the end of the nineteenth century, Eugene Dubois of Holland discovered a skull-cap of small brain size of about 900 cc. and it was named Pithecanthropus erectus (now Homo erectus). He insisted, then and for the rest of his life, that it was neither ape nor human, but an intermediate form. This discovery was debated and controversial for a long time.Since the discovery of Australopithecus from South Africa in 1924, it was also debated whether it was ape-man or man-ape? As Australopithecus was more primitive than Homo erectus, it makes the anthropological mind to be prepared to accept the Peking Man (a form of Homo erectus) as a low form of human being.From the thirties of this century, more fossils of Homo erectus have been found in different sites of Africa, Europe and Asia. In Africa an almost complete skeleton of Homo erectus was found in 1984 by Kamoya Kimeu of the hominid research group of the National Museum of Kenya, directed by R. E. Leakey at Nariokotome in the west side of Lake Turkana, northern Kenya. The skeleton is catalogued as WT 15000. WT stands for West Turkana. It belonged to a male about 12 years old with robust limbs and can be dated at very close to 1.6Ma B.P. with some confidence. Besides, two more crania of Homo erectus, ER 3733 and ER 3883,were found at Koobi Fora site also of Kenya. ER stands for "East Rudolf", the old name of Lake Turkana. They are dated at about 1.7Ma B.P. At Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, fossils of Homo erectus of younger dates were found. In Northwest Africa similar fossils were present at Ternifine in Algeria.Time and place for the first presence of Homo erectus outside Africa are not certain.In Europe, it was reported that archaeologists of the Republic of Georgia in cooperation with German scientists had found a well-preserved mandible of Homo erectus near Tbilisi in 1991. It was dated by paleomagnetism to be 0.9 or 1.6Ma B.P. however, a K-Ar date seems to suggest the older of the two.In Asia, many skull parts and pieces of Java Man have been found after 1930 in different sites in Indonesia. The earliest Homo erectus fossils dated near 1Ma B.P. A recent paper reported that it was even as early as 1.8Ma B.P. In China, excavations of the famous Locality 1 Peking Man Cave at Zhoukoudian continued from 1927 to 1937. Fossils representing 40 individuals of Peking Man including males, females, adults and juveniles were found. Since 1949, many more fossils of Homo erectus have been found from Lantian, Shaanxi, Zhoukoudian, Beijing, Hexian, Anhui, Yuanmou, Yunnan and other sites.In 1992 two skulls claimed to be Homo erectus were recovered in Yunxian, Hubei.But whether they are Homo erectus or early Homo sapiens is not certain yet.Chronometric dating of Peking Man Cave by different methods indicates that this population continuously inhabited there from roughly half a million years to 0.23Ma B.P. The date of Hexian Homo erectus is roughly corresponding to the upper part of Peking Man Cave. As to the two teeth from Yuanmou, it was first reported to be 1.7Ma B.P., but later it was dated to be less than 1Ma B.P.The study of the fossils of Homo erectus has made great progress and new questions also emerged, such as the classification of Homo erectus and Homo ergaster,the boundary of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens, the accuracy of the dates of certain Homo erectus and the problem of continuity or displacement of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens.

1929年12月2日,裴文中在周口店发现了北京猿人的第一个头盖骨,从而揭开了人类发展史上重要的一页。猿人(直立人)被当时人类学界承认为最原始的人类,确立了直立人为人类发展史的第一个阶段。19世纪末E.Dubois发现爪哇猿人的过程。他终生坚持猿人既非猿又非人的观点,引起长时期的争论。从1924年起,又发生了南方古猿是人还是猿的争论,为北京猿人化石的发现被广泛接受奠定了基础。本世纪30年代以来,在亚、非、欧三洲的许多地点,有了更多的直立人化石的发现。在直立人化石的研究中,出现了直立人的分类问题,直立人与智人的界限问题,年代测定的准确与否对确定直立人系统关系的重要性,以及直立人与智人的连续性和替代性问题。

Most archeologists and paleoanthropologists claim that the human originate in Africa, we consider that Asia, specially China, could not be neglected to be a possible region of the human origin, because many fossils of ancient apes from over 10 Ma to about 4 Ma, human fossils and cultural remains from 1 7 Ma to upper paleolithic have been found in China. Because human fossils and cultural relics dated about 2 Ma had not yet been discovered an empty gap of the human evolution clearly exists between the fossil...

Most archeologists and paleoanthropologists claim that the human originate in Africa, we consider that Asia, specially China, could not be neglected to be a possible region of the human origin, because many fossils of ancient apes from over 10 Ma to about 4 Ma, human fossils and cultural remains from 1 7 Ma to upper paleolithic have been found in China. Because human fossils and cultural relics dated about 2 Ma had not yet been discovered an empty gap of the human evolution clearly exists between the fossil ape and Homo erectus there. On the basis of paleosedimentary environment of early Pleistocene and the characters of stone artifacts of pre early paleolithic, China could be able to make a greater contribution to the subject on the human origin study. If the extensive survey and the multi disciplinary study will be undertaken in the important regions of China, such as Nihewan basin, Yuanmou basin and Three Gorge region, it is well promising to encounter the earliest (about 2 Ma bp) cultural remains and to fill in the empty gap mentioned above.

寻找最早的文化遗物是人类起源研究课题的重要组成部分,一直被各国考古学家所重视。在中国这方面的研究开展较早,已取得了一些成果,但也存在一些问题。如能扩大调查,多学科深入研究,有希望对此项研究做出重大的贡献

The culture of Neolithic Age in the Three Gorges of Changjiang River and the Jianghan Plain can be divided into 4 stages, that is, (1) Chengbeixi Culture (8 300 a BP ̄6 300 a BP); (2) Daxi Culture (6 300 a BP ̄5 000 a BP); (3) Qujialing Culture (5 000 a BP ̄4 600 a BP); (4) Shijiahe Culture (4 600 a BP ̄4 000 a BP). It is found by excavation that most of ancient cultural sites of Neolithic Age in this area are distributed in the broad valley regions on the south bank of the Changjiang River and located on...

The culture of Neolithic Age in the Three Gorges of Changjiang River and the Jianghan Plain can be divided into 4 stages, that is, (1) Chengbeixi Culture (8 300 a BP ̄6 300 a BP); (2) Daxi Culture (6 300 a BP ̄5 000 a BP); (3) Qujialing Culture (5 000 a BP ̄4 600 a BP); (4) Shijiahe Culture (4 600 a BP ̄4 000 a BP). It is found by excavation that most of ancient cultural sites of Neolithic Age in this area are distributed in the broad valley regions on the south bank of the Changjiang River and located on the first or second graded terraces (80 m a.s.l.), where as, in the Jianghan Plain, many ancient cultural sites are under the current flood level of the Changjiang River, some of these sites are buried 5 m ̄6 m deep or in the lay at the bottom of the lakes like as Xiantao, Yuezhou etc.. According to the data from Shandouping hydrologic station, the modern mean flood level is 57.76 m a.s.l., the sites, therefore, could not be submerged at all in a general flood of nowadays. But archaeologic excavations in recent years show that in many ancient cultural sites along the Changjiang River and its branches, there are several natural layers of sludge and sand between upper and lower cultural layers, which are named cultural interruption. The fine grained sediments of the cultural interruption were deposited and preserved on the high terraces of the Changjiang River when they experience abnormal extreme floods and when they were far away from main current line and the velocities of currents were slowed down. Hence, they demonstrate the flood damage and their times in the prehistory period. The duration of them could be determined from the archaeologic chronology of its upper and lower cultural layers. By the authors’ study, the 12 ancient cultural sites reveal that, in Neolithic Age, there are 12 times of extreme flood disasters in this area. Emphatically, there are 6 times took place in Daxi Cultural period, and the last one was devastating, man had to emigrate from the Three Gorges to the east of Jingbei and Edong moutains. Moreover, during the engineering constructions and Quaternary geologic survey, plenty of fossil trees and peat deposition were discovered in many places, their ages are the same as those natural layers in ancient cultural sites, most of the trees are well round and deposit mixed with coarse sands and gravels. In addition, based on the statistics to the number and mean height above river level of the sites in each ancient cultural period, it was found that there are 5 times of obvious ancient cultural fluctuations (cultural low tide), which chronology is corresponding to the above flood periods. All of them are also evidences of flood disasters in prehistory period. In addition, there are a lot of history materials, inscriptions and flood traces recording flood disasters in the history period. Based on the paleoflood sediments from 12 sites and the history literature, a chronology of paleofloods reveals that the frequency (times per 100 years) changes of large floods in this region could be clustered into 4 distinct time intervals: (1) Deluge Ⅰ, from 8 000 a BP to 5 500 a BP, there were 9 times of extreme floods this period was the second warm period (7 000 a BP ̄ 5 800 a BP ) of Holocene Neotemperate Phase, at that time, the East China sea level was 4 meters higher than that of today, and the Jianghan lakes were also in the second highest water level period (6 000 a BP ̄5 000 a BP). (2) Deluge Ⅱ, from 4 700 aBP to 3 500 aBP, there were 9 times of extreme floods at least, this period was in the first warm period of the Chinese history (5 000 a BP ̄2 000 a BP), at that time, air temperature was 2℃ ̄3℃ and sea level was 2.1 m higher than that of today, the Jianghan lakes were in the third high water level period (4 000 a BP ̄3 000 a BP). (3) Deluge Ⅲ, from 2 200 a BP to 700 a BP, there were 91 times of extreme floods. But only in the Medieval warm period (1 100 AD ̄1 000 AD), 35 times of floods occured. These 3 times of deluge period above are all correlated with powerful activity of the East A

根据对长江三峡及江汉平原地区新石器文化遗址的分布、文化间断、埋藏古树和历史资料探讨了本区全新世异常洪水频率的变化,共划分出4个洪水频发期:第Ⅰ洪水期(8000aBP~5500aBP),共发生特大洪水9次;第Ⅱ洪水期(4700aBP~3500aBP),至少发生特大洪水9次;第Ⅲ洪水期(2200aBP~700aPB),共发生特大洪水91次;第Ⅳ洪水期(500aBP~100aBP),共发生特大洪水52次,其中在小冰期最冷期(300aBP~100aBP)就有40次。前3个洪水期均与高温、高海面期强盛的夏季风活动有关,其中第Ⅲ洪水期还与江汉平原地区围垸、筑堤等不合理的土地利用有关,第Ⅳ洪水期与强盛的冬季风活动和环太平洋地震带释放大量地热能触发的太平洋表层海温异常事件有关。

 
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