It is shown that sliding condition only guarantee the slow varying state of real sliding mode approach that of ideal sliding mode but not guarantee the fast varying state of real sliding mode approach that of ideal sliding mode. The method applied for studying normal nonlinear system can not be used directely to singular nonlinear system.

Hardware/software co-design is a fruitful approach that combines the hardware and software perspectives from the earliest stages of the design process and exploits the synergism of hardware and software through their concurrent design to meet system-level objectives [DM91][GDM97].

Beyond the gauge pressure of 7 kgf/cm~2 and at the temperature above 80℃ the valueof the coefficient of absorption rate of CO_2 into the DEA promoted hot potashsolutions will approach that of CO_2 into the hot potash solutions.

Assuming that an object of control is subject to the influence of an external bounded unknown disturbance, an approach that guarantees a solution to the problem of command signal output follow-up with the given accuracy is presented.

The relative sensitivity coefficients of the elements were calculated taking into account the absolute electronegativities of atoms in accordance with the new approach that was developed previously for single-element solutions.

We suggest an approach that allows one to effectively construct two-zone solutions, including real, of some nonlinear equations without applying the technique of algebraic curves.

A novel effective approach that combined a traditional cultivation technique with FISH-mediated monitoring of the target organism during the isolation procedure has been developed for the isolation of planctomycetes.

The lyophilic nature of the Cd-Ga electrode, relative to methanol and propylene carbonate, is shown to approach that of the In-Ga electrode.

In at least one case where3 the potential folw in the neighborhood of the outherdoge of the boundary-layer varies rapidly,the boundary-layer theory has not been well undorstood,The interest in this problem led the author to the study of the laminar flow of a viscous incomperssible fluid over a curved surface whose curvature,as has been found previously,displays rathor large effects on the natrre of boundary-layer flow.The specific point to be investigated here is th question as to how to join the bundary-layer...

In at least one case where3 the potential folw in the neighborhood of the outherdoge of the boundary-layer varies rapidly,the boundary-layer theory has not been well undorstood,The interest in this problem led the author to the study of the laminar flow of a viscous incomperssible fluid over a curved surface whose curvature,as has been found previously,displays rathor large effects on the natrre of boundary-layer flow.The specific point to be investigated here is th question as to how to join the bundary-layer with the potential flow.On the basis of the fact that the viscous that,in the neighborhood of the outer edge of boundary-layer,the velocity in the main stream dirction u should asymptotcally approach that in the main stream.

An experimental verification of the theoretical peak current equation forreversible electrode reactions of the Randles-Sevcik oscillopolarography, i_p=Kn~(3/2)D~(1/2)m~(2/3)θ~(2/3)α~(1/2)cμΑ, is carried out with both single- and multisweep methods. Themultisweep method is essentially that of Delahay, while a simplified circuit isdevised for the single-sweep procedure. The constant K in the above equation has been worked out by Randlesand Sevcikc, but their values differ by some twenty-one percent. Experimentalresults...

An experimental verification of the theoretical peak current equation forreversible electrode reactions of the Randles-Sevcik oscillopolarography, i_p=Kn~(3/2)D~(1/2)m~(2/3)θ~(2/3)α~(1/2)cμΑ, is carried out with both single- and multisweep methods. Themultisweep method is essentially that of Delahay, while a simplified circuit isdevised for the single-sweep procedure. The constant K in the above equation has been worked out by Randlesand Sevcikc, but their values differ by some twenty-one percent. Experimentalresults as to which K value is correct have been contradictory. The authorspoint out that Sevcik's value of K is too low, due to the error in choosing too largea unit in his numerical integration. By taking smaller units and reperformingthe integration, the K value increases and approaches that of Randles. Thus thecorrectness of Randles' K value is ascertained and this value is used in calculatingthe theoretical slope. Their single-sweep results, with concentrations from 2×10~(-4) to 1×10~(-3) m/l andα~(1/2) from 1 to 4 volts/sec, agreement between experimental and theoretical slopesis obtained in the case of Tl~+ in m NaCl. In the case of Cd~(++) in m NaCl, experi-mental results deviate from the theoretical value, and the deviation increases withincreasing c and α~(1/2). Contrary to an unproven idea of Delahay, i_p obtained bymultisweep method is higher than that by the single-sweep procedure. However,in calculation of the theoretical values, a value of 15.0×16~(-6) obtained by polarLographic method is used for D of Tl~(+) in m NaCl. The use of the value of Dat infinite dilution is thought to be unjustified. If a D value of 15.0×10~(-6) is used,Delahay's results of Tl~+ in KNO_3 would be higher than the theoretical equationinstead of agreeing with it. This fact seems to support the findings of this paper. Various methods of correcting for capacity currents are compared and discus-sed. The authors point out that at α~(1/2) less than 2 volts/sec, the method of drawingan hbrizontal line introduces no appreciable error while at, high α, various methodsyield different results. This fact lowers the accurraey of data obtained at high α. The iR drop in the electrolytic cell and on the series resistance causes themeasured α to be different from the a actually applied on the drop electrode. Anelementary approximate correction of this effect is mentioned. Results after thiscorrection show that the deviation of Cd~(++) from theoretical at high c and α maybe due partly to this effect.

Prompted by the need for analysing amino acids in very small samples of nervous tissue in physiological work, an ultramicro method of electrophoresis on cellophane paper instead of filter paper has been developed. The method described permits the determination of γ-amino butyric, glutamic and aspartic acids in quantities of the order of millimicrograms. Its sensitivity is thus about 200 times that of the ordinary paper electrophoresis or chromatography. Its accuracy as judged by self-consistency in repeated...

Prompted by the need for analysing amino acids in very small samples of nervous tissue in physiological work, an ultramicro method of electrophoresis on cellophane paper instead of filter paper has been developed. The method described permits the determination of γ-amino butyric, glutamic and aspartic acids in quantities of the order of millimicrograms. Its sensitivity is thus about 200 times that of the ordinary paper electrophoresis or chromatography. Its accuracy as judged by self-consistency in repeated trials or by recovery tests of known amounts of amino acids, approaches that of the usual method. It is also capable of separating β-alanine, cysteic acid, cysteine and basic amino acids in alkaline solutions.