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geological
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  地质
     A Study on the Geological Model of Oil Accumulation and the Distribution of Remaining Oil in Complex Fault Block
     复杂断块油藏地质模型与剩余油分布研究
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     A Engineering Geological Feasibility Study of High-dam Construction Project at Site with Complicated Geological Conditions
     复杂场地高坝建设适宜性的工程地质研究
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     Theoretical Study on Virial and Cubic Equations of State for Geological Fluids
     维里型和立方型地质流体状态方程的理论研究
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     Dynamic Variations of Subsurface Engineering Geological Environment on the Subaqueous Delta of Yellow River, China
     黄河水下三角洲表层工程地质环境动态变化研究
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     A Study on Reservoir Geological Modeling with Seismic and Well-log Data in Fang 2 Area of Daqing Songfangtun Oil Field
     大庆宋芳屯油田芳2区块地震与地质资料综合储层地质建模研究
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  地学
     A study on the development of the geological G~4I system
     地学G~4I系统的开发研究
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     THE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM WITH ARC/INFO
     基于Arc/INFO的地学信息系统的设计与开发
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     THE NEW PROGRESS IN GEOLOGICAL FACTORANALYSIS——R-Q MODE FACTOR ANALYSIS ANDITS APPLICATION IN GEOSCIENCES
     地质因子分析的新进展——R-Q式因子分析及其在地学中的应用
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     With the increase of the data volume, the researchers adopt analogism, geological abnormal theory (Zhao Pengda) and geological conditional combination mineralization theory to extract geological information other than data statistic analysis.
     随着数据量的不断增大,以数据的统计分析和知识归纳演绎为主的信息提取技术在各个领域取得了快速的发展,研究者们除了使用数据统计分析外,还采用相似类比推理、地质异常控矿理论(赵鹏大)以及地质条件组合控矿理论等进行地学信息提取。
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     Using the development of geological instrument information management system as the example,this thesis tries to introduce some new technique of developing the Web-based database system with VC ++ 5.0 as the development kit.
     以开发地学仪器信息管理系统为例 ,介绍了用VC+ + 5 .0开发基于Web数据库管理系统的新技术。
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     Information Processing on Rock Mass Structure and Its Application in Geological Engineering
     岩体结构信息化处理及工程应用
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     Study on the Institution Innovation Model of State-Run Geological Exploration Enterprises in China
     中国国有地勘企业制度创新模式研究
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     The Strata and Their Geological Significance in the Canglaila Area of Qiangtang Basin, North Tibet
     藏北羌塘盆地仓来拉地区地层特征及其意义
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     The Fluvial Reservoir Description and Geological Modeling of H2 and H3 in Daniudi Gas Field
     大牛地气田盒2和盒3段河流相储层描述与建模
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     Study and Implementation on the Mapping Exercitation Aided System in the Regional Geological Surveying
     区域地质调查填图实习辅助系统的研究与实现
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  geological
Geological samples after traditional chemical separation were measured by Neptune MC-ICP-MS and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) respectively.
      
The distribution of Abies was deeply influenced by geological events such as the uplift of Himalaya, the Alps, the Rocky Mountains, the occurrence of the Asian Monsoon as well as the Quaternary glaciers.
      
Our data, in conjunction with geological and palynological evidences, showed that in the Holocene, due to global warming, refugee populations of D.
      
The characteristics and geological significance of rugose coral fauna of Sifengya Formation and Daluzhai Formation were analyzed.
      
Sediment mass volumes for periods since the Oligocene (E3, N11, N12, N13, N2, and Q) in the South China Sea (SCS) were calculated on the basis of geological and geophysical data including ODP borehole data.
      
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Since the year 1886, the Dupuit-Forchheimer theory and formulas for gravityflows toward wells and galleries have been broadly used in all nations of theworld. In these formulas, assumptions are made for underground flows fromfarther distances in horizontal directions at a constant rate toward wells andgalleries. According to the author's analysis, these assumptions are not consistentwith the actual conditions of flow, hence the formulas obtained therefrom are notrational, and the employment of these formulas...

Since the year 1886, the Dupuit-Forchheimer theory and formulas for gravityflows toward wells and galleries have been broadly used in all nations of theworld. In these formulas, assumptions are made for underground flows fromfarther distances in horizontal directions at a constant rate toward wells andgalleries. According to the author's analysis, these assumptions are not consistentwith the actual conditions of flow, hence the formulas obtained therefrom are notrational, and the employment of these formulas to investigate the general effectof surface drop or well diametre upon yield is devoid of rational foundations. According to the author's analysis, the flows toward wells or galleries areactually supplied vertically by draining the stored water above the free surface inthe course of its descending and enlarging. As the drainage of gravity water fromthe pores of soil particles in order to reduce the water content to that of filmshells takes one to two days, as the capillary water columns are interconnectedand mutually supplied sidewise, this vertical supply of water may maintain quite along time, yet the flow may not be absolutely steady. As regards vertical supply of water with unsteady regimen, equations of freesurface for flow pattern near galleries are deduced, corresponding to the Boussinesqpartial differential equation. Besides, the author has derived simplified equationsfor computing flows into wells and galleries. The latter, in comparison with theDupuit-Forchheimer formulas, gives a higher yield, while the free surface curve isreasonably tangent to the horizontal water table at a point which moves fartheraway as time goes on. J. Kozeny first pointed out the phenomenon that the water depth in the groundon the wall will not be further lowered when it reaches one half of the depthbefore pumping. The author hereby proposes a theoretical proof of it on the basisof theorem of least work. Based upon these theories, formulas are proposed for maximum possible yieldof wells and galleries dug to horizontal impervious strata, to be used in prelimi-nary estimations for hydro-geological workers.

1886年以来,杜布义-福熙罕默(Dupuit-Forchheimer)的井流及沟流的理论与计算用公式被世界各国广泛地应用着。公式假设地下水从远处沿着水平方向以定率流向井内或沟内,按作者分析这种假设并不符合实际情况,因之所得公式也不合理,用这些公式来推论水位降落或井径对於出水率的影响也没有合理的凭据。作者推论,井流或沟流的水实际上是从水面线以上,在其降落并扩大的过程中,排除了存积的水,沿着直垂方向所供应着的。因为从土壤颗粒的空隙间排除重力水,使减为薄膜水,每需时一两天,而水面上的毛细管水又是横向贯通并互相接济着,所以垂直供水可以维持很久,而潜流也决不会绝对稳定。根据这垂直供水的不定汉条件引出了沟流的水面线公式,结果符合蒲薪奈斯克的偏微分方程式。另外,作者又拟具了简化的井流及沟流计算用公式。这些公式和杜氏-福氏公式比较,所得出水率较大,而水面线则合理地切於静水线,切点随着时程向远处移动。柯臣尼(J.Kozeny)最早指出井边地内水深不会低於静水深一半的现象,本文中作者根据最小工作定律试拟了理论的证明以支持之。根据这些理论,引出了从静水中抽水时井流、沟流最大可能出水率的公式,以供水文地质工作者初步估算之用。

Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities...

Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities are importantwithin this area, some geologists including G Schoenmann, hold that it is ageosynclinal region. It is Ю. М Шейманн who first noticed the phenomenon of activizationappearing in the Chinese platform. В. М. Синицын in his "Строенив и развитиекитайской платформы" indicates that some of the mountain ranges includingYinshan, which have been formerly referred to the folding belts developingfrom geosynclines, are in fact the internal structures of the Chinese platform. In this paper the writer after the opinion of В. М. Синицын, assigns theYinshan area as one of the "activizing regions" in the Chinese platform, andgives more detailed descriptions and discussions mainly on the point of thehistory of its stratigraphic development. Really it is a fact that the Yinshan region has an old folded foundationwhich is composed of metamorphic complex including chiefly gneisses, schists,and old granitic intrusions apparently Pre-Sinian in age. Since the formationof this folded foundation during the Luliang movement (=Goto-Karelian mo-vement), the old land of the Yinshan region has "activized" or "resurrected"several times. As early as in the Sinian period, a depression prolonging in E-Wdirection happened on its southern border, where Sinian limestone 900 metresin thickness and in some places up to 9,620 metres was so deposited. During a long time of the Palaeozoic era, the Yinshan old land was in the poriod ofdenudation except some Cambrian marine limestones only 144 metres in thick-ness deposited in the western part. At the end of the Palaeozoic era, local acti-vization with the formation of continental basin-deposits of Permian age, up to1,380 metres in thickness, as found in the Tachingshan area again happened.In the middle Mesozoic era, the Yinshan region came to a period of strongactivity. Structural depressions duo to "Процесс аркогенеза" occurred universallywithin the whole area and magmatie activities in large magnitude associatedthis crustal movement, so that a great sequence of freshwater basin-depositswith intercalations of volcanic beds, up to 8,000 metres in total thickness wereformed. During the formation of these strata, especially at the end of Mesozoic,interruptions of depositon happened frequently, folds and thrusts were abund-antly formed, and intrusive bodies of "young granite" were produced hereand there. In the Tertiary period, the Yinshan region was violently faulted, andvolcanic activities still happened, producing the basalt lava flow spreading ina wide area. The activity of the Yinshan old land has not ceased even to-dayas shown by the facte that its whole area is in the process of uplift and by thepresence of an earthquake zone known in the historical time. Ⅱ. To what Geotectonic Unit does the Southeastern Coastal Region of China Belong? On the Southeastern coast of China there is a district where geotectoniccharacteristics have never been recognized clearly. It is A. W. Grabau who firstreferred it to an old land named "Cathaysia". J. S. Lee holds the same opinion.In his geotectonic map of China, B. M. Синицын also assigns this region to aplatform and marks it as a part of his "Южно-китайский платформенный массив".However, there is still another opinion opposed to this. A. C. Хоминтовский, forinstance, renders recently this district to a geosynclinal region and proposes thename "Minche Pacific folding zone" for it. H. T. Yang and T. Y. Yu agreewith him. In the year 1954, the writer in his compilation-work connected with thegeology of Fukien and Kwangtung, found that the geotectonic characteristics ofthe southeastern coastal region of China are not only unagreeable with thosefound in a common platform on the one hand, but also contrasting, with thoseof a geosynclinal region on the other. In fact, it cannot be referred suitably toany geotectonic unit except to the intermediate type as shown by the history ofits geological development. Apparently it is an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. During the Pre-Sinian crustal movement (the Luliang movement), a foldedfoundation composed of old gneisses, schists, and phyllites was completely for-med. Obviously this is a part of the broad old land of Southern China. In the earlier stage of the Palaeozoic era, the whole area of this region wasexposed in the air and under denudation. Hence, no deposit of any kind wasformed. After the Caledonian movement, depressions happened in the western partof this region, where the Devonian-Lower carboniferous continental deposit, theNanching series consisting mainly of quartzite, conglomerate and shale has beenformed, but the other parts were still under denudation. These facts show thatthis region was still a land at that time. Uralian and Lower Permian limestones, known respectively as the Chuan-shan limestone and the Chihsia limestone, separated from each other by adisconformity, spread widely in this region. This indicates that the marine trans-gressions really happened in the southeastern coastal region of China. However,the thicknesses of these limestones (only 30 metres and 150 metres respectively)and their uniformity in the horizontal direction show that the sea at thosetimes was shallow, and the magnitude of subsidence of the earth crust withinthis region was small. The unnoticed lateral changing of lithological charactersof these limestones proves the same fact. Undoubtedly these limestones arenothing but the marine deposits of platform-type. From Upper Permian toTriassic, this region was under a condition of alternation of transgression andregression of the sea. Owing to the fact that the amplitude of oscillation of theearth crust of this region at that time was small, the deposits formed duringthe marine transgression were thin and interrupted again and again by disconfor-mities (or even unconformities). Sometimes continental deposits are intercalated. Since the later period of Triassic, the southeastern coastal region has neverbeen covered by the sea again. And, a new condition began to happen in LowerJurassic. Here, the old land became to "resurrected", so that a series of depres-sing belts were formed as a result of "Процесс аркогенеза". In association withthe subsidence of these depressions, continental beds with a total thicknessup to 3,000 metres were deposited. In the beds interruptions frequently occurred.Folds were abundants, although they or at least some of them were intermediatetype. At the same time, magmatic activities were significant. Itappearedfirstly in the form of volcanic eruptions as recorded by a great sequence of beds consisting of tuff and rhyolite intercalating in the continental bedsmentioned above. And then, at the end of the Mesozoic, numerous graniticbodies were produced. Coming to the Cenozoic era, this region still sufferedfrom rather strong crustal movements accompanied by basalt lava eruptions. Theactivity of the old land has not yet been ceased even to-day as marked by thepresence of a famous earthquake zone between Kwangtung and Fukien, and theabundance of hot springs which widely spread within this region. All theseshow the typical characters of an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. Final-ly, the complexity of the types of mineral deposits found in Fukien and Kwang-tung also proves the geotectonic nature of this region. Summarizing the whole matter, we may say that the southeastern coastalregion of China was originally an old land. Although it has been agian andagain submerged by the sea, the resulting marine deposits are entirely differentfrom those of geosynclinal region. In the middle of Mesozoic, this region beganto be active violently again, producing a series of depressions or "secondarygeosynclines", in which thick continental beds were deposited, and, at the sametime, folds of intermediate type, serious volcanic eruptions and magmatic intru-sions were produced. Hence, to refer the southeastern coastal region of China toan "activizing" platform is quite strongly proved. The northwestern boundary of this "activizing" platform is generally onthe line starting from central Chekiang through central Kiangsi to the Sou-thwestern part of Kwangtung, because the history and characteristics of geolo-gical development of the Southeastern Kiangsi and Central-southern Kwangtungare quite similar to those of Fukien and Eastern Kwangtung. As to the nomination of this geotectonic unit, the writer proposes to callit "Cathaysian activizing region". This name is derived from the "Cathaysia"of A. W. Grabau but adds, according to necessity, the meaning of activizing or"resurrected" characters of this region. The so-called "Minche Pacific foldingzone" of A. C. Хоминтовский is obviously unacceptable because it entirely doesnot coincide with fact. Compared with the "aetivizing" platforms found in other parts of theworld, the Cathaysian coastal "activizing" platform has its own characteristics,especially shown by the presence of numerous, widely spread, small depressionsor "secondary geosynclines", and the acidic magmatic activities appearing on alarge scale. All these indicate that this is a special type differing from all theknown "activizing" plat

~~

In recent years, the geotectonic problem of China engages the attentionof many Chinese and Soviet geologists, but different opinions are confessed by different authors. After studying the structural characters of the fundamentalfloor and its later geological development, theauthor of this paper agrees withthe statement of the Soviet geologist, B. M. Синицын. In 1952 he pointed outthat the Chinese platform in eastern China, may bs divided into: (1) theSine-Korean platform; and (2) the Southern-Chinese platform,...

In recent years, the geotectonic problem of China engages the attentionof many Chinese and Soviet geologists, but different opinions are confessed by different authors. After studying the structural characters of the fundamentalfloor and its later geological development, theauthor of this paper agrees withthe statement of the Soviet geologist, B. M. Синицын. In 1952 he pointed outthat the Chinese platform in eastern China, may bs divided into: (1) theSine-Korean platform; and (2) the Southern-Chinese platform, consolidatedas a result of the Luliang movement. This Chinese platform especially in its southern part shows a very peculiarphenomenon as it is called "Activization" of the platform. During Sinian andPaleozoic, its sediments belonged to the pronounced epi-continental type, duringthe mesozoic the south-eastern part of the Southern-Chinese platform wasneither a stable shelf nor a geosyncline, but an intermediate type between them.Its characters were really not geosynclinal, but sometimes showed geosynclinalaffinities, as for instances, the immense granitic intrusions, the eruptions oflavas, and the rather strongly folded geosynclinal structures. These imply thelimited mobility or the incomplete consolidation of the underground. Accor-dingly, referred to the structural type of this region, P. Misch called it"Sinotype". Furthermore, in the Southern-Chinese platform, two strong "Activizingunits" are recognized as follows: 1) The Hunan-Kwangsi activizing andsubsiding region; 2) The Cathaysian activizing oldland. The "Activization"of these regions lasted for a long geological time. It began in Sinian, throughCaledonian, Variscian, Indo-Sinian, Yenshanian and even Himalayan. BeforeMesozoic, the Caledonian was the most intensive and widely distributed one.But as pointed out by A. H. Мазарович, the Caledonian of the Southern-Chineseplatform was merely a fold-belt within the platform. According to its geotectonic history, its character of sedimentation, itsregional metamorphism, its igneous activity and its geotectonic systems, suchas "Kwangsi ∈ system", "North-Kwangtung ∈ system", "Meso and Neo-Cathaysiansystem", and the "Nanling eastwest tectonic zone", it is the author's opinionthat the "Imtermediate type (Sinotype)" of the Southern-Chinese platform wasdeveloped gradually through a long "Activizing process". This "Sinotype" is anintermediate type between the stable shelf and the geosynclinal region.

作者同意B.M.西尼村的意见,认为中国地台是中国东部的一个大的构造单位,它是在吕梁运动后造成的。中国地台由两个主要部分构成,它的北部称中朝地台,南部称华南地台。中国地台有一很重要的特征,就是一个“活化”的地台。华南地台的东南部“活化”尤其强烈而显著,在中生代的太平洋运动时,差不多具有类似地槽的特征。但是它的“活化”是有悠久历史的,即开始於震旦纪,所以加里东运动给与很大的影响,但加里东运动只是地台内部的褶皱。地台“活化”直到中生代太平洋运动才得到高度发展,产生巨大的火成活动以及“中国式”的构造型式。新生代时地台还有中等强度的运动和火成活动。自第四纪冰期之后,地台仍在较弱的升降运动中。华南地台无论从沉积岩相、区域变质及火成活动,或从山字型、华夏式及南岭东西褶皱的构造体系等构造型式发育史的研究,都可以看到它的“活化”过程,在这过程里发育了“过渡类型”的构造形态,这都是不同放地槽或地台的构造形态的。本文是作为学习心得性质的初步尝试,文中不成熟和谬误之处尚多,希望得到大家的指正。如果能在集体的讨论和研究之下将我国大地构造研究清楚的话,这是作者所衷心期望的。

 
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