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    The Interaction of Culture in the Second language Acquisition
    文化背景知识在第二语言习得中的渗透
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    The Status and Role of Universal Grammar in Second Language Acquisition
    普遍语法在第二语言习得中的地位和作用
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    Function of Schema in Second Language Acquisition
    图式在第二语言习得中的作用
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    Schema Theory and Its Application in Second Language Reading Comprehension
    图式理论在第二语言阅读理解中的应用
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    On the Role of Mother Tongue in Second language Acquisition
    论母语在第二语言习得中的作用
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  “second”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Self confidence and Second Language Learning,
    自信心与外语学习——多雷模式与卡莱门试验述评
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    Comparison of the Similarity and Dissimilarity Between the First Language Acquisit on for Children and the Second Language Learning for Adults
    Comparison of the Similarity and Dissimilarity Between the First Language Acquisition for Children and the Second Language Learning for Adults
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    According to this, the paper concludes that verbs and adjectives which serve as the second verbs in the structure of [V1+V2] or [V+A] have developed into verb resultative construction(VRC) in the Eastern Han Dynasty .
    在此基础上,认为由这些动词或形容词充当下字的[V1+V2]或[V+A]在东汉时已演变为动结式。
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    Review of the studies on teaching listening in Chinese as a second language
    对外汉语听力教学研究述评
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    The Study of Folklore Language and Teaching Chinese as a Second Language
    民俗语言与对外汉语教学
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  second
In the second example, we obtain a proof of the Chalyh-Veselov conjecture that the Calogero-Moser system with integer parameter is algebraically integrable, using the results of Felder and Varchenko.
      
A local-global principle is proved by the second named author in the adjacent paper of this volume.
      
In the second part we apply this method to obtain pseudo-Riemannian homogeneous manifolds with real Killing spinors.
      
We derive two consequences: the first is a new proof of Lusztig's description of the intersection cohomology of nilpotent orbit closures for GLn, and the second is an analogous description for GL2n/Sp2n.
      
The second part consists in the normalization of the Burkhardt dual.
      
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In 1928 Curt demonstrated that non-human schistosome cercariae are capable of producing dermatitis in man. Since then many species of avian and mammalian schistosomes have been shown to produce similar disease in different parts of the world. In 1958 a kind of schistosome dermatitis locally known as 'Ya-Mu-Lan' (meaning duck-saliva-disease) was discovered in Foochow, Fukien Province. The infection occurred among farmers who waded in canals and ditches, while taking care of ducks in their natural environment....

In 1928 Curt demonstrated that non-human schistosome cercariae are capable of producing dermatitis in man. Since then many species of avian and mammalian schistosomes have been shown to produce similar disease in different parts of the world. In 1958 a kind of schistosome dermatitis locally known as 'Ya-Mu-Lan' (meaning duck-saliva-disease) was discovered in Foochow, Fukien Province. The infection occurred among farmers who waded in canals and ditches, while taking care of ducks in their natural environment. The same dermatitis was reported from Yung-siao district bordering Kwangtung. In Szechwan a similar disease was reported by T. C. Pap (1957) where it was known as 'Ya-Si-Feng' (meaning duck-feces-disease). From the endemic area in Foochow, 10, 145 snails belong to the species Lymnaea (Radix) plicatula Benson were examined and a kind of ocellated fork-tailed cercaria was discovered. Another closely related snail, Lymnaea (Fossaria) ollula Gould was also found infected but the incidence of infection was somewhat lower. Experiments were conducted to infect laboratory reared ducklings and full grown ducks, the feces of which were examined to be free from schistosome eggs. Ten to twelve days later edult worms were recovered in the mesenteric and portal veins and a few specimens were found in the lungs and heart. Lymnaea (Radix) plicatula were also experimentally infected with miracidia hatching out from eggs secured from the infected duck.Studies on the morphology of both the adult worms and the developmental larval stages were made and the details are reported in the present communication.Our observation indicates that the worm belongs to a species of Trichobilharzia different from any other known species. The name Trichobilharzia paoi sp. nov. is proposed after Prof. T. C. Pap of Chungking Medical College, Szechwan.Description of the adult worm:Male: Body slender, total length 5.35-7.31mm. width 0.076-0.095mm. Oral sucker measures 0.051-0.060ram×0.043-0.060mm in diameter. Ventral sucker, the surface of which is armed with small spines, measures 0.051-0.060mm in diameter. Oesophagus. bifurcates anterior to the ventral sucker at a distance about anterior two-thirds between oral sucker and acetabulum. Intestinal caeca iun posteriorly on two sides and reunite behind the gynaecophoric canal, which is a longitudinal slit 0.237-0.380mm in length and 0.123-0.152mm in width. Gynaecophoric canal is foimed by inward folding of two lateral sides of the body bearing numerous spines. Testes round, 70-90 in number arranged in a single longitudinal row. Their diameter ranges 0.051-0.064mm. Seminal vesicle occupies an area from a level immediately posterior to the ventral sucker to the fore margin of gyneacophoric canal. It measures 0.172-0.447mm in length and 0.038-0.055mm in width.Female: More delicate than male, length 3.38-4.89mm, greatest width 0.076-0.114mm. Oral sucker terminal with mouth openning on its ventral aspect, diameter 0.051-0.056mm×0.038-0.051mm. Ventral sucker, a small solid organ, measures 0.030-0.040mm×0.035-0.043mm in diameter. Oesophagus bifurcates at some distance before the acetabulum. Intestinal ceaca reunite behind the ovary, forming a single caecum passing to near the posterior end of body. Ovary spiral in shape with a length 0.253-0.352mm and a width 0.021-0.025mm. Seminal receptacle elongated in form, is connected to the ovary on its posterior aspect. A Laurer's canal is present. It originates from Seminal receptacle and opens to the exterior. The oviduct starts from the ovary, runs parallel with the vitalline duct to the anterior of ovary, where they unite together forming the ootype, surrounded on all sides by a cluster of unicellular Mehlis glands. The uterus is short and contains only one egg. Female genital pore is immediately postacetabular. Egg is spindle or elongate oval in shape with a sharp curved spine at one end. Egg measures 0.236-0.316mm×0.068-0.112mm. Avian schistosomes parasitising domestic and wild ducks and other birds belong to the subfamily Bilharziellinae Price, 1929, and family Schistosomatidae Looss, 1899. They were formerly considered to belong to two genera, namely Pseudobilharxiella Eismont, 1929 and Trichobilharzia Skrjabin and Zkharow, 1920. Yamaguti (1958) consideted Pseudobilharziella to be the synonym of Trichobilharzia and listed 22 species in his "Systema helminthum". Recent additions of some new species made up the total of about 25 species. In comparing the structure, it is found that the Chinese species belongs to those duck schistosomes with spindle-shaped eggs. Among them the most closely related is T. yokogawai (Oiso, 1927), from which it differs in several important aspects, such as the size of the worm, the extent of gynaecophoric canal, number of testes and size of eggs. Their different characters are tabulated as follows:T. yokogawai T. paoi n. sp. Male Body length 2.0-2.75mm 5.35-7.31mm (Foochow specimen)average 2.336mm 4.0-10.3mm (Chungking specimen) Position of immediately behind 0.371-0.495mm behind gynaecophoric Acetabulum acetabulum (Foochow specimen) canal 0.35-0.57mm behindacetabulum (Chungking specimen) T. yokogawai T. paoi n. spLength of 0.2mm 0.247-038mm (Foochow specimen)gynaecophoric 0.35-0.41mm (Chungking specimen)canalNumber of 50-70 70-90 (Foochow specimen)testes 50-85 (Chungking specimen)Size of eggs Length 0.204-0.238mm 0.236-0.316mmWidth 0.051-0.068mm 0.068-0.112mm (Foochow specimen)0.215mm0.075mm (Chungking specimen)From the above table it can be noticed that these two species can be distinguished by these essential differences.T. paoi is, furthermore, differentiated from T. physellae, another closely related species by the number of testes, which is about 210-240 in the latter and are arranged in two to three rows. Tanaka (1960) reported another duck schistosome from Oki Island, which he identified as T. physellae. According to this auther, the male has only 52-78 testes, the seminal vesicle is much shorter reaching only about half distance between gyaaecophoric canal and the acetabulum. Another striking difference is that the intestinal ceaca of T. physellae from Oki Island reunite at the region anterior to the seminal vesicle, while in T. paoi they reunite behind the Seminal receptacle at the level anterior to the gynaecophoric canal.Macfarlane (1944, 1949) and Olivier (1949) have shown that the dermatitis produced by avian schistosomes is a sensitization phenomenon. They have demonstrated striking differences in the reaction of skin of infected animals to the penetration of cercariae in the initial and subsequent infections, and presented evidence for the ideathat human cases also become increasingly allergic to the protein of invading schistosome cercariae. In order to make further inquiries on this problem and to investigate whether Chinese species of Trichobilharzia will induce similar reactions in the mammalean host, experiments were conducted to infect laboratory-reared white mice and biopsies made of the skin in the first and also after a series of repeated infections It is with the purpese to observe the behavior of the cercariae after having penetrated into the body of an abnormal host, and to trace the course of their migration and destiny.1. Tissue reaction in primary infection: Histological sections were made on biopsies on various intervals after infection, one and half hour, 3 hours, 5 hours, 8 hours, 21 hours etc. At one and half to three hours after exposure, the cercariae already penetrated the epidermis. Some of them were in the hair follicles. A few arrived at the corium. Those just penetrated Corneum stratum were found lying there horizontally, and usually there was a small tunnel or cavity, formed among the epithelial cells, surrounding each cercaria. Such phenomenon is similar to that as observed by Gordon and Griffiths (1951) on the behavior of the cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni. Olivier and Weinstein (1953) also observed the same in Trichobilharzia ocellata. During early hours of invasion there was apparently very little cellular response to the cercariae. Those, which invaded the corium, were surrounded by a small number of leucocytes. Apparently the cercariae were still in good condition. They were probably living at the time of biopsy as indicated by their intact cell structure being well stained, 21 hours after infection, the tissue shows more infiltration of white cells and histiocytes. More of them gathered around the cercariae, some of which appeared as having signs of histolysis, while others seem still quite normal. Observations made on tissues fixed at later hours after infection indicated that even in the primary exposure, great majority of the invading cercariae were already arrested and immobilized in the epidermis and not able to invade further into the body.A small part of the cercariae, however, were found to migrate to the lung tissue. They were evidently being carried by the blood stream to the new site, where they produced considerable tissue damage and hemmorrhage. In our experiments with mice infected 20 hours previously, petechial hemorrhages were present on the surface of the lung. Infection experiments were conducted on 19 mice, each of which was infected with 80 to 250 cercariae. Dissections of the animals were made at various intervals from one day to about a month since exposure. The largest number of worms and hemorrhagic spots were found on the lung tissue during the second and third day after infection. Of the 19 mice, 15 were found to show pulmonary lesions. The number for each mouse ranges from one to 86. From eleven of them, worms were recovered from the tissue and from each mouse from one to 15 worms were counted. When the dissections were made during the first three days, the worms were still living. As time elasped, only formation of nodules were found. Sectioned nodules contained worms which were either dead or moribund.2. Tissue reaction in repeated infecti

1.在福建省各地流行着一种称为“鸭姆涎”的血吸虫皮肤疹,特別在鸭群放牧的地区,农民下水,手足发痒。这种皮肤疹的病原,经調查系一种寄生于家鴨体內的新种血吸虫,定名为包氏血吸虫。Trichobilharzia paoi Sp. Nov. 2.本虫的雄虫及雌虫經詳細叙述。其寄居的位置也經确定以門靜脉为最多,其次为腸系膜靜脉,并在肺部及心脏也有寄居。3.本虫的中間宿主为两种椎实螺Lymnaea(Radix)plicatula Benson及Lymnaea(Fossaria)ollula Gould。4.发育各期均在实驗室內詳經現察,包括卵、毛蚴、母胞蚴、子胞蚴和尾蚴,及成虫名阶段的发育。各期的构造經詳細的叙述。尾蚴的习性也經观察和叙述。5.本虫的分类問题經詳細討論。6.尾蚴侵入实驗动物——小白鼠后所引起的組织反应,經详细研究。实驗曾經举行比較初次感染和重复感染后组织对于侵入的虫体所引起的不同程度的反应。实驗証明初次感染的,幼虫能侵入表皮、皮层及真皮,白血球浸潤的現象较为微弱,虫体在一两天內尚是存活?啻胃腥镜慕M織內反应较为强烈,白血球以及組織吞噬細胞包圍虫体的更多?嫣宓妮喞炔幻飨员硐植皇谴婊畹那榭觥N豺是秩胄“资筇迥...

1.在福建省各地流行着一种称为“鸭姆涎”的血吸虫皮肤疹,特別在鸭群放牧的地区,农民下水,手足发痒。这种皮肤疹的病原,经調查系一种寄生于家鴨体內的新种血吸虫,定名为包氏血吸虫。Trichobilharzia paoi Sp. Nov. 2.本虫的雄虫及雌虫經詳細叙述。其寄居的位置也經确定以門靜脉为最多,其次为腸系膜靜脉,并在肺部及心脏也有寄居。3.本虫的中間宿主为两种椎实螺Lymnaea(Radix)plicatula Benson及Lymnaea(Fossaria)ollula Gould。4.发育各期均在实驗室內詳經現察,包括卵、毛蚴、母胞蚴、子胞蚴和尾蚴,及成虫名阶段的发育。各期的构造經詳細的叙述。尾蚴的习性也經观察和叙述。5.本虫的分类問题經詳細討論。6.尾蚴侵入实驗动物——小白鼠后所引起的組织反应,經详细研究。实驗曾經举行比較初次感染和重复感染后组织对于侵入的虫体所引起的不同程度的反应。实驗証明初次感染的,幼虫能侵入表皮、皮层及真皮,白血球浸潤的現象较为微弱,虫体在一两天內尚是存活?啻胃腥镜慕M織內反应较为强烈,白血球以及組織吞噬細胞包圍虫体的更多?嫣宓妮喞炔幻飨员硐植皇谴婊畹那榭觥N豺是秩胄“资筇迥?有一部分能侵入肺部,产生出血斑点及結节。結节內有虫体凋炘^明首次感染的小白鼠侵入肺部的虫体,出血斑点及結节均更多,重复感染的逐次減少。多次重复感染后肺部找不到虫体或找到极少数的虫体和出血斑点。7.本文就实验的結果进行討論。

The discovery of the larval form of the species of Asymphylodora Looss (1899) dated back to the time of von Baer (1827), who described Cercaria paludinae impurae, De Filippi (1854) recorded from the same snail host a distome bearing the same name. For one and half century knowledges regarding the developmental life history of the well-known type of the genus, A. tincae, have gradually accumulated. Small as it is, the worm, however, has received the attention of many a distinguished helminthologists such as Diesing...

The discovery of the larval form of the species of Asymphylodora Looss (1899) dated back to the time of von Baer (1827), who described Cercaria paludinae impurae, De Filippi (1854) recorded from the same snail host a distome bearing the same name. For one and half century knowledges regarding the developmental life history of the well-known type of the genus, A. tincae, have gradually accumulated. Small as it is, the worm, however, has received the attention of many a distinguished helminthologists such as Diesing (1858), Looss (1899). Lithe (1809), Fuhrmann (1916), Dubois (1909), Wesenberg-Lund (1934) and Skrjabin (1955). The recent work of Deblock, Capron and Biguet (1957) elucidated the life cycle of a new subspecies, A. tincae var. mediagraba, while other workers like Serkova and Bykhovskii (1940), Biguet, Deblock and Capron (1956) and Stunkard (1959) described the development of several progenetic species, The significance of progenesis to the phylogeny of Digenea is discussed by Stunkard (1959). Inspire of the above-mentioned important advances on the knowledge of this genus, there still remain much to be worked out regarding the biology of this group.The present communication repoorts life history studies on Asymphylodora macostoma Ozaki, 1925 and A. japonica Yamaguti, 1928.The adults of A. macrostoma were obtained from Puntia sp. (Cyprinidae) occurring in the mountain stream of Yungan, Central Fukien. Their structure and measurements were described in detail. They are indistinguishable from the original description of Czaki (1925) and Yamaguti (1938). The molluscan intermediate host of A. macrostoma in Fukien is Melania peregrinorum Heude inhabiting the mountain stream among rocks and under stones.The sporocyst stage was not discovered in natural infection. The second generation redia measures 1.39mm in length and 0.274mm in width. The gut contains numerous brownish granules derived from the host tissue. The general shape of the redia is sac-like. It possesses no muscular feet. In the body of a mature redia there are 5 or 6 cercariae and some germ-balls observed.The cercariaeum is a comparatively large distomate larva 0.3-0.37mm in length and 0.11-0.13mm in width. It is brownish yellow ia color especially in its posterior part. The cuticle is covered with spines distributed in transverse rows. The oral sucker measures 0.08-0.09mm by 0.09-0.097mm in diameter. The ventral sucker is smaller, measurihg 0.068 in diameter. On the dorsal wall of the oral sucker there are four rows of short conspicuous spines lining two-thirds of the inner surface of the sucker. There are also 3-8 big flat spines attached to the inner surface. The acetabulum is also armed with small conspicuous spines on its entire inner surface, Such spinulation is not present in the cercariaeum of A. japonica but is rather similar to that described in Cercariaeum squamosum by Deblock, Carpron and Biguet (1957). The oral sucker is followed by a short prepharynx, which leads to a globular pharynx. The esophagus is long, bending several times and bifurcating in front the acetabulum into two intestinal caeca. On both sides of the esophagus four bundles of penetration glands are present, occupying the area between the pharynx and acetabulum. There are altogether 40-42 unicellular gland cells. Four bundles of ducts proceed anteriorward along the medial and lateral regions to arrive at and open on the inner dorsal wall of the oral sucker. The penetration glands become graduallv diminished as the cercariaeum grows more mature, so that in the adolescaria stage their contents are greatly reduced. The posterior tip of the body is armed with a number of long and sharp spines, which probably help the larva in its creeping movement.The excretory system is complicated. Since the body of the cercariaeum is full of cystogenous cells, which obscure the capillary tubules connecting the flame cells, their arrangement cannot be traced, and yet when the cercariaeum has encysted, while still in the snail host, most of the gland cells have disappeared rendering the tiny excretory tubules observable. The excretory bladder is a sinuous tube, making one or two left and right bendings as it advances anteriorward. The bladder is lined with a series of large epithelial cells. From the anterior aspect of the bladder, there arise two collecting tubules, which extend obliquely foreward to both lateral fields. They continue to advance to the level of esophagus and then turn posteriorly to about the mid region of the whole length of the collecting tubule and divides into two branches. The anterior branch gives off branches two times resulting in three groups of solenocytes. The first group consists of five cells, while the other two have three calls cach. The posterior branch divides into two main sub-branches with seven and three flame cells in each group. The total number of flame cells is about 42. The pattern of their arrangement can be better understood by tracing the development of the excretory system from the germ-ball to the mature cercaria. Four stages were observed:1. In the early germ-ball stage, when the oral sucker and the phraynx are being differentiated, the collecting tubulesare formed. They are connected to a small bladder situated at the posterior end of the body. The two tubules having passcd anteriorly and reached about two-thirds of the body length, make a characteristic loop and divide into an anterior and a posterior branch Their arrangement can be depicted as 2(1+1)=4. 2. In the second stage, when the ventral sucker is formed, both the anterior and posterior branches divide into three flame cells cach. The formula is reprsented as 2(3+3)=12.3. In the third stage the division of the anterior branch into three smaller branches is witnessed. The posterior branch is not subdivided. It still possesses three solenocytes. The formula of arrangement is 2[(2+2+4)+(2+1)]=22.4. The fourth or the cercaria stage shows great increase of cells, especially in the posterior branch. Their arrangement are indicated in the foregoing description. The formula can be expressed as follows: 2[(3+3+5)+(3+3+4)]=42.It was observed that the number of cells and the pattern of their arrangement are not exactly homologous between the left and right sides of the body. The above description indicates that the cell formula is constant only in relative sense that is they differ in different stages of development.Specimens of Asymphylodora japonica were secured from Pscudorasbora parva (Temm. aud Schle.) and also from Cyprinus carpio L. The structure and measurements of the adult are fully described. They resemble the original description of Yamaguti's closely. A. japonica develops in Parafossarulus eximius (Frauenfeld) and P. striatulus (Benson). Both molluscs inhabit the ponds and rivulets in Foochow area. Dissections of the snails reveal stages of rediae and cercariae. Spororcysts were not found in the natural infection. The second generation redia is elongated in shapeIt measures 1.5mm in length and 0.45mm in transverse diameter. The fully mature redia contains seven to eight cercariae in its body.The cercariaeum is elongated or spindle-shaped, measuring 0.5-056mm in length and 0.16mm in greatest width. The cuticle is armed with spines transversely arranged. Oral sucker is round in shape with a diameter of 0.1mm. Ventral sucker, larger than the oral sucker, has a diameter of 0.12-0.13mm. There is a short prepharynx followed by a glubose pharynx. The esophagus is long. It bifurcates in front of the acetabulum into two intestinal caeca, which extend posteriorly to one fourth of the body length from the hind extremity. Four groups of unicellular penetration glands occupy the region between the oral and ventral suckers, numbering altogether about 36-38. Four bundles of gland-ducts lead forward and open on the inner dorsal wall of the oral sucker. The excretory system resembles that of cercariaeum of A. macrostoma. The excretory bladder is a long sinuous tube, similar to that of cercariaeum A. macrostoma.The metacercariae of A. japonica, probably in the pre-encystment stage, were frequently encountered in the snail host. It is larger in size than the cercariaeum, measuring 0.8-1.00mm in length and 0.4mm in greatest width, Oral sucker 0.038-0.11mm in diameter, is smaller than acetabulum, The later is 0.132-0.149 mm in diamcter. The oral sucker is smaller than acetabulum. The later is 0.132-0.149 mm in diam- eter. The oral sucker is followed by a prepharynx, which is connected to a glubose pharynx 0.049-0.50mm in diameter. The esophagus is long It bifurcates before the ventral sucker into two intestinal caeca extending to the hind end of the testis. The genital organs alrsady begin to develop. A single oval testis, measuring 0.30 by 0.20mm is situated at the posterior part of the body. Immediately anterior to the testis, an ovary triangular or oval in shape is present. Its diameter is 0.10mm. On the right side of the acetabulum the primordium of the cirrus pouch and metraterm appear as two columns of nuclei. The metacercariae can encyst in the same snail host. They can also migrate to another snail of the same species. The cyst measures 0.332-0.365mm in diameter. Under cover-glass pressure, it measures 0.500mm in diameter.Experiments were performed to infect Puntia sp., secured from places where no Melanin snails were found, and members of which were found to be free from infection, by feeding them with from Melanin peregrinorum. Fifteen days after infection, the fishes were dissected and adult worms similar to A. macrostoma were found. One experimentally infected fish died five days after infection wite forth immaure worms found. They were all very similar in size and development. Experiments were also performed to secure adult A. japonica by feeding laboratory-reared gold fishes (Carassius auratus) with cysts from Parafossarulus exiraius (F.) Fifteen days after infecti

1.福建省的两种側殖吸虫,巨口侧殖吸虫(Asymphylodora macrostoma Ozaki,1925)及日本侧殖吸虫(A. japonica Yamaguti,1928)的生活史均經闡明。2.巨口侧殖吸虫的终末宿主为刺鲃(Punctius sp.),貝类的中間宿主为川蜷贝(Melania peregrinorum Heude)。日本侧殖吸虫的终末宿主为麦穗魚(Pseudorasbora parva (T. and S.)),及鯉魚(Cyprinus carpio L.),貝类中間宿主为两种的纹沼螺(Parafossarulus eximius (Fruenfeld)及P. striatulus (Benson))。3.幼虫各期的形态經观察和叙述,特別关于排泄系統的构造經詳細的探討。4.两种侧殖吸虫幼虫期的形态,特别关于排泄囊的构造以及穿刺腺的存在,与侧殖Asymphylodora Looss,1899原属有很大的不同,作者建議创立一个新属Orientotrema Tang,1962 Gen. Nov.借以容納有管状排泄囊的种类。属的特征經叙述,末后并附侧殖亚科(Asymphylodorinae)各属...

1.福建省的两种側殖吸虫,巨口侧殖吸虫(Asymphylodora macrostoma Ozaki,1925)及日本侧殖吸虫(A. japonica Yamaguti,1928)的生活史均經闡明。2.巨口侧殖吸虫的终末宿主为刺鲃(Punctius sp.),貝类的中間宿主为川蜷贝(Melania peregrinorum Heude)。日本侧殖吸虫的终末宿主为麦穗魚(Pseudorasbora parva (T. and S.)),及鯉魚(Cyprinus carpio L.),貝类中間宿主为两种的纹沼螺(Parafossarulus eximius (Fruenfeld)及P. striatulus (Benson))。3.幼虫各期的形态經观察和叙述,特別关于排泄系統的构造經詳細的探討。4.两种侧殖吸虫幼虫期的形态,特别关于排泄囊的构造以及穿刺腺的存在,与侧殖Asymphylodora Looss,1899原属有很大的不同,作者建議创立一个新属Orientotrema Tang,1962 Gen. Nov.借以容納有管状排泄囊的种类。属的特征經叙述,末后并附侧殖亚科(Asymphylodorinae)各属檢索表的修訂。5.本类吸虫的生活史及习性問题經詳細討論。

The paper argues that language is a system of signs controlled by the human brain. The systemitself consists of three subsystems: syntactic form, semantic content and pragmatic use, presenting threelevels of one entity. The process of foreign language teaching may be divided into three stages: thefirst and second marked by a focus shift from syntactics to semantics, the third stage by a focus shiftfrom semantics to pragmatics. At each particular stage, curriculum and teaching methods vary in theinterest...

The paper argues that language is a system of signs controlled by the human brain. The systemitself consists of three subsystems: syntactic form, semantic content and pragmatic use, presenting threelevels of one entity. The process of foreign language teaching may be divided into three stages: thefirst and second marked by a focus shift from syntactics to semantics, the third stage by a focus shiftfrom semantics to pragmatics. At each particular stage, curriculum and teaching methods vary in theinterest of training syntactic comptence, semantic, competence and pragmatic competence.

本文对语言系统和外语教学分别提出三个论点。1.当前人类世界可以分成三个系统:物质系统、精神系统和语言系统。现代科学认为语言是人脑控制的社会交际的信息符号系统。这个信息符号系统承载的是主观精神反映客观物质而形成的知识系统。2.语言系统由表层语符系统、深层语义系统和修辞层语用系统这三个子系统构成的。社会实践通过语符、语义、语用三个系统来反映物质、精神、语言三个系统所反映的内容。这就是语言系统三层次的假说。3.外语教学可分成:以表层语符为中心的初级学习阶段;以语义文化为中心的中级应用阶段,和以语用修辞为中心的高级创造阶段。因此,教学法要按照不同阶段的语言系统三层次的假说进行教学。

 
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