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first stage     
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  第一阶段
     The experiments proved that the first stage reaction-lanthanum nitrate /sodium hydroxide reaction was a second order reaction and its kinetic equation was-dcA/dt=25.5c2A.
     经实验验证,第一阶段硝酸镧/氢氧化钠盐碱反应为二级反应,动力学方程为-dcA/dt=25.5c2A。
短句来源
     The order reaction in the first stage, n, is from 0.9 to 1.4;
     在热降解第一阶段反应,级数n为0.9~1.4;
短句来源
     Almost 47% of CO produced disproportionates into CO_2 and C in the first stage ofdecomposition of CaC_2O_4 heated under vacuum.
     CaC_2O_4真空热分解中,第一阶段生成的CO中47%歧化成CO_2和C;
短句来源
     In the first stage, five prescriptions such as:(1)1%OFLX cream,(2) 1%OFLX & 0.3% SLT cream, (3)1% OFLX & 2% KCZ cream, (4)2.5% TSN cream and (5)1% OFLX cream and 0.3% SLT cream used alternately were studied respectively on small samples.
     在第一阶段的初筛中分别对以下五种处方进行了小样本初筛:(1)1%OFLX霜,(2)1%OFLX&0.3%SLT霜,(3)1%OFLX+2%KCZ霜,(4)2.5%TSN霜及(5)1%OFLX霜与0.3%SLT霜交替使用。
短句来源
     The first stage of its development is textual hermeneutics.
     阐释学发展的第一阶段是本文阐释学(textual hermeneutics)。
短句来源
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  一期
     Methods PZ and FⅩ∶Ag were measured by ELISA, and plasma FⅩ∶C by first stage method.
     方法 PZ及FⅩ∶Ag用ELISA法检测 ,血浆FⅩ∶C采用一期法测定。
短句来源
     Methods The activities of plasma FⅤ:C,FⅦ:C,FⅧ:C,FⅩ:C,F Ⅺ:C were examined by ALC 2000 fully auto-coagulant with the first stage method.
     方法血浆 FⅤ: C、FⅦ:C、FⅧ:C、FⅩ:C、FⅪ:C 检测采用一期法,在 ACL 2000全自动凝血仪上进行测定。
短句来源
     The design output of the pipeline at first stage is 40×104 m3/d,and that is 24×104 m3/d at second stage.
     一期设计输量为24×10~4m~3/d,二期设计输量为40×10~4m~3/d。
短句来源
     Results The average operative time of first stage MPC- NL was 112 min,36 cases were rendered stone free and the clearance rate was 64.3%.
     结果一期手术平均手术时间112 min,一期结石取净36例(64.3%)。
短句来源
     During calcining raw meals with crystal seed,the temperatures of decomposing large amount of carbonate of lime,first stage and second stage of solid phase reactions and formation of C3S decrease 10,20,30,40℃ respectively compared with that without crystal seed.
     加与不加晶种相比,碳酸盐大量分解、一期固相反应、二期固相反应、C3S形成等温度分别提前约10,20,30,40℃;
短句来源
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  一段
     The vulcanizing conditions were as follows:for first stage,170 ℃×(9~10) min;
     胶料的硫化条件为 :一段  170℃× ( 9~ 10 )min ;
短句来源
     The results of tests show that the optimal conditions are controlling m(Ca) ∶ m(F) = 2 and reaction time 40 min of the first stage;
     结果表明,一段处理最佳条件:m(Ca)∶m(F)=2、反应时间40 min;
短句来源
     Combustion process can be divided into two distinct stages, with first stage coinciding with pyrolysis process and the second one concerning a consecutive reaction of lignin pyrolysis and char combustion with activation energy of 255.57 kJ·mol -1 and 159.11 kJ·mol -1, respectively.
     蔗渣燃烧过程分为两段,第一段类似于其热解过程,第二段由木质素热解和残焦燃烧共同组成的连续反应,反应活化能为255.57kJ·mol1和159.11kJ·mol1。
短句来源
     The need of hydrochloric acid is less. The suitable operation conditions are calcination temperature at 700~750℃, Calcination time at 30~50 minutes, mole ratio of acid and Al_2O_3 at 3.4~3.6、the first stage reaction time at 1.5 hours and the second stage reaction time at 3 hours.
     适宜的工艺条件为:灼烧温度700~750℃,灼烧时间30~50分钟,加酸摩尔比3.4~3.6,一段反应时间1.5小时,二段反应时间3小时.
短句来源
     To commercial feedstocks,the influence of the diene value of feed,(C_o)inlet temperature (T_o)and LHSV (S_v)on diene hydrogenation conversion and the increase of reaction temperature have been investigated via the performace study of the first stage hydrogenation reaction of cracked gasoline in an adiabatic intergral reactor filled with 8601 and PGC catalysts.
     通过对裂解汽油一段加氢8601催化剂及 PGC 催化剂在绝热积分床反应器中的反应特性研究,考察了在工业原料条件下,入口双烯值 C_o、入口温度 T_o 以及液时空速 S_v 对双烯加氢率及反应温升的影响。
短句来源
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  第一级
     (2)The tip velocity of propeller for the first stage flocculation should be in the range of 1.5~1.8m/s.
     ( 2 )对于三级絮凝过程 ,三级絮凝搅拌桨叶端线速度之比为3∶ 2∶ 1 ,第一级叶端线速度的适宜范围为 :1 .5~ 1 .8m/s;
短句来源
     The first stage PHEMT with gate width of 6 ×30 μm was used to drive the second stage PHEMT with gate width of 6 ×70 μm, the chip size is 1.29 mm ×0.94mm.
     设计好的MMIC 功率放大器共两级,第一级PHEMT栅宽为6 ×30 μm,第二级PHEMT 为6 ×70 μm,芯片版图面积为1.29 mm ×0.94mm。
短句来源
     At the first stage, suitable operation conditions were as follows: distillation temperature 160~165℃, system pressure 0.17 mbar, feed rate 10~12 ml/min, agitating speed 300 r/min.
     试验采用多级操作方式,第一级分离条件为:蒸馏温度160~165℃,系统压力0.17 mbar,进料流速10~12 ml/min,刮板转速300 r/min;
短句来源
     The cooler can pro vide 42 mW, 205 mW and 518 mW at 2.0 K, 3.0 K and 4.2 K with 1.3 kW input po wer to the second stage compressor Leybold RW2 and 4.3 kW to the first stage c ompressor Leybold CP4000, respectively.
     研究表明 ,以3He为第二级工质 ,该系统在 2K ,3K和 4 2K ,分别可以提供 4 2mW ,2 0 5 5mW和 5 18 3mW的制冷量 ,第一级和第二级压缩机相应的输入功率分别为 4 3kW (LeyboldCP4 0 0 0氦压缩机 )和 1 3kW (LeyboldRW 2氦压缩机 )。
短句来源
     The HEMT and the microwave series inductance feedback technique arc used in the first stage of the amplifier, and the Ku-band MMIC is used in the last stage.
     放大器第一级采用了HEMT和微波串联电感反馈技术,放大器未级采用了Ku波段GsAs MMIC。
短句来源
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  first stage
If the hot-pressing temperature or the original MC increases during the first stage, the temperature will increase at an accelerated rate.
      
In the third stage the original MC does not affect the rate of temperature increase, while the effect of the other factors is the same as that at the first stage.
      
In the first stage, an objective scenario is formulated as a graph of operations.
      
A two-step problem of quintile optimization with linear constraints, discrete distribution of the vector of random parameters, and the first stage scalar strategy is studied.
      
At the first stage, the components of the subsystems as specified by the primary layout are checked in parallel.
      
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Internal friction in hardened carbon steels was measured with a torsion pendulum and an internal friction peak was observed around 130℃when measurements were taken from room temperature upwards. This peak disappeared completely after the temperature of the specimen reached 170℃. This phenomenon was observed in carbon steels containing carbon ranging from 0.29% to 1.4%, and also in an alloy steel. The appearance of this internal friction peak seems to indicate that the transformation product ( ∈ -carbide) formed...

Internal friction in hardened carbon steels was measured with a torsion pendulum and an internal friction peak was observed around 130℃when measurements were taken from room temperature upwards. This peak disappeared completely after the temperature of the specimen reached 170℃. This phenomenon was observed in carbon steels containing carbon ranging from 0.29% to 1.4%, and also in an alloy steel. The appearance of this internal friction peak seems to indicate that the transformation product ( ∈ -carbide) formed in the first-stage tempering of martensite is in coherence with its parent phase, and the origin of internal friction is the stress-induced movement of the plane of coherence.

用扭摆测量淬硬碳钢的内耗,当测量温度由室温渐渐升高时,在130℃附近有一个内耗峰出现。当温度达到170℃后再降温测量,这个内耗峰完全消逝不见。上述的现象在含碳0.29%到1.4%的几种淬硬碳钢和淬硬滚珠钢中都曾经看到。由内耗峰的出现可以认为马氏体在第一个回火阶段中的转变产物(ε-碳化铁)与母体具有共格性,由于共格界面的应力感生运动而引起内耗。 曾用具有马氏体组织的0.25%碳钢试样作实验,没有观测到上述的内耗峰。但是当回火温度达到280-300℃以后,在降温或升温测量中都观测到一个内耗峰(在150℃附近)。这表示低碳马氏体在第三个回火阶段中的转变产物与母体具有共格性。但是由于这个内耗峰的表现与上述高碳试样的内耗峰不同,所以我们认为这转变产物并不是ε-碳化铁。

Following the development of the copper cup-electrode solution method for the spectrogra-phic analysis of open-hearth slags,a series of experiments was carried out to study the volatili-zation process in such a spectral light source.The correlation of the different volatilizationcurves obtained with different experimental conditions revealed that the volatilization processmay be considered as of two stages.The first stage corresponds to the appearence of the firstpeak on the volatilization curve,where...

Following the development of the copper cup-electrode solution method for the spectrogra-phic analysis of open-hearth slags,a series of experiments was carried out to study the volatili-zation process in such a spectral light source.The correlation of the different volatilizationcurves obtained with different experimental conditions revealed that the volatilization processmay be considered as of two stages.The first stage corresponds to the appearence of the firstpeak on the volatilization curve,where no fractional distillation was observed.It means thatduring this stage,volatilization of the substances into the radiating vapor comes directly fromthe surface of the solution.The second stage corresponds to the appearance of a second peakand the shape and position of this peak is very sensitive to the slight variation of experimentalconditions,which also vary differently for various elements.This tendency toward fractionaldistillation may be directly correlated with the different electrode potentials of the elements.Thus,we regard that the volatilization of the elements,during this stage,into the arc columnis essentially from the inner electrode of the cup.Because of these characteristics of thevolatilization process cited above,substances that do not dissolve in the sample solution can alsoenter into the radiating vapor especially during the first stage from the turbulent solution.Aset of experimental data indicates that the precision of spectral analysis and the position of thecalibration curves are not obviously affected by the fact that open-hearth slags do not alwayscompletely dissolve in an acid solution.The effect of the solvent(HNO_3 and HCl)on the slope of the calibration curves and theinfluence of the anions on the density of the spectral lines of the different analyzing elementswere also briefly studied.Taking into account of the results obtained from the study of the volatilization process of sucha spectral source,we were able to eliminate shifts of the calibration curves in routine analysisof open-hearth slags.This was accomplished by strict control of the height of the surfaceof the solution inside the cup-electrode and careful workmanship of the lower inner electrode.The relative arithmetic mean error of nine independent analyses for all the elements analyzed inslags was within 4%.Preliminary experiments show that this method is also applicable tospectrographic analysis of blast-furnace slags and magnesia.

根据杯形铜电极溶液法用于平炉渣光谱分析所得的初步结果,进行了一系列有关杯形电极溶液电弧光源中燃烧过程的系统试验。在不同情形下测定了溶液中各元素的燃烧曲线,看到曲线上先后有两个高峯出现,因而认为光源中的燃烧过程有两阶段,物质在这两燃烧阶段中进入放电区的方式不同。第一阶段相当于第一高峯出现的期间,在这时并没有分馏现象,这表示溶液中的物质主要是经过溶液的翻腾作用而直接从液面进入放电区的。燃烧过程的后一阶段相当于曲线上的第二高峯的部分,这个峯的形状和位置对于不同元素和不同实验条件很灵敏,有分馏现象出现。根据对于各种分析元素的分解电压,可以认为,溶液中的物质在这个燃烧阶段主要是通过电极心而进入弧柱的。在平炉渣的实际分析中,严格地控制杯中液面的高低和铜电极心的加工规格,所得到各元素的九次独立分析误差都在4%以内。

The process of decomposition of supersaturated tetragonal martensite during the first stage of tempering is investigated by considering the characteristics of motion of a carbon atom from one interstitial position to another within the martensite matrix. It is evident that not all the carbon atoms take part simultaneously in the process of precipitation, some remain in solution for a longer time, others shorter, some mobile, others stationary. By assuming that each transition from one state of motion to...

The process of decomposition of supersaturated tetragonal martensite during the first stage of tempering is investigated by considering the characteristics of motion of a carbon atom from one interstitial position to another within the martensite matrix. It is evident that not all the carbon atoms take part simultaneously in the process of precipitation, some remain in solution for a longer time, others shorter, some mobile, others stationary. By assuming that each transition from one state of motion to another has a definite probability, which is independant of time and carbon concentration but dependant on temperature and the nature of crystalline matrix, it can be shown that an isothermal decomposition curve can be expressed as a series with exponential terms, the coefficients of which are related to the distribution of carbon atoms in different states of motion. The agreement between this expression and the existing experimental data is satisfactory. The general tendancy of the variation of the coefficients with temperature is just what should be expected.

本文是作者从马氏体回火第一阶段中的等温分解曲线来研究分解过程。这种等温曲线最初接近时间的一次方的指数关系,越后则越不到一次方关系的分解时率。作者认为这种曲线反映了分解过程瞬变的本质和晶格间隙中碳原子运动迟留的特徵。假定了间隙碳原子从任一种运动情态转变到另一种情态都有一定的几率以后,等温分解曲线可以被表示成为一系列的时间的指数函数的和。每一指数项中时间的系数和运动情态转变的几率有关。这种几率和碳原子的浓度及时间无关,它们是温度的函数且和晶体间架的性质有关。指数项的系数则和碳原子在各种运动情态中的分布有关。这样的方式可以把实验数据代表到如所需要的精确度,而凭着所得的系数可以对推测分解过程的机构有所帮助。

 
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