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ecology
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  生态
     STUDY ON POPULATION ECOLOGY OF ZOYSIA JAPONICA
     结缕草种群生态的研究
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     Study on the ecology and genetic structure of Larix chinensis population
     太白红杉种群生态及遗传结构研究
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     Studies on Effects of Ecological Factors on Growth of Maize and Establishment of Climate Ecology Model and Appraisement System
     生态因素对玉米生长发育影响及气候生态模型与评价系统建立的研究
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     Ecology, Ethnicity, and Class
     生态、族群与阶级
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     Study on Collegiate Academic in Ecology
     大学学术生态研究
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  生态学
     ON BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY AND INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF Beckmannia syzigachne
     (艹冂又)草(Beckmannia syzigachne)生物学生态学及其综合防治技术的研究
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     Study on Molecular Ecology of Heat Shock Response in Betula platyphylla
     白桦热激反应的分子生态学研究
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     Study on Resources Ecology of Chinese Licorice
     中国甘草资源生态学研究
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     STUDY ON MOLECULAR ECOLOGY OF PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS
     芦苇分子生态学研究
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     Study on Reproductive Ecology of Lilium Pumilum DC.
     细叶百合的生殖生态学研究
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     Reproductive Ecology of Leymus Chinensis
     羊草(Leymus chinensis)生殖生态学的研究
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     Markering Rhizobium JMC1402 with gfp-gusA and Studies on Molecular Ecology of Interaction between Glomus Mosseae and JMC1402P in Rice Bean Rhizosphere
     饭豆根瘤菌JMC1402的基因标记和其与Glomus mosseae相互关系的分子生态学的研究
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     Studies on the Foraging Behavioural Ecology of Episyrphus Balteatus De Geer
     黑带食蚜蝇Episyrphus balteatus De Geer捕食行为生态学的研究
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     Studies on Biology and Ecology of Experimental Population of Teleogryllus Derelictus Gorochov
     黄褐油葫芦(Teleogryllus derelictus Gorochov)实验种群生物学及生态学的研究
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     Towards the Chinese city's state,using the theory of landscape ecology,borrowing the result of the other subject,this paper give the strategy of ecological construction in planning and design from the ecological function of the city green corridors.
     本文针对中国城市的现状,运用景观生态学的一些基本原理,借鉴其他学科的研究成果,依据绿色景观廊道的生态功能,分别从城市绿色景观廊道在城市中的布局以及廊道设计两方面提出绿色廊道生态化建设策略。
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     Ecology Adaptation of Kerria Lacca Kerr.
     紫胶蚧(Kerria lacca Kerr.)生态适应性研究
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     Studies on the Biosafety of Transgenic Insecticidal Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) to Itself and Soil Ecology
     转基因抗虫棉(Gossypium hirsutum L.)生产安全性的研究
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     Research on Forestry Development Based on the Urban Ecology Environment Construction
     基于城市生态环境建设的林业发展研究
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     A Study on Ecology and Environment Process of Cenozoic Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Hinterland
     青藏高原腹地新生代生态环境演化研究
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     Study on Comprehensive Evaluation Theory and System Dynamics Simulation for the Project of Small Hydropower Replacing Firewood for Ecology Protection
     小水电代燃料的综合评价理论与系统动力学仿真研究
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  ecology
Following the methodology of community ecology, the total root mass of a phytocommunity is measured as cubic volume.
      
DEM has been applied to physical geography, hydrology, ecology, and biology.
      
Based on the methods of landscape ecology and ecological planning, this paper develops a zoning project of ecosystem functions suitable for various environments.
      
Forest precipitation chemistry is a major issue in forest hydrology and forest ecology.
      
However, the definition and classification of CWD have been the subject of a long debate in forest ecology.
      
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Ⅰ. A brief mosquito survey was carried out in Changsha, Hunan Province from March to October, 1954. Adult pupae as well as larvae were collected from various habitats. As a result, twenty-six species of nine genera were discovered. They are 1. Anopheles hyrcanus var. sinensis, 2. Tripteroides aranoides, 3. Uranotaenia macfarlanei. 4. U. bimaculata, 5. Orthopodomyia anopheloides, 6. Ficalbia luzonensis, 7. Mansonia uniformis, 8. Armigeres obturbans, 9. Aedes vexans, 10. Ae. niveus, 11. Ae. albopictus, 12. Culex...

Ⅰ. A brief mosquito survey was carried out in Changsha, Hunan Province from March to October, 1954. Adult pupae as well as larvae were collected from various habitats. As a result, twenty-six species of nine genera were discovered. They are 1. Anopheles hyrcanus var. sinensis, 2. Tripteroides aranoides, 3. Uranotaenia macfarlanei. 4. U. bimaculata, 5. Orthopodomyia anopheloides, 6. Ficalbia luzonensis, 7. Mansonia uniformis, 8. Armigeres obturbans, 9. Aedes vexans, 10. Ae. niveus, 11. Ae. albopictus, 12. Culex fuscanus, 13. C. vorax, 14. C. hayashii, 15. C. (Neoculex) sp. 16. C. malayi, 17. C. (Lophoceratomyia) sp. 18. C. pallidothorax, 19. C. bitaeniorhynchus, 20. C. sinensis, 21. C. whitmorei, 22. C. tritaeniorhynchus, 23. C. mimeticus. 24. C. mimutus, 25. C. vagans and 26. C. fatigans. Among these species Tripteroides aranoides, Uranotaenia bimaculata, Orthopodomyia anopheloides and Ficalbia luzonensis were recorded for the first time in the province.Ⅱ. As regards the distribution of these twenty-six species in Changsha, twelve of them were found in Tung Ch'u (or East District) and Pei Ch'u (or North District), ten in Nan Ch'u (or South District), and Si Ch'u (or West District), sixteen in Chin Pan Ch'u, thirteen in Wen I Ch'u, twenty-one in Hui Chuan Ch'u and Yue Lo Ch'u. In the city thirteen species were found and in suburb, twenty-five species.Ⅲ. The daytime resting places of mosquitoes have been classified as household, pigsties, cowstable, villages and hills. Different species of mosquitoes prefer different quarters as their daytime resting places.Ⅳ. Larvae of seventeen out of twenty-six species of mosquitoes have been found Their breeding places and their association with other species are discussed.Ⅴ. On the basis of larval collection six species are considered as important and common in Changsha, namely Culex fatigans, C. tritaeniorhynehus, C. vorax, Anopheles hyrcanus var. sinensis Aedes albopictus and Armigeres obturbans. The correlation between climate and ecology of these six species is also touched on.Ⅵ. A key to the identification of all known species of mosquitoes of Hunan is given.

一.1954年3—10月,在长沙市初步调查蚊虫,共採得蚊种9属26种。其中有按蚊属1种、拟三翅蚊属1种、Uraunotaenia属2种、Orthopodomyia属1种、番蚊属1-种、曼蚊属1种、阿蚊属土种、蚊属3种及库蚊属15种(其中2种未定名)。所採得的9属26种蚊虫中,有树竹拟三翅蚊、Uranotaenia bimaculata、Orthopodo-myia anopheloides及罗宗番蚊4种,在湖南尚系首次报告。 二.长沙市蚊种的分佈,郊區有25种、中心區有13种。较为常见者有致乏库蚊、三 带喙库蚊、中华按蚊、白纹伊蚊貪食库蚊及骚扰阿蚊六种。 三.”长沙市各种成蚊的停歇处,主要是山陵、住宅、郊野及猪、牛栏。 四.在长沙市所发现的蚊虫中,只发现17种幼虫。各蚊种幼虫孳生地的范围是有差别的。致乏库蚊及贫食库蚊范围最广;Uranotaenia bimaculata、othopodomyiaanopheloides、黑足伊蚊的幼虫,只在树洞渍水中发现。 五.各蚊种幼虫间共生情况,已在文中讨论。 六.在调查的过程中,发现黑足伊蚊在傍晚时吸吮人血。 七.将湖南省已肢知蚊虫编为俭索表,以便有关工作人员之参考。

This paper deals with ecology and part of the Life history of the Chinese alligator. In making the investigation, the auther has paid visits to the Lower Yangtze basin and its adjacent territory during February-October in 1951, 1954, and 1956 in south Anhwei.The Chinese alligator inhabits the alluvial plain. During the growth and development of river, there are two seasonal periods in a year. The rainy season covering from April to October, and the dry season from October to March of the next year. During...

This paper deals with ecology and part of the Life history of the Chinese alligator. In making the investigation, the auther has paid visits to the Lower Yangtze basin and its adjacent territory during February-October in 1951, 1954, and 1956 in south Anhwei.The Chinese alligator inhabits the alluvial plain. During the growth and development of river, there are two seasonal periods in a year. The rainy season covering from April to October, and the dry season from October to March of the next year. During the dry season, one side of a broad sand swamp is an artifial dam, while the opposite is the natural bank, which may be gradually destroyed by the current in the rainy season year after year.During the rainy season, the water level is higher which serve as a shelter to the hidden alligator.The Chinese alligator is not only found along the basin of the lower Yangtze River, but also in south Anhwei districts along Chin-I-Kiang and Cheun-Ho River system. The plain is always sunk down by the tide, its surface being usually covered by a harder mud. A lot of burrows are distributed here and there. Each burrow has seveal holes. It is seaier to find out such burrows in the fall and winter, because the reeds are then cropped.Investigations showed that there were two types of burrows with respect to the sex of the alligator found inside. The male burrow is a simple tunnel with two openings, while the female's is more complicated.A longitudinal section of the female's burrow shows that the burrow is somewhat like a three-storied building. The differences in the level of diggings are considered as adaptations to different water levels.The following table presents burrow types in sexual diamorphism.The changes of water levels of the alluvial plain of definite regional river system may be related, according to our field examination, to the period of the animal's hibernation. The burrowed creature is coiled underground in 2m. deep during the winter season. The types of the burrows may be shown in the following table:In the wet season, the water level is about 8m. deep, just reaching.the surface of plain. This fact indicates that water is essential to the animal in the regulation of its physiological processes.The alligator mates in May and June, nesting at the end of June, laying The words "Doors'' and "Windows" adopted here are taken to indicate the various openings of the nests of the alligators.eggs in the July and August. The eggs measure 59 mm. in diameter. The shell is very hard, being ashy white in colour.The head and body length of the breeding adults as well as the number of eggs found in females may be given in following table:Other observations on the night movement during the breeding period may be shown as follows:

1.我国古代早在商周时期,即对此项动物加以记载,下至晋唐,都曾有记述,包括分布、形态和生态诸方面。综合辨考前人记载鼍及其近种的分布,是在今日的湖北、山西、广西、广东、安徽、福建、江苏、江西和当时邻国柬埔寨等地。 2.动物的栖息地为河流、湖泊、丘陵山涧的河漫滩的芦苇及竹林丛中。调查地包括了安徽省、江西省沿江的河漫滩及属於黄山天目山的青弋江、渲河、青山河的下游和芜湖、南陵、宣城、泾县、当涂、高淳、宁国、郎溪诸县。时间是1951年,1954年,1956年2—10月间。 3.据据39尾鼍的标本测定,其雌雄的外形性徵差异不显著,但其所营穴窟却有显著的两性相异形式。二者均包括有洞身和各种不同的洞口,适於进出、呼吸等用。 4.雌性个体异穴分居。 5.动物每年4月初开始出洞活动,6月间配偶,7月初至8月中旬筑巢产卵,在在6—8月间最为活动,10月下旬开始入蛰休眠。 6.动物在竹林芦苇田中筑巢,取材枯叶、杂草、乾枯稻草和菱白叶。体长92.1厘米者,巢中的卵数20。卵长59毫米,径34毫米,围110毫米,卵重43克,壳重3.75克。 7.动物昼伏夜出,风雨之夜概不出洞。最热季节,日中当大气气温31—35℃、湿度40—48°时,曝...

1.我国古代早在商周时期,即对此项动物加以记载,下至晋唐,都曾有记述,包括分布、形态和生态诸方面。综合辨考前人记载鼍及其近种的分布,是在今日的湖北、山西、广西、广东、安徽、福建、江苏、江西和当时邻国柬埔寨等地。 2.动物的栖息地为河流、湖泊、丘陵山涧的河漫滩的芦苇及竹林丛中。调查地包括了安徽省、江西省沿江的河漫滩及属於黄山天目山的青弋江、渲河、青山河的下游和芜湖、南陵、宣城、泾县、当涂、高淳、宁国、郎溪诸县。时间是1951年,1954年,1956年2—10月间。 3.据据39尾鼍的标本测定,其雌雄的外形性徵差异不显著,但其所营穴窟却有显著的两性相异形式。二者均包括有洞身和各种不同的洞口,适於进出、呼吸等用。 4.雌性个体异穴分居。 5.动物每年4月初开始出洞活动,6月间配偶,7月初至8月中旬筑巢产卵,在在6—8月间最为活动,10月下旬开始入蛰休眠。 6.动物在竹林芦苇田中筑巢,取材枯叶、杂草、乾枯稻草和菱白叶。体长92.1厘米者,巢中的卵数20。卵长59毫米,径34毫米,围110毫米,卵重43克,壳重3.75克。 7.动物昼伏夜出,风雨之夜概不出洞。最热季节,日中当大气气温31—35℃、湿度40—48°时,曝晒於水面。

Up to the present, there are 27 species of mosquitoes recorded in Peking. In 1953--1955, wehave collected 19 of them; among these, Culex pipiens var. pallens and Culex tritaeniorhynchus arethe commonest species in residental areas, where Aedes chemulpoensis, Aedes vexans, Aedesdorsalis, Amopheles hyrcanus var. sinensis and Anopheles pattoni are also frequently found. Culex pipiens var. pallans are usually found resting in dark places inside the houses, Culextritaeniorynchus, Anopeles hyrcannus var. sinensis,...

Up to the present, there are 27 species of mosquitoes recorded in Peking. In 1953--1955, wehave collected 19 of them; among these, Culex pipiens var. pallens and Culex tritaeniorhynchus arethe commonest species in residental areas, where Aedes chemulpoensis, Aedes vexans, Aedesdorsalis, Amopheles hyrcanus var. sinensis and Anopheles pattoni are also frequently found. Culex pipiens var. pallans are usually found resting in dark places inside the houses, Culextritaeniorynchus, Anopeles hyrcannus var. sinensis, Anopheles pattoni, Aedes dorsslis and Aedesvexans are easily collected from the walls and ceilings of animal houses, whereas Aedes chemul-poensis prefers shaded places for resting in natural surroundings outside of houses. During winter,we also found that green houses, waste artificial caves of city wall, cellers in the field for sweetpotato storage, waste brick-kiln, basement of houses (without heat) are suitable places for hiberna-tion of Culex pipiels var. pallens. In both urban and suburban regions larvae of Culex pipiens var. pallens are prevalentfrom June to September, they were found in almost all types of water, but most of the breedingplaces of Culex tritaeniorynchus are found in the suburban regions. The seasonal distribution of mosquitoes is determined by periodical collection of adults inselecter stations, daily collection of adults in animal traping room and periodical collection of larvaeand pupae. During the 2 years periods, it was revealed that there are two peaks both in Culexpipiens var. pallens and Culex tritaeniorynchus, and the first peak usually occurred before 10thAugust. From the result of the study of ecology of mosquitoes as well as that of the seasonal and regionaldistribution of human cases we consider that Culex pipiens var. pallens and Culex tritaeniorynchusare the most important vectors of Japanese B encephalitis virus in this district.

1.于1953、1954年在北京市发现5属19种蚊子,在居民区内常见的蚊种有淡色库蚊、三带喙库蚊、骚扰伊蚊、仁川伊蚊、背点伊蚊、中华按蚊、帕氏按蚊。 2.淡色库蚊栖止在室内暗处,三带喙库蚊、中华按蚊、帕氏按蚊、骚扰伊蚊、背点伊蚊常栖止在畜舍内,仁川伊蚊多发现在室外阴凉处。 3.淡色库蚊成虫越冬场所为花洞子、废城墙洞、白薯窖、废砖窖、地下室、花窖等。 4.淡色库蚊、三带喙库蚊的消长曲线一年中出现两个峯,第一个峯出现在8月上旬以前;仁川伊蚊于8月上中旬出现一个峯。另外,在一年内以淡色库蚊活动的期限为最长,约7个月左右,三带喙库蚊、中华按蚊次之。 5.蚊子与当地脑炎流行的关系已予讨论,并推论淡色库蚊、三带喙库蚊可能为本市脑炎的主要传播媒介。

 
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