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causes of
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     Effect and Its Causes of FACE on Growth and Development of Rice(Oryza Sativa L.)
     FACE对水稻生长发育的影响及其原因分析
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     A Study on the Causes of Imbalanced Sex Ratio at Birth
     出生人口性别比失衡原因研究
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     A Study and Test for Driving System of the 1700 Hot—rolling Mills in Wuhan lron and Steel Co.——Analysis on the Causes of Gear Spindal Heavy Damage
     武钢1700热连轧机主传动系统测试研究——弧齿接手齿面严重损坏的原因分析
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     A Discussion on the Causes of Death in Severe Viral Hepatitis A Clinical and Pathologic Analysis of 223 Fatal Cases
     重症病毒性肝炎的死亡原因探讨(223例死亡病例的临床和病理分析)
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     Features and Distribution of Lesions, Causes of Death in Leprosy-An Analysis of 100 Autopsy Cases
     100例麻风尸解病变分布、病变特点及死亡原因的分析
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     Analysis of Problems of Financial Crisis--Causes of Japanese Financial Crisis
     对金融危机若干问题的分析——兼论日本经济危机的成因
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     Mechanism Study on the Main Causes of Forming Low Resistivity Pay
     低阻油层的主要成因机理研究
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     Analysis for the Effect of Flood Retaining of Forests and the Suggestions for the Causes of “81.8” Flood Formation and Flood Control in Hanzhong District
     森林拦蓄雨洪作用的分析及对汉中地区81.8洪水成因及防洪治理的意见
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     A Discussion on Causes of Dewing in Grain Storages
     粮仓结露成因的探讨
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     THE CHARACTERISTICS AND CAUSES OF THE AFRICA CLIMATE
     试论非洲的气候特征及其成因
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     Effect and Its Causes of FACE on Growth and Development of Rice(Oryza Sativa L.)
     FACE对水稻生长发育的影响及其原因分析
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     A Study and Test for Driving System of the 1700 Hot—rolling Mills in Wuhan lron and Steel Co.——Analysis on the Causes of Gear Spindal Heavy Damage
     武钢1700热连轧机主传动系统测试研究——弧齿接手齿面严重损坏的原因分析
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     The Causes of Needle Breaking in Type Z303 Tricot Machine
     Z303经编机坏针原因分析
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     Causes of Perinatal Deaths in 1979 and 1980
     1979~1980两年间围产儿死亡原因分析
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     Analysis of the Causes of Death of 300 Cases of Perinatal Fetus and Neonate Department of Pathology
     300例围产儿死亡原因分析
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     Analysis on the Causes of Employee Turnover in State-Owned Enterprises
     国有企业员工离职动因分析
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     A CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF CAUSES OF DEATH IN BURNS
     烧伤死亡病例的临床分析
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     Analysis of the complications and causes of death in cholelithiasis
     胆结石的并发症与死亡病例分析
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     On the External and Internal Causes of the Mental Development of Children
     试论儿童心理发展的内外因问题
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     Analysis of the Causes of Newborn Death of 94 Cases
     94例新生儿死因分析
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Diabetic complications including nephropathy, neuropathy, and cataract are leading causes of end-stage renal diseases and neurological disorders.
      
Embryological studies on the species were conducted to discover the causes of its sterility.
      
The ARVC, usually presenting with different clinical manifestations and pathological changes, were mainly seen in young men and is one of the main causes of sudden death in the young.
      
Commencement of an extinctions prelude prior to the postulated bolide impact implies that the causes of PTB extinction largely lie in the intrinsic developments of the earth, especially those related with the integration of Pangea.
      
The point that should be emphasized is that the decisive and direct causes of the F-F transitional mass extinction would be the stepwise deterioration of the marine ecosystem since the Middle Devonian other than a bolide impact on the earth.
      
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The purpose of the present article is to calculate the internal friction of binary substitution-al alloys in different states of order by the application of the general thermodynamical theory of internal friction of linear type. To begin with, free energies are deduced for specimens under the action of a uniform stress, which, so far as the degree of order is concerned, is not in equilibrium. In this paper two mechanisms, the preferential distribution of atom-pairs and the change of degrees of short range order...

The purpose of the present article is to calculate the internal friction of binary substitution-al alloys in different states of order by the application of the general thermodynamical theory of internal friction of linear type. To begin with, free energies are deduced for specimens under the action of a uniform stress, which, so far as the degree of order is concerned, is not in equilibrium. In this paper two mechanisms, the preferential distribution of atom-pairs and the change of degrees of short range order that give rise to the internal friction are suggested. In either case the internal friction is found to be proportional to the first and second power of (1-S), where is the degree of long range order. Thus, in the state of complete order, the internal friction would vanish, whereas it would be a maximum in the state of complete disorder. Theoretical results are in perfect accord with Nowick's data for the complete order in the Ag-Zn alloys and with the work of the Artman for the ordered states of β-brass. However, according to the theory, these experimental findings seem to indicate that it is the ordering pairs rather than the change of short range order that appear to be the cause of these two internal friction peaks.

本文是利用热力学线型内耗的理论来计算二元代位合金在各种有序状态时的内耗。首先,求出了在一个均匀应力作用下,样品中所产生的非平衡的有序无序的自由能,文中又介绍了原子对从优取向和短程有序的变化等两种内耗的机构。在这两种情况中,内耗都是正比于(1-S)的一次幂或二次幂的,这里S是长程有序程度。所以一定温度下在完全有序的状态时内耗不出现,而在完全无序状态时内耗最大。理论的结果是和诺维克的AgZn合金无序内耗的数据,以及亚特曼的β-黄铜有序内耗的数据完全符合的。并且还可以明了这些实验所测得的内耗峰是由于原子对从优取向所产生的,不是由于短程有序变化的原因。

Citrus in South China is affected with a highly destructive disease known as"Yellow shoot".The disease is most serious in the Chaoshan and the Yuehchungdistricts of Kwangtung Province and in the Changchow district of Fukien Province.It has been known in the Chaoshan district for over 70 years but has becomeepiphytotic only since about 30 years ago.During this period,millions of Citrustrees have been killed. Citrus trees may be affected in any age.The characteristic symptoms of thedisease are general yellowing...

Citrus in South China is affected with a highly destructive disease known as"Yellow shoot".The disease is most serious in the Chaoshan and the Yuehchungdistricts of Kwangtung Province and in the Changchow district of Fukien Province.It has been known in the Chaoshan district for over 70 years but has becomeepiphytotic only since about 30 years ago.During this period,millions of Citrustrees have been killed. Citrus trees may be affected in any age.The characteristic symptoms of thedisease are general yellowing of some of the nearly mature new shoots put out insummer,autumn,or early winter,dropping of the yellow leaves,and rotting ofrootlets.In addition to these general symptoms in the early stage,fasciculationof branches and malformation of leaves (abnormally large or deformed in variousways) often occur on Ponkan and Chiaokan (C.reticulata) and are particularlycommon on sweet orange.On affected sweet orange trees may also be seenshortening of internodes,resulting in bunchy growth of branches,and downwardas well as upright growth of shoots.In a later stage,the affected tree puts outnew shoots as usual but such shoots generally become chlorotic showing zinc ormanganese deficiency symptoms.The midrib and lateral veins as well as theadjoining tissues of part of the older leaves turn yellow.The midrib and largerveins may also become enlarged and corky and often split on dorsal side,showingnitrogen and boron deficiency symptoms.Affected trees blossom earlier and moreheavily than usual but bear few fruits.On badly affected trees fruits matureearlier but do not color well and are often deformed.Defoliation and root rottingbecome progressively serious as the disease advances.Young trees below 7 yearsof age generally are killed in 1 to 2 years or sooner.Nursery trees are killedeven more quickly.Older trees decline less rapidly but generally become unpro-ductive in about 2 years after the first symptoms appear. Nearly all the species and varieties of Citrus grown in the affected area aresusceptible.The order of degree of susceptibility is as follows: Ponkan,Chiaokan,Chachihkan,Lukan,Tungkan (all (C.reticulata),various varieties of sweet orange(C.sinensis),Hungninmeng (hybrid of C.lemon and C.rcticulata) Nienchu (C.rcticulata),Shangmayu (C.graudis) and Shihchichu (C.mitis). Studies of the cause of the disease will be reported in a later paper.

广东的潮汕区、新会县、番禺縣、广州市郊,福建的龍溪縣、福州市郊,和广西的柳城、融縣、兴業縣、郁林縣的柑桔类,都發生一种毁滅性的病害称为黄梢,或黄龍病。病区各种柑桔类的各品种一般都很易感染。其感病程度的次序大約如下:栟柑、蕉柑、茶枝柑、蘆柑、桶柑、各种甜橙、紅檸檬、年桔、桑麻柚及四季桔。用实生苗繁殖的福州紅桔及廣柑(橙),和福建龍溪的坪山柚及文旦柚,則未見發病。各齡的柑桔樹——自苗木至20齡以上的老樹——都能感染,一般以3—8齡的幼樹受害最烈?静〉闹饕钗跗诓糠中律业囊度烤然苹T谔鸪取薷毯徒陡躺嫌幸徊糠只苹蛘>G色的叶特别肥大或呈各种畸形狀态,有許多新梢簇生或束化。發病的枝条很快落叶。老枝上的叶有一部分亦黄化脫落。根系腐烂。至發病中期,新梢的叶多呈缺鋅或缺锰病狀,老叶呈缺氮及缺硼病狀,落叶及根腐更嚴重,开花早而多,結果少,部分枝条枯死。到后期,全株嚴重雕殘,終而枯死。本病在70—80年前在廣东潮汕区已有發现,但在近30年來始在各地蔓延成灾壳氨静≡诠愣鄙乔V州市郊及新会縣和福建龍溪縣已成为柑枯業發展的限制因素。

Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the...

Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the water-soaked appearance and then extend upwardly,and eventually become blackenedand rotted.As a rule,ths leaves of the infected plants show an abnormal coloror pale yellow,and drooping appearance.In the meantime,the root tips of theadventitious roots of the vines lose their cortex and begin to lot.Wilting followsquite rapidly and finally the entire plant dies.If the disease infects the plantafter the potatoes beginning to form,it may extend throughout the vine and in-to the roots,causing the enlarged roots to show brown streaks and finally blackenedand rotted with pungent odor. The cause of the disease may appropriately be considered as due to bacteriaand Fusarium spp.Four types of bacteria,i.e.white smooth type,yellow smoothtype,white rough type and yellow rough type,are able to cause the disease.Atleast four kinds of Fusarium,i.e.white aerial mycelium type,white mycelium withred of a purple tint substratum type,pink mycelium with red of a purple tint sub-stratum type and without aerial mycelium type are responsible for the disease.Which is the main cause of the disease? Either bacteria or Fusarium alone or theboth in combination is able to cause the disease,further tests should be madebefore a definite conclusion may be drawn. The dissemination of the wilt organisms may appropriately be considered inthree ways,namely,(1) by infested roots and vines,(2) by sick-soil,and (3) byinsects,as the sweet-potato weevil (Gycas formicarius Fabr.).The former twoways of dissemination are more definite than the latter,however,further testsand observations should be made. According to the results of 2-years field experiments in Tsen-shi and Peh-liustations,it shows that different varieties of sweet-potato possess different resis-tance to the disease.Among several varieties tested,it is found that Tai-nung No.3being a promising one,because it yields very high and is highly resistant to thedisease and to the drought.Although it is occasionally found to be susceptibleto the disease in the experiment field of Tsen-shi and is more commonly foundin the experiment field of Lin-kwei.The second variety is Tai-nung No.46 dueto its high degree of disease resistance. The results of preliminary tests indicate that the method of reproduction byold vines would decrease both in disease resistance and in yield within the samevariety. From tests conducted in two different fields,i.e.one at dry land and the ??other in the rice field,it shows that the discrepancies were found in the occur-rence of the disease and also in the relation of the method of manuring to thepercent of infection. Dipping cuttings in different disinfectants did not show any significant results.There are discrepancies in both plowed and sunned field test and two methodsof setting the vines test.These may be due to methods of treatment,landand varieties used for experiment being different. According to the results of date of planting tests in Peh-liu,it indicates thatthe occurrence and the development of the disease are closely related to the highhumidity and the high temperature.These climatic factors affect the health ofthe early growth of the plant which in turn would increase the disease resistance.It is suggested that the most suitable date for planting sweet-potato in Peh-liu isin the first decade of August. In comparing the weather records of the three districts—Lin-kwei,Peh-liu andTsen-shi—in relation to the date of early and last occurrences of the disease,itshows that an average air temperature of 23.4-28.4℃ is most suitable for the oc-currence of the disease,and an average relative humidity of 80 per cent is alsoneeded for the infection of the disease.Based on these facts,we may say thatsweet-potatoes in Lin-kwei are capable to be easily infected by the wilt organisms.except the last date of the infection would be preceded 10-20 clays.Any otherregions with similar climatic factors,it is also very possible to be infected. According to the results of 2-years experiments and facts from surveys,sug-gestive control measures are proposed: (1) excluding the disease by regulationthrough the use of quarantines enforced by an inspection station empowered torestrict or eradicate diseased roots and vines to prevent them from becomingsources of infection in disease-free districts; (2) selection of disease resistant varie-ties in combination with cultural practices such as the use of more ash,suitableamount of lime and manure,and suitable date of planting to enable plants toescape or resist the disease.For the present time,we suggest that the use of Tai-nung No.3 in Tsen-shi and Peh-liu may meet the requirement,and promotingthe method of root reproduction in place of an old method of reproduction byrepeating vine cuttings from old vines can prevent the degeneration of the plantand decrease the infection of the disease.

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試...

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試驗田也会發生过多次。老藤繁殖会降低同一品种的抗病性和产量,值得我們注意。在旱地和水田不同試驗地上所得結果,可初步说明發病情况很不一致,追肥与不追肥处理的發病率也不一致。藥剂处理种苗效应不显著,翻晒土壤及二种种植法試驗结果不一致,想与試驗方法、試驗地不同和供試品种不同有密切关系。薯瘟的發生与發展和高温潮湿有密切关系,而这些气候因素对于植株的早期生??長壮健及增强抗病性也有关系。初步建議,在北流地区以立秋(8月上旬)种植較为适当。从临桂雁山、北流和岑溪三处的气候記录,和薯瘟开始發生与最后發生日期的記录看来,可以初步說平均气温23.4—28.4℃最适于薯瘟的發生。相对湿度平均在80%以上亦适于本病的發生。由此可見,在临桂雁山地区,薯瘟可能是容易發生的,不过停止發病日期会提早10—20天。其他地区如有相似气温与湿度情况,那也是会發生薯瘟的。根据二年試驗結果和調查所得情况,初步提出防治薯瘟的办法如次:(1)应采取种薯和种苗的檢疫措施,禁止病区的种薯运往無病地区,以防蔓延;(2)选育抗病品种为主,結合先进的栽培管理法;多施草木灰,适当施用石灰,根外追肥,适期种植等,以增强植株的抗病性,避免病害的侵染,保証丰产。目前在岑溪及北流地区,可先推广种植“台农三号”品种,并提倡以薯塊育苗,切勿采用老藤繁殖,以避免植株的衰退,减少薯瘟的發生。

 
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