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oxygen
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     oxygen isolation;
     氧的隔绝;
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     00C with enough oxygen.
     都应供氧充分。
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  oxygen
Prodigiosin may effectively enter cells and promote the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROSin) in a dose-dependent manner.
      
In the experiments, sufficient air was continually infused into the solution to keep the concentration of dissolved oxygen constant.
      
The residual concentrations of the antioxidants were determined by iodimetry, and the concentration of dissolved oxygen by oxygen electrode.
      
The coordinated oxygen contents in the oxygenated complexes were also determined by weight method.
      
Chitosan-sodium alginate-hemoglobin microcapsules are expected to become an artificial oxygen-carrying therapeutic agent with sustained release for intravenous injection.
      
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Measurement of the intensity of total scattering of x-rays by a number of polyatomic gases was made for scattering angles between 15° and 130 ° using an ionization method of recording the scattered intensity. Balanced filters of ZrO2, and SrO were used to separate the MoKa rays and Soller slits were placed in front of the ionization chamber to obtain a definite scattering angle. The gases studied are CL2, CO2, N2O, H2S, CC14 and CHCl3. In each case the absolute values of the scattered intensity were determined...

Measurement of the intensity of total scattering of x-rays by a number of polyatomic gases was made for scattering angles between 15° and 130 ° using an ionization method of recording the scattered intensity. Balanced filters of ZrO2, and SrO were used to separate the MoKa rays and Soller slits were placed in front of the ionization chamber to obtain a definite scattering angle. The gases studied are CL2, CO2, N2O, H2S, CC14 and CHCl3. In each case the absolute values of the scattered intensity were determined by comparison with the scattering from oxygen, the results of Wollan for the latter gas being taken as correct. The experimental results are actually compared with Woo's theory of the scattering of x-rays by polyatomic gases and the agreement seems to be satisfactory.

吴有训氏最近对于多原子气体散射线之理论,曾作详尽的探讨。吴氏得到一个公式,表示由多原子气体所散射之强度,其中一部为相干的散射,另一部为不相干的散射。 以前关于多原子气体散射X-线之实验,为数甚少,且为定性的结果。最近美人Wollan,对于由O_2及N_2(双原子气体)所散射钼的K_3α线之强度,曾作绝对的度量。Wollan的结果,与吴有训氏的理论,甚属相符。本篇目的,在测定由 Cl_2,CO_2,N_2O,H_2S,CCl_4及 CHCl六种气体所散射X-线之强度,每一实验,均与由0_2者互相比较,根据Wollan的结果,每种气体所散射之绝对强度,皆一一量得。所用之入射X-线为钼之Kα线,系藉Ross的平衡过滤法分出。强度之测量,系用一游离方法。散射角度的范围,自15度至130度。每种气体的实验结果,均与吴氏的理论,互相比较,证明理论与实验,甚属相符。在计算时,原子的“构造因数”,系由Hartree的方法算得,一分子中两原子的相隔距离,则由带光谱的结果推得。

The absorption band of water vapor at 0.94 μ is studied photographically by means of a concave grating spectrometer. Twenty eight component lines are observed and measured on a comparator as well as on a Moll microphotometer. This band shows something of a doublet form which suggests that the H2O molecule has a triangular form with the oxygen atom at the vertex of an obtuse angle. The lines agree closely with some of the absorption lines in the solar spectrum as measured by Abney in 1880.

前之研究红外光谱者类多依赖热电堆以测定光谱内光能之分布。吾人咸知红外带状光谱之接近可见部分者,其成分线排列甚密。若用热电堆万难分析而得其细微组织。作者所考察之光谱正在红外照相片感光范围之内,故得测定水汽带状光谱内各成分线之波长而具有1内之准确度。 作者所用分光仪器为一凹面光栅,其曲度半径为2公尺。该光栅面上每厘米划有线6000根,颇适合红外光谱之探讨。所用光源为一1000流明之电灯泡泡内有一一字形线圈灯丝,其所发之光穿过2公尺之105°—110℃水汽而交聚在分光仪之缝上。红外照相片经氨溶液之超度敏化后,即安置於已经配准之相片匣内,而使之感光。光之可见部分系用深红滤片割除。照光时间约 费四五十小时,然后除去滤片,照以水银光谱凡数秒,作为决定波长之标准。 用前法所摄得之光谱大都不十分清晰,其主要原因系由水汽管之太短。但用显微光度计量之,各成分线之波长不难准至1(?)范围以内。本实验所得各线若与五十年前Abney所测定太阳光谱中0.94μ附近之吸收线相比较,可见太阳红外光谱中许多吸收线系由大气中水汽所产生,而证实Abney最初之推想。惟本实验所测定之吸收线与Abney所测定太阳光谱中之对应黑线具有一等差数约合1.5...

前之研究红外光谱者类多依赖热电堆以测定光谱内光能之分布。吾人咸知红外带状光谱之接近可见部分者,其成分线排列甚密。若用热电堆万难分析而得其细微组织。作者所考察之光谱正在红外照相片感光范围之内,故得测定水汽带状光谱内各成分线之波长而具有1内之准确度。 作者所用分光仪器为一凹面光栅,其曲度半径为2公尺。该光栅面上每厘米划有线6000根,颇适合红外光谱之探讨。所用光源为一1000流明之电灯泡泡内有一一字形线圈灯丝,其所发之光穿过2公尺之105°—110℃水汽而交聚在分光仪之缝上。红外照相片经氨溶液之超度敏化后,即安置於已经配准之相片匣内,而使之感光。光之可见部分系用深红滤片割除。照光时间约 费四五十小时,然后除去滤片,照以水银光谱凡数秒,作为决定波长之标准。 用前法所摄得之光谱大都不十分清晰,其主要原因系由水汽管之太短。但用显微光度计量之,各成分线之波长不难准至1(?)范围以内。本实验所得各线若与五十年前Abney所测定太阳光谱中0.94μ附近之吸收线相比较,可见太阳红外光谱中许多吸收线系由大气中水汽所产生,而证实Abney最初之推想。惟本实验所测定之吸收线与Abney所测定太阳光谱中之对应黑线具有一等差数约合1.5(?)_0此等差数之产生想系由於波长单位之不同以及个别仪器误差所

(1) Sodium salt of reduced codehydrogenase I has been obtained in good yield as a dry powder from codehydrogenase I by reduction with alcohol and alcohol dehydrogenase. This preparation was stable for at least 5 months when kept dry at -15℃. (2) The properties of the particle-bound codehydrogenase I cytochrome reductase system in heart muscle preparation were found to differ considerably from those of the soluble enzyme as obtained by Mahler et al. Among other things, the affinity for cytochrome c of the particle-bound...

(1) Sodium salt of reduced codehydrogenase I has been obtained in good yield as a dry powder from codehydrogenase I by reduction with alcohol and alcohol dehydrogenase. This preparation was stable for at least 5 months when kept dry at -15℃. (2) The properties of the particle-bound codehydrogenase I cytochrome reductase system in heart muscle preparation were found to differ considerably from those of the soluble enzyme as obtained by Mahler et al. Among other things, the affinity for cytochrome c of the particle-bound enzyme is much greater than the soluble enzyme. The Michaelis constant for cytochrome c of the former is only one twelfth of that of the latter.(Fig. 2A). (3) With either oxygen or excess cytochrome c as electron acceptor, it was found that the overall activity, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption or cytochrome c reduction, when both succinate and reduced codehydrogenase I were oxidized simultanously, did not represent the sum of the rates of oxidation when these two substrates were separately oxidized but equalled only the faster of the two separate oxidation rates(Fig. 5, Tables 1, 2). If 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol was used as the electron acceptor, the overall rate of simultaneous oxidation of these two substrates was found to equal exactly the sum of the rates of separate oxidation(Table 3). (4) When either oxygen or excess cytochrome c was used as the electron acceptor, reduced codehydrogenase I and succinate each inhibited the rate of oxidation of the other(Figs 4, 6 & 7). Evidence has been presented to show that the inhibition of succinate oxidation by reduced codehydrogenase I is not due to the accumulation of oxaloacetate. (5) When malonate was also added to the reaction mixture, succinate no longer produced any inhibition of the oxidation of reduced codehydrogenase I(Fig. 8). (6) It is therefore concluded that in heart muscle preparation both succinate and reduced codehydrogenase I are oxidized by cytochrome c through a common, velocity limiting factor. This is in accordance with the view previously reached by some workers from studies on the action of certain inhibitors. However, it should be noted that in our experiments no agents which might produce any conceivable change in the colloidal structure of the enzyme system has been employed. (7) It should be emphasized that our results clearly show that great caution must be exercised in drawing conslusion on the role an enzyme might play in a complex enzyme system from studies of the properties of a solubilized enzyme. (8) It is believed that the competition of two enzyme systems for a common linking factor as demonstrated in this report has provided a new method for studies on the mutual relations of two or more enzyme systems.

(一)本報告提供了一個從輔酶Ⅰ,用酶還原法製備還原輔酶Ⅰ的方法。我們所製得的還原輔酶Ⅰ鈉鹽乾粉,可以在低温保存數月而不被氧化。 (二)與心肌製劑中顆粒相結合的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶系,和用乙醇抽出的水溶性的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶的性質頗不相同。其中比較重要的不同點是對於細胞色素c的親力,前者遠大於後者,其米氏常數僅約為後者的十二分之一。 (三)用一心肌顆粒製劑作為材料,無論用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體,還原輔酶Ⅰ與琥珀酸同時氧化時的總速度,不等於二者分別氧化時速度之和,而僅等於其中氧化較快者單獨氧化時之速度。但如用[2,6]二氯靛酚作為氫受體時,二者共同氧化時之總速度完全等於二者分別氧化時速度的和。 (四)當用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體時,琥珀酸與還原輔酶Ⅰ能彼此互相抑制對方氧化的速度。有足夠的實驗材料說明,還原輔酶Ⅰ對於琥珀酸氧化的抑制,不是由於草醯乙酸聚集的緣故。 (五)如果在反應混合物中同時含有琥珀酸脫氫酶的專一抑制劑,丙二酸,則琥珀酸對於還原輔酶Ⅰ氧化作用的抑制即被解除。 (六)根據以上的實驗結果,可以認為,還原輔酶Ⅰ及琥珀酸先通過一個共同的因子與細胞色素c作用。這個共同的因子在一般情形之下,也是...

(一)本報告提供了一個從輔酶Ⅰ,用酶還原法製備還原輔酶Ⅰ的方法。我們所製得的還原輔酶Ⅰ鈉鹽乾粉,可以在低温保存數月而不被氧化。 (二)與心肌製劑中顆粒相結合的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶系,和用乙醇抽出的水溶性的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶的性質頗不相同。其中比較重要的不同點是對於細胞色素c的親力,前者遠大於後者,其米氏常數僅約為後者的十二分之一。 (三)用一心肌顆粒製劑作為材料,無論用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體,還原輔酶Ⅰ與琥珀酸同時氧化時的總速度,不等於二者分別氧化時速度之和,而僅等於其中氧化較快者單獨氧化時之速度。但如用[2,6]二氯靛酚作為氫受體時,二者共同氧化時之總速度完全等於二者分別氧化時速度的和。 (四)當用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體時,琥珀酸與還原輔酶Ⅰ能彼此互相抑制對方氧化的速度。有足夠的實驗材料說明,還原輔酶Ⅰ對於琥珀酸氧化的抑制,不是由於草醯乙酸聚集的緣故。 (五)如果在反應混合物中同時含有琥珀酸脫氫酶的專一抑制劑,丙二酸,則琥珀酸對於還原輔酶Ⅰ氧化作用的抑制即被解除。 (六)根據以上的實驗結果,可以認為,還原輔酶Ⅰ及琥珀酸先通過一個共同的因子與細胞色素c作用。這個共同的因子在一般情形之下,也是這兩個酶系統的速度限制因子。應該指出在我們的實驗中,並未使用任何可能影響酶系統結構的條件,因此我們的結果是在一個比較接近於生理狀態的情形之下獲得的。 (七)應該着重指出,從本報告的結果可以看到,一個用人為的方法從複雜酶系上溶解下來的酶的性質,有時並不能代表這個酶在有組織的酶系統中的真實情况。 (八)我們相信,本報告所說明的兩酶系競爭一個共同因子的一些現象,將为研究複雜酶系之間的相互關係,提供一個新的方法。

 
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