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first order
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  一阶
     A specific second-order digital phase-locked loop is modeled after a first—order Markov chain with alternatives, aud analyzed.
     按照可列一阶马尔可夫链方式,建立了一个具体的二阶数字锁相环的模型,并对它进行了分析。
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     The basic concept of general recurrence and the parallel algorithm of linear first—order recurrence equations are introduced in this pape Moreover, the design ideas of the parallel Kalman filter is proposed While the applieation of the parallel recurrence algorithm in the parallel processing of the measurement update equation being discussed, the parallel architecture for implementing the algorithm is presented.
     本文介绍了一般递推问题的基本概念及其一阶线性递推方程的并行算法,在此基础上提出了实现并行卡尔曼滤波器的设计思想,论述了并行递推算法在测量更新方程并行处理当中的应用,并给出了相应的专用实现结构。
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     In the PPN formalism, the first—order closed analytical solutionsof rotating celestial bodies on the improvement of instaneous orbital elements are obtained in the solar system.
     本文在PPN框架中得到了太用系内自转因素产生的瞬时轨道根数改正的一阶封闭分析解.
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  “first — order”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The results showed that medemycin is stable at 55℃, 70℃ over a pH range of 2—9, but not stable at 50℃,55℃, 65℃, or when pH=1.0,pH=12. The hydrolytic reaction of medemycin complies with a first—order reaction of kinetic equation.
     结果表明在55℃、70℃,于pH2~9范围内稳定,在50℃、55℃,65℃,pH=1.0,pH=12.0不稳定。
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     This paper reports a simpIe flow injection—spectrophotometric experimental method in the determination of pseudo first—order rate constants and the apparent activation energy, by the reaction of permanganate oxidaion of benzaldehyde in water solution of H_2SO_4 at 278.2-318.2K.
     本文报告了利用简单的流动注射——光度分析实验装置,测定硫酸水溶液中高锰酸钾与苯甲醛在278.2—318.2K温度范围内的一级反应速率常数及表观活化能。
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     Augmented Coates Graph: Topological Evaluation of Determinant and First—Order Cofactors Associated with a Matrix
     拓展Coates图:矩阵行列式及其一阶代数余子式的拓扑计算
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     THE EXISTENCE AND ITS SOIVING METHODS OF SINGULAR SOLUTION OF THE FIRST—ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
     一阶微分方程奇解的存在性及其求法
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     A Completeness Theorem of Elementary First—Order Temporal Logic
     基本的一阶时态逻辑的一个完备性定理
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The gravitational field and the motion of matter in the universe are investigated according to Einstein's field equations and his dynamical equations of motion. In a spatially isotropic and homogeneous space-time continuum it can be shown that up to about 2x10~8 l.y. the following relation holds between spectrum displacement δλ from distant spiral nebulae and their observa-tionally defined distance d,where A is Einstein's cosmological constant. The first term on the right hand side is essentially Hubble and...

The gravitational field and the motion of matter in the universe are investigated according to Einstein's field equations and his dynamical equations of motion. In a spatially isotropic and homogeneous space-time continuum it can be shown that up to about 2x10~8 l.y. the following relation holds between spectrum displacement δλ from distant spiral nebulae and their observa-tionally defined distance d,where A is Einstein's cosmological constant. The first term on the right hand side is essentially Hubble and Humason's velocity-distance relation. The second part is a correction which amounts to 11.5% for d2x10~8 l.y. and hence lies within observational error of the present Mt. Wilson 100-inch telescope. The theory shows that both Milne's recent Newtonian theory of the expanding universe and Lemaitre's interpretation of tha velocity-distance are first order approximations and are valid only within 2xl08 l,y. from our galaxy. The calculation for the phenomsna of nebular recession beyond 2xl08 l.y. to be observed by the 200-inch telescope now under construction according to the present scheme will be presented in the near future.

本文用安因斯坦力学及引力论解释宇宙之膨胀现象。从本文方程式中可证明雷猛德及米恒诸氏之学说皆为本文之近似值,而本文理论之能成立与否须恃200英寸反光镜完成后之观测云。

With the rapid progress of the electronic art, there has been a steadily increasing demand for still wider-bandwidth amplifiers. The recent introduction of distributed amplification concept has provided a new technique and powerful means for designing amplifiers with top cutoff frequencies far in excess of those previously obtainable with,ordinary amplifier circuits. A distributed amplifier of the low-pass type can easily be constructed to have a uniform frequency response from audio frequencies to frequencies...

With the rapid progress of the electronic art, there has been a steadily increasing demand for still wider-bandwidth amplifiers. The recent introduction of distributed amplification concept has provided a new technique and powerful means for designing amplifiers with top cutoff frequencies far in excess of those previously obtainable with,ordinary amplifier circuits. A distributed amplifier of the low-pass type can easily be constructed to have a uniform frequency response from audio frequencies to frequencies as high as several hundred me using conventional vacuum tubes. Unlike conventional circuits, distributed amplifiers have an attainable gain-bandwidth product which is not limited by shunt capacitance associated with the vacuum tubes and circuit wiring; the high-frequency limit being determined entirely by high-frequency effects within the tube proper.The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic principle of distributed amplification and to show how such an amplifier employing various types of transmission lines may be designed. Practical methods hi design and design details are given for a three-stage distributed amplifier, using fourteen 6AK5 pentodes with a frequency response of 0.1 mo to 140 mo and a gain of 33±1 db.Both the negative mutual-inductance m-derived and constant K artificial delay lines hare been used. The former offers the advantage of a more linear phase characteristic and a more uniform response both in amplitude and delay time.The experimental results corroborate the predictions based on the first-order theory described in this paper.

分布式放大是最近宽频带放大的最大成就,过去多年来电子学所应用的各种宽频带放大方法,其高频部分因受电子管电容和线路的分布电容所限制,不能获得理想的结果,而利用分布式放大的理论,所制成的宽频带放大器,远较一般普通的宽频带放大器,有更为宽阔的频带;从它的设计和构造上来看,也较负反馈的宽频带放大器为简单。制造一架自数千周至数百兆周的分布式放大器,在技术上并没有很大困难。本文拟对分布式放大的原理作扼要的分析;并提出了采用各类型仿真线所构成的分布式放大器的设计方法,并利用该设计方法,试作了一只三级十四管的分布式放大器,其增益为33±<1分贝,频宽自100千周至140兆周。由实验结果证明,采用m导出式低通滤波器所构成的仿真线的分布式放大器,实较用常K式者,具有更佳的相移特性和频率特性,这与理论上的分析是一致的。

Uhlenbeck has proposed that the ideal Bose-Einstein condensation is a phase transition of the first order in which the gas condenses to a phase of zero volume. In this paper the difficulty in Uhlenbeck's view is pointed out and discussed. In order to avoid this difficulty a two-gas View-point is proposed, in which the gas is conceived as a mixture of two parts, a super-gas and a normal gas- a view similar to that of the two-fluid model of liquid helium. When the temperature ia decreased beyond the...

Uhlenbeck has proposed that the ideal Bose-Einstein condensation is a phase transition of the first order in which the gas condenses to a phase of zero volume. In this paper the difficulty in Uhlenbeck's view is pointed out and discussed. In order to avoid this difficulty a two-gas View-point is proposed, in which the gas is conceived as a mixture of two parts, a super-gas and a normal gas- a view similar to that of the two-fluid model of liquid helium. When the temperature ia decreased beyond the condensation temperature, the super-gas appears, and under isothermal compression the relative amount of the super-gas increases as the volume is decreased. The chemical potential of the super-gas is always KOTO, and the equilibrium, comli ion of the mixture of super-gas and normal gas explains the fact that the pressure is independent of the volume and satisfies an equation of the Clapeyron type in a phase transition of the first order. In the end of the paper an analogous view for the temperature radiation is discussed.

本文讨论了Bose-Einstein凝结的物理实质问题,主要工作为在指出了Uhlenbeck的凝结模型的困难后,用双气体的观点代替凝结的观点来解释Bose凝结的性质,并讨论了辐射场的热力学性质。

 
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