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  digital
Such systems play an important role in time-frequency analysis and digital signal processing.
      
There are many advantages in the use of Hadamard matrices in digital signal
      
An Inhomogeneous Uncertainty Principle for Digital Low-Pass Filters
      
This article introduces an inhomogeneous uncertainty principle for digital lowpass filters.
      
The measure for uncertainty is a product of two factors evaluating the frequency selectivity in comparison with the ideal filter and the effective length of the filter in the digital domain, respectively.
      
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The fore foot of the mole is three times larger than its hind foot. Serialsections of the spinal cords of two adult moles were prepared for a comparativestudy of the motor centers of the fore and hind legs in the cervical and lum-bar enlargements. The magnitude of the motor cells in the anterior horn of the cervicalenlargement (centers of leg muscles), wheh taken collectively, is 2.5--2.8 timesthat of the lumbar enlargement. The motor cells in the posterior part of theanterior horn (posterolateral and retroposterolateral...

The fore foot of the mole is three times larger than its hind foot. Serialsections of the spinal cords of two adult moles were prepared for a comparativestudy of the motor centers of the fore and hind legs in the cervical and lum-bar enlargements. The magnitude of the motor cells in the anterior horn of the cervicalenlargement (centers of leg muscles), wheh taken collectively, is 2.5--2.8 timesthat of the lumbar enlargement. The motor cells in the posterior part of theanterior horn (posterolateral and retroposterolateral columns,--centers of footmuscles) of the cervical enlargement, if compared separately, are 3.4--4.0 timesthose of the lumbar enlargement. The two columns innervating the foot muscles contain enormous cells,break into subcolumns and thrust posterolaterally to form a new "horn" whichis even larger than the original anterior horn on many levels. The upper part of the retroposterolateral column (centers of digital mus-cles) is better developed than the lower part. With cells exceedingly hypertro-phied and subcolumns well differentiated, the upper end seems in control ofthe huge big toe (and also partially of the large-sized second and third toes).while the motor center of the little toe is apparently located at the lowerend. The immense bulk of the fore leg of the mole is associated with a cor-responding differentiation of its spinal centers. The development of a peripheralpart is correlated with a commensurate structure on the central side.

鼹鼠的前足约为後足的3倍。本研究用二个成长鼹鼠的脊髓,作连续染片,比较颈腰膨大部中前後肢的运动中枢的形态。若综合比较颈腰膨大部前角的运动细胞(肢肌的中枢)的数量,颈部约当腰部的2.5—2.8倍。若单独比较前角后部的运动细胞(後外侧柱和後後外侧柱——足肌的中枢)的数量,颈部竟大到腰部的3.4—4.0倍。支配足肌的二柱细胞巨大,分出亚柱,胞团外拓,形成一个新角;有些阶段,它更大过原来的前角。後後外柱的上端比下端发展得多。上端细胞巨大,亚群明显,似主管奇大的踇趾(和二、三趾);小趾的中枢似在下端。鼹鼠前肢的(厂龙)大联系脊髓中枢的分化。周缘部的发展程度与中枢部的形态是相系的。

The forefoot of the mole-rat (Myospalax myospalax psilurus), found in the vicinity of Peking, is twice as large as its hindfoot. Serial sections of the spinal cords of two adult animals were compared as to the configuration of the white and gray matters and to the relative magnitude of the motor cells in the anterior horn of the cervical and lumbar enlargements. The results were as follows: The cervical enlargement innervating the foreleg is much larger in cross section than the lumbar enlargement which innervates...

The forefoot of the mole-rat (Myospalax myospalax psilurus), found in the vicinity of Peking, is twice as large as its hindfoot. Serial sections of the spinal cords of two adult animals were compared as to the configuration of the white and gray matters and to the relative magnitude of the motor cells in the anterior horn of the cervical and lumbar enlargements. The results were as follows: The cervical enlargement innervating the foreleg is much larger in cross section than the lumbar enlargement which innervates the hindleg. As compared to the lumbo-sacral levels, the anterior horn of the cervical region is broader in area and its cell columns attain greater proportions with better delimitation. In the cervical enlargement, the gray matter of the anterior horn expands laterally to form the antero-external and postero-external angles. The latter thrusts far out and contains the retroposterolateral column supplying the digital muscles. At equal-spaced representative levels, the cervical enlargement consis- tently out-ranks the lumbar enlargement in the distribution of the motor cells in the anterior horn, which control the leg muscles. The sum total of such cells at all the levels of the cervical enlargement is 1.4-1.5 times that of the lumbar enlargement. Moreover, when taken separately, the total motor cells in the posterior part of the anterior horn of the cervical enlargement, which innervates the distal portion of the foreleg, are 2.2-2.8 times that of the lumbar enlargement. The third and fourth toes assume enormous size on the forefoot. The retroposterolateral column which supplies the digital musculature is larger and longer in the cervical intumescence. The cells in the middle segment of this column are generally larger-sized, more numerous and with better-defined subdivisions. These traits apparently suggest that the cells in control of the third and fourth toes are mainly located at this plane. The striking difference in the size of the fore and hind feet reflects itself in the differential development of the anterior horn cells in the cervical and lumbar enlargements. This goes to show once more that the motor centers of the spinal cord develop in correlation with the peripheral organs innervated as well as with the particular mode of life of the animal.

產在北京近郊的地鼠(地羊)的前足約當後足二倍。本研究取二個成長地鼠的脊髓,作切片觀察,注意比較頸、腰膨大部灰、白二質的形勢和前角運動細胞的數量,得到以下的結果: 支配前肢的頸膨大部在切面上遠大於支配後肢的腰膨大部。與腰部相較,頸部的前角灰質面積廣闊,各細胞柱形體粗大,界限清明。特在頸部,前角灰質向外突成前、後外角;後者延伸特遠,內合支配趾肌的後後外側柱。此看支配肢肌的前角細胞在二膨大部各階段上的配佈,頸部總是高出腰部。在點定的16-18階段上總計前角細胞的數量,頸部約當腰部1.4-1.5倍。若單看支配肢體遠端的前角後部中細胞的總值,頸部超過腰部就達2.2-2.8倍。前足第三、四趾特別巨大。支配趾肌的後後外側柱在頸部比腰部粗而且長。大致說來,此柱中段的細胞較大、較多、更分出亞柱。這些跡象暗示控制巨大的第三、四趾的細胞似集中這個階段。地鼠前、後肢大小的懸殊反映到前角灰質發展的程度。這再次證明脊髓中樞的發展與所支配的周緣器官和動物的生活方式是相系的。

160 cases of x-ray films of male foot have been studied with a view to examine thesupernumerary foot bone, the number of sesamoid bone beneath the head of metatarsus,the correlation of certain foot bone and the cortical thickness of metatarsus. The supernumerary bone in the foot is quite large in number (35%), among which theaccessory scaphoid (14.4%), the accessory fibula (8.75%), the intermetatarsal bone (4.37%)and the os trigonum (2.5%) are most frequently found. Their number, position, shapeand dimensions...

160 cases of x-ray films of male foot have been studied with a view to examine thesupernumerary foot bone, the number of sesamoid bone beneath the head of metatarsus,the correlation of certain foot bone and the cortical thickness of metatarsus. The supernumerary bone in the foot is quite large in number (35%), among which theaccessory scaphoid (14.4%), the accessory fibula (8.75%), the intermetatarsal bone (4.37%)and the os trigonum (2.5%) are most frequently found. Their number, position, shapeand dimensions are quite different. The sesamoid bone beneath the metatarsal head may be absent: occasionally it maybe fissured into two pieces. In one case, its maximum number reaches as many as eight. The study of the correlation of certain foot bone shows: (1) The mean value of the intermetatarsal angle between Ⅰ and Ⅱ metatarsus isa approximately 10°(min. 3--4, max. 15°), left side 9.14°+2.4°, right side 9.75°±2.34°. (2) The mean value of the intermetatarso-digital angle of hallux is approximately18--19, (min. 8--9°, max. 30°), left side 19.35°±15.4°, right side 18.71°±4.9°. (3) The mean value of the Bohler's angle is apporximately 30°, (min. 12°, max.65°), left side 32.03°+12.9°, right side 37.21°±11.75°. (4) The mean value of the breadth of protruding scaphoid tuberosity is 0.6 cm,(min. 0.1 cm, max. 1.3 cm.). (5) The head of the first metatarsus is frequently lying proximal to the second.Their distance varies from 0.9 cm. to+0.5 cm. The cortex of the second metatarsus in the thickest, its medial side is thicker thanthe lateral side. The thickness of Ⅰ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ and Ⅴ metatarsus decreases in order. The above mentioned findings are discussed anatomically.

1.作者共观察成年男性足部X线象160例。对足部骨骼之畸形变异进行了研究。 2.足部额外骨并不少见,占35%,常见者有副舟骨、副腓骨、跖间骨及三角骨等。 3.跖骨头下方之籽骨数目可以为0—8个。 4.作者测量了第一、二跖骨间角、(足母)趾跖趾间角、Bohler氏角、舟骨粗隆突出距离,第一、二跖骨头差及跖骨干皮质厚度,并指出其相互关系及实用意义。

 
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