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The study of the distribution of hydrogen in steel ingots, despite its practical importance, has not received due attention from previous workers. Available experimental results are mainly fragmentary and non-systematic, and therefore many disputable opinions exist. Desirous of investigating this problem in greater details, the authors employed several annealed ingots of high chromium steels which were considered to be particularly suitable because they evolved little gas at room temperature and consequently...

The study of the distribution of hydrogen in steel ingots, despite its practical importance, has not received due attention from previous workers. Available experimental results are mainly fragmentary and non-systematic, and therefore many disputable opinions exist. Desirous of investigating this problem in greater details, the authors employed several annealed ingots of high chromium steels which were considered to be particularly suitable because they evolved little gas at room temperature and consequently the inherent difficulty to avoid the loss of hydrogen during sampling was, to a very large extent, overcome. For this purpose also, suitable apparatus capable of determining relatively small amount of hydrogen was constructed. The results obtained show that the hydrogen distribution in the annealed ingots follows a significant and regular pattern, thus dismissing certain misgiving conclusions based on contradictory results given by previous workers. Although the average hydrogen content of the anealed ingots amounted to not more than half that of the liquid stael, yet in certain parts of their interior the local hydrogen content was found to be higher than that of the liquid steal. This affirms the existence of hydrogen segregation in steel ingots. Moreover, from maps of hydrogen contour lines drawn for the ingots it can be seen that the regions of the highest hydrogen content roughly coincide with the last solification. Indeed, the effect due to certain external irregularities encountered in the course of solification is detectable rather from the hydrogen maps than by the usual method of macro-etching.In the longitudinal or the transverse direction of the annealed ingots, the general trend of hydrogen variation based on average hydrogen content is shown to be governed by the law of hydrogen diffusion. Further examinations reveal that the ingot structure and its internal porosity exert considerable influence upon the distribution. It is likely that hydrogen diffusion may be faster in columnar crystals than in equi-axed crystal regions. The presence of porosities in ingots seems to retard the removal of hydrogen. Such implications have not been sufficiently realized in the past.Based on the discussion of the experimental results, certain immunizing treatment suitable for preventing hairline cracks in certain types of steel is explained.

氢在鋼锭中的分佈是一个具有重要实际意义的问题,但在过去未得到研究工作者足够的重视.本文利用高铬型合金鋼在常温下不损失氢的特点,并建立了適宜的半微量定氢装置,对退火后的鋼锭中各个部位进行了定氢试验。结果证明,氢在鋼锭中的分佈是具有规律性的,指出了前人根据不全面的实验结果所提出的错误结论. 经过退火处理后的鋼锭,其平均含氢量虽然只及原来钢液含氢量的一半,伹在某些局部其含氢量反而高於钢液.这说明钢锭中确有氢的偏析现象存在.根据等氢曲线的分布情况来看,钢锭中氢偏析严重之处大致与最后凝固的部分相符.凝固过程中钢锭一面受到中注管散热的影响,也能从等氢曲线的分佈情况反映出来,而这种影响从低倍检验结果来看是没有能够觉察到的. 从氢含量变化的平均趋势来看,退火钢锭中的氢分佈不管是沿横方向抑是沿縱方向都服从於扩散规律,伹必须考虑到结晶构造和内部缺陷的影响.譬如,沿柱状晶轴方向的氢扩散似乎比等轴晶区域内的氢扩散速度大,而钢锭中心疏松对於去氢则起阻碍作用,过去对於这些方面的了解是不够的. 根据上述结果的分析讨论,本文还为某种防止钢中白点的热处理方法提供了理论上的解释.

Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities...

Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities are importantwithin this area, some geologists including G Schoenmann, hold that it is ageosynclinal region. It is Ю. М Шейманн who first noticed the phenomenon of activizationappearing in the Chinese platform. В. М. Синицын in his "Строенив и развитиекитайской платформы" indicates that some of the mountain ranges includingYinshan, which have been formerly referred to the folding belts developingfrom geosynclines, are in fact the internal structures of the Chinese platform. In this paper the writer after the opinion of В. М. Синицын, assigns theYinshan area as one of the "activizing regions" in the Chinese platform, andgives more detailed descriptions and discussions mainly on the point of thehistory of its stratigraphic development. Really it is a fact that the Yinshan region has an old folded foundationwhich is composed of metamorphic complex including chiefly gneisses, schists,and old granitic intrusions apparently Pre-Sinian in age. Since the formationof this folded foundation during the Luliang movement (=Goto-Karelian mo-vement), the old land of the Yinshan region has "activized" or "resurrected"several times. As early as in the Sinian period, a depression prolonging in E-Wdirection happened on its southern border, where Sinian limestone 900 metresin thickness and in some places up to 9,620 metres was so deposited. During a long time of the Palaeozoic era, the Yinshan old land was in the poriod ofdenudation except some Cambrian marine limestones only 144 metres in thick-ness deposited in the western part. At the end of the Palaeozoic era, local acti-vization with the formation of continental basin-deposits of Permian age, up to1,380 metres in thickness, as found in the Tachingshan area again happened.In the middle Mesozoic era, the Yinshan region came to a period of strongactivity. Structural depressions duo to "Процесс аркогенеза" occurred universallywithin the whole area and magmatie activities in large magnitude associatedthis crustal movement, so that a great sequence of freshwater basin-depositswith intercalations of volcanic beds, up to 8,000 metres in total thickness wereformed. During the formation of these strata, especially at the end of Mesozoic,interruptions of depositon happened frequently, folds and thrusts were abund-antly formed, and intrusive bodies of "young granite" were produced hereand there. In the Tertiary period, the Yinshan region was violently faulted, andvolcanic activities still happened, producing the basalt lava flow spreading ina wide area. The activity of the Yinshan old land has not ceased even to-dayas shown by the facte that its whole area is in the process of uplift and by thepresence of an earthquake zone known in the historical time. Ⅱ. To what Geotectonic Unit does the Southeastern Coastal Region of China Belong? On the Southeastern coast of China there is a district where geotectoniccharacteristics have never been recognized clearly. It is A. W. Grabau who firstreferred it to an old land named "Cathaysia". J. S. Lee holds the same opinion.In his geotectonic map of China, B. M. Синицын also assigns this region to aplatform and marks it as a part of his "Южно-китайский платформенный массив".However, there is still another opinion opposed to this. A. C. Хоминтовский, forinstance, renders recently this district to a geosynclinal region and proposes thename "Minche Pacific folding zone" for it. H. T. Yang and T. Y. Yu agreewith him. In the year 1954, the writer in his compilation-work connected with thegeology of Fukien and Kwangtung, found that the geotectonic characteristics ofthe southeastern coastal region of China are not only unagreeable with thosefound in a common platform on the one hand, but also contrasting, with thoseof a geosynclinal region on the other. In fact, it cannot be referred suitably toany geotectonic unit except to the intermediate type as shown by the history ofits geological development. Apparently it is an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. During the Pre-Sinian crustal movement (the Luliang movement), a foldedfoundation composed of old gneisses, schists, and phyllites was completely for-med. Obviously this is a part of the broad old land of Southern China. In the earlier stage of the Palaeozoic era, the whole area of this region wasexposed in the air and under denudation. Hence, no deposit of any kind wasformed. After the Caledonian movement, depressions happened in the western partof this region, where the Devonian-Lower carboniferous continental deposit, theNanching series consisting mainly of quartzite, conglomerate and shale has beenformed, but the other parts were still under denudation. These facts show thatthis region was still a land at that time. Uralian and Lower Permian limestones, known respectively as the Chuan-shan limestone and the Chihsia limestone, separated from each other by adisconformity, spread widely in this region. This indicates that the marine trans-gressions really happened in the southeastern coastal region of China. However,the thicknesses of these limestones (only 30 metres and 150 metres respectively)and their uniformity in the horizontal direction show that the sea at thosetimes was shallow, and the magnitude of subsidence of the earth crust withinthis region was small. The unnoticed lateral changing of lithological charactersof these limestones proves the same fact. Undoubtedly these limestones arenothing but the marine deposits of platform-type. From Upper Permian toTriassic, this region was under a condition of alternation of transgression andregression of the sea. Owing to the fact that the amplitude of oscillation of theearth crust of this region at that time was small, the deposits formed duringthe marine transgression were thin and interrupted again and again by disconfor-mities (or even unconformities). Sometimes continental deposits are intercalated. Since the later period of Triassic, the southeastern coastal region has neverbeen covered by the sea again. And, a new condition began to happen in LowerJurassic. Here, the old land became to "resurrected", so that a series of depres-sing belts were formed as a result of "Процесс аркогенеза". In association withthe subsidence of these depressions, continental beds with a total thicknessup to 3,000 metres were deposited. In the beds interruptions frequently occurred.Folds were abundants, although they or at least some of them were intermediatetype. At the same time, magmatic activities were significant. Itappearedfirstly in the form of volcanic eruptions as recorded by a great sequence of beds consisting of tuff and rhyolite intercalating in the continental bedsmentioned above. And then, at the end of the Mesozoic, numerous graniticbodies were produced. Coming to the Cenozoic era, this region still sufferedfrom rather strong crustal movements accompanied by basalt lava eruptions. Theactivity of the old land has not yet been ceased even to-day as marked by thepresence of a famous earthquake zone between Kwangtung and Fukien, and theabundance of hot springs which widely spread within this region. All theseshow the typical characters of an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. Final-ly, the complexity of the types of mineral deposits found in Fukien and Kwang-tung also proves the geotectonic nature of this region. Summarizing the whole matter, we may say that the southeastern coastalregion of China was originally an old land. Although it has been agian andagain submerged by the sea, the resulting marine deposits are entirely differentfrom those of geosynclinal region. In the middle of Mesozoic, this region beganto be active violently again, producing a series of depressions or "secondarygeosynclines", in which thick continental beds were deposited, and, at the sametime, folds of intermediate type, serious volcanic eruptions and magmatic intru-sions were produced. Hence, to refer the southeastern coastal region of China toan "activizing" platform is quite strongly proved. The northwestern boundary of this "activizing" platform is generally onthe line starting from central Chekiang through central Kiangsi to the Sou-thwestern part of Kwangtung, because the history and characteristics of geolo-gical development of the Southeastern Kiangsi and Central-southern Kwangtungare quite similar to those of Fukien and Eastern Kwangtung. As to the nomination of this geotectonic unit, the writer proposes to callit "Cathaysian activizing region". This name is derived from the "Cathaysia"of A. W. Grabau but adds, according to necessity, the meaning of activizing or"resurrected" characters of this region. The so-called "Minche Pacific foldingzone" of A. C. Хоминтовский is obviously unacceptable because it entirely doesnot coincide with fact. Compared with the "aetivizing" platforms found in other parts of theworld, the Cathaysian coastal "activizing" platform has its own characteristics,especially shown by the presence of numerous, widely spread, small depressionsor "secondary geosynclines", and the acidic magmatic activities appearing on alarge scale. All these indicate that this is a special type differing from all theknown "activizing" plat

~~

Maps purporting to show the distribution of seismicity are generally based on histroical data or results of instrumental seismology or both and sometimes associated with the geological evidence that may account for the cause of earthquake. The present work was based on a large body of materials. For the historical data, we have traced back to three thousand years. In Chinese historical anuals as well as other literary works, there is a wealth of informations on earthquakes in ancient China. It is a formidable...

Maps purporting to show the distribution of seismicity are generally based on histroical data or results of instrumental seismology or both and sometimes associated with the geological evidence that may account for the cause of earthquake. The present work was based on a large body of materials. For the historical data, we have traced back to three thousand years. In Chinese historical anuals as well as other literary works, there is a wealth of informations on earthquakes in ancient China. It is a formidable task to look over thousands of volumes page by page, but it has been eompleted by The Third Institute of History, Academia Sinica.

为国家工業建設地点提供地震参考資料,和全国地震危險地区的划分,是中国科学院地球物理研究所解放以来重点工作之一,承各方面的协助,笔者和徐煜坚等九人在苏联顧問帮助下編成了我国的“全国地震区域划分圖”。現在提出,作簡单的說明,請讀者提意見,以便作进一步的修正。

 
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