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In the present study, the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum fruits growing in Xin Jiang, a northwest province of China, was evaluated.
      
Two types of biorefinery suitable for China's biomass resources are presented in this paper.
      
The studies over forty years on rare earth catalysts in polymer syntheses of diene, alkyne, alkylene oxide, thiirane, carbon dioxide copolymerization, lactide, caprolactone, cyclic carbonate and so forth in China have been reviewed.
      
This method was used in the networked manufacturing system in the Shaoxing spinning region of China.
      
Finally, the practical and comparative experiments were made over Hefei City in China.
      
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This paper gives a preliminary report on ionospheric layers over China, reporting a 24-hour measurement of the virtual heights on a summer day in Shanghai, which reveals all the salient features of the lower (E) and upper (F) layers.

此篇系研究中国天空电离层之初草报告,内述夏日在上海连续二十四小时测量各层视高之结果,显出上下两层各种重要现象。

A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a...

A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a surface covering of leaf litter and a surface soil with high content of organic matter.In places at an elevatin from 3,900 to 7,000 feet the yellow podzolic soil is dominant.At an elevation below 3,000 foot the red podzolic soil and the sketetal soil are fonnd. The analytical data of the soils of this area may be summarized as follows: 1.pH values of the soils:In the whole area,since the parent rock (gneiss) is poor in basic constituents,soils are all acid in reaction.The pH of the different horizons of the soils ranges from 4.0 to 5.5.The A_0 and A_1 horizons are usually less acid than B horizon,the A and B horizons are much more acid than the parent rock.This shows the leaching process of the soils under such a humid atmosphere. 2.Organic Matter of the soils:The organic matter content of the soils in this area is greatlg influenced by the kind of the vegetation cover.At an elevation of 8,500 feet, the soil developed under forest has 38.92% of organic matter in the A_1,while that under grass has only 11.08% of organic matter in the corresponding horizon.However as the vegetation cover is constant,the dopth of the A_1 and its organic matter content are evidently affected by the elevation.At an elevation of 3,000 feet,the A_1 horizon of the red podzolic soil is only 1 cm.in depth,and it has 3.37% of organic matter.At an elevation of 8,500 feet,howerver,the A_1 horizon of the podzolic soil is 7 cm.in depth, and it has 11.08% of organic matter.In addition,deposition of organic matter in the B horizon is clearly found in the podzolic soil,but it has not been seen in soils found at lower elevation. 3.Active aluminum of the soils:All the soils in this area are high in active aluminum. They contain from 20 to 16 p.p.m.of active aluminum.The content of active aluminum in the different horizons of the same profile has a very close relationship with the pH values of the corresponding horizon.The less acid the reaction the smaller is the amount of acitve aluminum.The active aluminum of the soil is usually higher in amount than that of the parent rock from which the soil is derived. 4.Available calcium magnesium,and potassium of the soils:All the soils are general- ly low in available calcium,magnesium,and potassium.The comparatively high content of these elements in the A horizon is derived from the leaves of the vegetation which are grown on that soil. 5.Available phosphorus of the soils:All the soils of this area are low in available phosphorus. 6.Available nitrate:All soils in this area are very low in nitrate. B.The Vegetation 1.The plants growing on soils of this area are most calcifuge species which are acid- loving (Vaughan and Wishe,1937).As far as the chemical analysis of the soil is concer- ned,those species may be assumed as not only acid-loving,buy also active aluminum- loving (Hutchinson,1943). 2.The distribution of the calcifuge plants In this area is apparently affected by the local climate in terms of elevation.Some of them (temperate plants) are confined to high elevation,others(tropical plants) being limited to low elevation,Two groups of the plants may be given as follows.Many of them are of the same species as those found in southwestern China (Hou,1944). (a) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevations from 7,000 to 8,500 foot (temperate plants): Pteridophyta: Destaedtia Scabra (Wall.) Moore Diranopteris linearis Under. Hicrioptris glauea Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lidsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pyphylla (Kunze) Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym Pteris aspericaulis Wall. Flowering Plants: Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium refersceda HK. Vaccinium serrasum Wight (b) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevation from 1,000 to 3,000 feet (tropical plants): Pteridophyta: Adiantum philippense L. Blechnum orientale L. Aglaoorpha coronaus Copel Lycopodium cernum L. Nephrolepsis cordifolia Presl Tectaria spp. Polypodium ucidum Roxb. Flowering plants: Oxyspora paniculate DC. Themeda arundinacea Ridl.

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物...

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物发育下的灰壤的表土,仅含有机质11.08%,但在相同的植物环境下,拔海高度或局部气候,也是支配土壤有机质含量的重要因素,例如在拔海3000尺地带,长有草类的灰化红壤,仅有极薄之有机质层,该层有机质含量为3.37%,而在拔海8500尺地带,长有草类的灰壤,则有较厚层有机质,其含量为11.08%。 (3)可溶性铝质:全区土壤含有高量可溶性铝,大约自20至160 p.p.m.,其含量与 pH 值高低相关,土壤 pH 值愈酸,可溶性铝含量就愈高。 (4)可溶性钙镁及钾质:全区土壤之可溶性钙,镁及钾等之含量均较低,但就同一土壤剖面而言,富于有机质的 A。或 A_1层的钙镁和钾质,常较 B 层为高,此点显示此等成份是来自植物遗体,亦即指示土壤中有机质与肥力之关系。 (5)全区土壤有效磷含量均甚低。 (6)全区土壤硝酸态氮之含量均极低,并有下淋现象。植物本文所论植物,仅以作者所采集而经各专家鉴定为限,其中以蕨类植物为主。本区的土壤都是酸性反应,所见的植物是以嫌钙性者为主,这些嫌钙性植物与拔海高度的关系很显著,兹将常见的植物种类,叙述如下: (一)主分布于拔海7000—8500尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物 Dennstaedtia scabra(Wall.)Moore Dicranopteris linearis Under. Hicriopteris glauca Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lindsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pycniphylla(Kunze)Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym. Pteris aspericaulis Wall.种子植物 Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium referesceda HK. Vaccinium Serrasm Wight(二)主分布于1000—3000尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物Adiantum philippense L.Blechnum orientale L.Aglaomorpha coron(?)us copelLycopodium cernuum L.Nephrolepsis cordifolia PresslTectaria spp.Polypodium lucidum Roxb.种子植物Oxysoira paniculata DC.Themedra arundinacea Ridl.

1. This paper deals with the blood-sucking Ceratopogonidae collected fromSzechuan province.2. The female flies. of Lasiohelea taiwana, Culicoides sugimotonis and Culi-coides oxystoma have been studied morphologically in detail. Apart fromTaiwan Province, these species are recorded for the first time in China.3. The proportional length of the antennal segments, the shape of sonsorypore of the maxillary palpus and the distribution of wing spots are thespecific characters for the identification of these species.4....

1. This paper deals with the blood-sucking Ceratopogonidae collected fromSzechuan province.2. The female flies. of Lasiohelea taiwana, Culicoides sugimotonis and Culi-coides oxystoma have been studied morphologically in detail. Apart fromTaiwan Province, these species are recorded for the first time in China.3. The proportional length of the antennal segments, the shape of sonsorypore of the maxillary palpus and the distribution of wing spots are thespecific characters for the identification of these species.4. The blood-sucking habits of these species are quite different Lasioheleataiwana prefers human blood, Culicoides sugimotonis is a domestic fowlfeeder and sometimes also may feed on human blood while Culicoidesoxystoma is a preference for animal blood.

(一)本文所叙述三种蠛蠓,亦称墨蚊,采集地区包括四川省重庆之歌乐山、北碚之缙云山、澄江镇、宜宝及嘉定等地。 (三)三种蠛蠓之学名为Lasiohelea taiwana,Culicoides sugimotonis及Culicoides oxystoma,除台湾已有报告外,国内其他各地尚系首次记录。 (三)本文所记载的蠛蠓均系雌性成虫,其雄虫,蛹及幼虫之生态以及与传播疾病之可能性诸问题,尚有继续研究之必要。 (四)触角、触须、腿肢各节之比长,翅斑之分布及感觉毛开口孔之形状等为蠛蠓分类上之主要特征。 (五)三种蠛蠓之嗜血习性各不同:Lasiohelea taiwana之吸血对象为人类;Culicoides sugimotonis吸血对象为家禽有时亦吸人血;Culicoides oxystoma之吸血对象则为家畜。

 
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