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chromium
相关语句
  
     Studies on the effects of chromium on energy,protein and lipid metabolism and action mechanism in broilers
     对肉仔鸡能量、蛋白质与脂肪代谢的影响及作用机制的研究
短句来源
     Study on the Hardening Behavior, Mechanism and Their Influence on Abrasion Resistance of High Chromium White Iron Subjected to Sub-critical Treatment
     高铸铁亚临界热处理中的硬化行为、机制及其对耐磨性的影响研究
短句来源
     Studies on the Properties of Gallium(Ⅲ) and Chromium(Ⅲ)-Transferrins and the Mechanism of Their Transport
     镓(Ⅲ)、(Ⅲ)-转铁蛋白配合物性质及转运机制研究
短句来源
     Study on Microwave-Induced Catalytic Degradation of Aqueous Methyl Orange Solution with Mineral Bearing Chromium
     微波促进含矿物催化氧化甲基橙的研究
短句来源
     Research on Aluminum Alloy and High Chromium Cast Iron Prepared by Solid-Liquid Mixed Casting Process
     固液混合铸造铝合金和高铸铁的研究
短句来源
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  铬的
     When influx was 500 mL/h,pH was 2~5,the removal rate of 60.4 mg/L chromium by 10 gram FY01 and 5 gram activated sludge together for 2 hours was exceeded 78%,and the value could also reach 78%~83% and 77%~84% after treated by FY01,which was hold for 50 days at 4℃and 23~28℃.
     当进水pH=2~5、流速为500 mL/h时,10 g FY01和5 g活性污泥联合处理60.4 mg/L含铬电镀废水2 h后,铬的去除率达78%以上; 在4℃冰箱和23~28℃实验室保存50 d的FY01对铬的去除分别在78%~83%和77%~84%之间。
短句来源
     Pyrolytic graphite coated tube (PGT) provided superior sensitivity (4.86pg/0.0044A) and detection limit (0.418μg/L) and it was used to measure chromium in serum.
     热解石墨管可提供较好的灵敏度(4.86pg/0.0044A)和检出限(0.418μg/L),可用于血清铬的测定。
短句来源
     Promoting Effects of Chromium for Cu-Cr_2O_3 atalytic Synthesis of Acrylamide
     Cu-Cr_2O_3催化合成丙烯酰胺中铬的助催化作用
短句来源
     SOLUTION AND PRECIPITATION OF CHROMIUM CARBIDE DURING THE FABRICATED PROCESS OF Cr_7C_3/Ni_3Al COMPOSITE
     Cr_7C_3/Ni_3Al复合材料制备过程中碳化铬的溶解再析出行为
短句来源
     Distribution and Valence of Chromium in Cr : Mg_2SiO_4 Crystal Grown by Czochralski method
     引上法生长Cr:Mg_2SiO_4晶体中铬的分布和价态
短句来源
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  “chromium”译为未确定词的双语例句
     STUDIES ON HYDROLYTIC POLYMERIZATION OF CHROMIUM (Ⅲ) ION Ⅱ. A STUDY ON HYDROLYTIC POLYMERIZATION OF Cr~(3+) AT LOW CONCENTRATION
     Cr~(3+)的水解聚合作用 Ⅱ.低浓度下Cr~(3+)的水解聚合作用的研究
短句来源
     THE EFFECTS OF CHROMIUM CONTENT ON THE SURFACE FILM OF Fe-Cr-35%Ni ALLOYS IN WATER AT 300℃
     在高温水中Cr对含35%Ni的Fe-Cr-Ni合金表面膜的影响
短句来源
     Spectrophotometric Study of the Reaction of Chromium (Ⅲ) with 4-(2-Thiazolylazo)-pyrocatechol
     4-(2′-噻唑偶氮)-邻苯二酚与Cr(Ⅲ)反应的分光光度研究
短句来源
     REDUCING DEPHOSPHORIZATION OF HIGH CHROMIUM MOLTEN STEEL WITH CaSi
     高铬钢液用CaSi还原脱磷
短句来源
     KINETICS OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS——Ⅰ.EXTRACTION OF CHROMIUM(Ⅲ)WITH HEH(EHP)FROM SULFATE SOLUTION
     溶剂萃取过程动力学研究——Ⅰ.HEH(EHP)从硫酸盐溶液中萃取Cr(Ⅲ)的过程
短句来源
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  chromium
Combined treatment with niacin and chromium caused a protective effect on the small-intestine tissue of hyperlipidemic rats
      
The present study investigated whether a combined treatment of niacin and chromium (III) chloride caused a protective effect on the intestine of hyperlipidemic rats.
      
However, treatment with niacin and chromium reversed the effect of hyperlipidemia.
      
Despite individual differences, degenerative findings were decreased in hyperlipidemic rats given niacin and chromium.
      
Niacin and chromium treatments had a protective effect on the intestine of the hyperlipidemic rats as well as a lipid-reducing effect.
      
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In the spectrochemical analysis of high speed steels with a small current activated a.c. arc (after Aбрамсон), the results of analysis were found to be affected by different previous heat-treatments given to the steel samples. To study this effect we selected 10 chromium steel samples of different carbon content. Spectrochemical analysis of these samples under different procedures of heat treatment shows that with an a.c. arc (5 amp.) the results of analysis of Cr for annealed and for hardened samples...

In the spectrochemical analysis of high speed steels with a small current activated a.c. arc (after Aбрамсон), the results of analysis were found to be affected by different previous heat-treatments given to the steel samples. To study this effect we selected 10 chromium steel samples of different carbon content. Spectrochemical analysis of these samples under different procedures of heat treatment shows that with an a.c. arc (5 amp.) the results of analysis of Cr for annealed and for hardened samples of the same steel are different and the difference increases with the increase of carbon content. We are inclined to think that in a low energy light source, the evaporation and the excitation of the alloying elements vary according to the existing form of carbon and this directly affects the results of spectrochemical analysis. The magnitude of this effect is different for different alloying elements, it is considerable in the case of Cr but is inappreciable in the case of Mn and Si.

我们用爱氏光源(低电流交流电弧)作高速钢的光谱分析时,发现样品的组织结构对于分析结果有影响。为了对这个现象得到进一步的了解,我们选择了10种含碳量不同的铬钢进行热处理试验和光谱分析。一系列实验的结果指出,用小电流(5安)电弧光源时,铬的光谱分析结果由于试样是退火组织或淬火组织而有差别,这个差别又随着钢中含碳量的增加而增加。我们认为,这种影响是由于碳在试样中存在状态的不同所引起的。在低功率光源中,这种不同使合金元素被蒸发和被激发的情况有所差别,因而就影响了光谱分析的结果。这种影响由于合金元素之不同而有程度上的不同,对铬的影响很显著,对锰和矽的影响则很小。此外,所选择的分析线对是弧线还是火花线,对于这种组织结构的效应也有显著的影响。 曾经进行了一些消除组织结构影响的实验。发现在应用低功率光源时,增加预燃时间并不能消除这个效应。用火花光源或大电流(8安)电弧光源时,这种影响大为减小。

Further study of the effect of micro-structure of the sample electrode on the spectrochemical analysis of steels revealed that the effect on the analysis of W, Si and Ni all increases with the increase of the carbon content and for different analysis line pairs chosen, the effect not only differs in magnitude but also can be different in direction as was observed in the case of Cr in chromium steels. The effect on the analysis of Mn in all the steel samples studied is not significant. Structure effects...

Further study of the effect of micro-structure of the sample electrode on the spectrochemical analysis of steels revealed that the effect on the analysis of W, Si and Ni all increases with the increase of the carbon content and for different analysis line pairs chosen, the effect not only differs in magnitude but also can be different in direction as was observed in the case of Cr in chromium steels. The effect on the analysis of Mn in all the steel samples studied is not significant. Structure effects observed under different excitation conditions show that under the same excitation condition, the arc temperature which is indicated by the log intensity ratio of two iron lines of different excitation potential is higher when the sample electrode is of annealed structure; and in light sources of the same arc temperature the relative concentration of alloying elements to iron is higher when the sample electrode is of quenched structure. Since these two factors have opposite effect on spectral line intensities, the result of analysis will be different for different line pairs chosen. If the analysis line pair is homologous, the effect observed is due to a difference of relative concentration of different elements in the arc column alone, and the result of analysis is always higher when the sample electrode is of quenched structure. This may he explained by the fact that the presence of carbon in solid solutions decreases the interatomic forces or shows a lowering of energy of volatilization. This lowering is different for different elements but all increases with the increase of carbon content.

在过去工作的基础上,进一步观察了合金钢的组织结构对于钨、镍、硅、锰的光谱分析的影响和碳钢的组织结构对于硅、锰的影响。这些影响都是随着钢中含碳量的增加而增加,对与不同元素有程度上的不同。改变激发条件的试验结果指出:1)在同一激发条件下,淬火组织试样的弧温比退火组织的低;2)在同一弧温时,弧柱中合金元素与铁元素的浓度比值是淬火组织的比退火组织的高。由于这两个因素对于谱线强度所发生的影响的方向相反,所以在实际的光谱分析中,组织结构的影响便有不同的表现。 根据分析线对中的分析线与内标线的激发能差值的大小,可以说明为什么采用离子线或原子线作分析线对时所观察到的组织结构影响不同或者方向相反。当所用的分析线对比较均称时,淬火组织试样的分析结果总是比退火的高。引起组织结构影响的主要原因是由于在不同组织结构时蒸发情况的不同。试样中所含溶解碳量的增加使原子间力相应地减小,这可以解释为什么含碳量不同以及不同的合金元素引起不同的组织结构影响。

The study of the distribution of hydrogen in steel ingots, despite its practical importance, has not received due attention from previous workers. Available experimental results are mainly fragmentary and non-systematic, and therefore many disputable opinions exist. Desirous of investigating this problem in greater details, the authors employed several annealed ingots of high chromium steels which were considered to be particularly suitable because they evolved little gas at room temperature and consequently...

The study of the distribution of hydrogen in steel ingots, despite its practical importance, has not received due attention from previous workers. Available experimental results are mainly fragmentary and non-systematic, and therefore many disputable opinions exist. Desirous of investigating this problem in greater details, the authors employed several annealed ingots of high chromium steels which were considered to be particularly suitable because they evolved little gas at room temperature and consequently the inherent difficulty to avoid the loss of hydrogen during sampling was, to a very large extent, overcome. For this purpose also, suitable apparatus capable of determining relatively small amount of hydrogen was constructed. The results obtained show that the hydrogen distribution in the annealed ingots follows a significant and regular pattern, thus dismissing certain misgiving conclusions based on contradictory results given by previous workers. Although the average hydrogen content of the anealed ingots amounted to not more than half that of the liquid stael, yet in certain parts of their interior the local hydrogen content was found to be higher than that of the liquid steal. This affirms the existence of hydrogen segregation in steel ingots. Moreover, from maps of hydrogen contour lines drawn for the ingots it can be seen that the regions of the highest hydrogen content roughly coincide with the last solification. Indeed, the effect due to certain external irregularities encountered in the course of solification is detectable rather from the hydrogen maps than by the usual method of macro-etching.In the longitudinal or the transverse direction of the annealed ingots, the general trend of hydrogen variation based on average hydrogen content is shown to be governed by the law of hydrogen diffusion. Further examinations reveal that the ingot structure and its internal porosity exert considerable influence upon the distribution. It is likely that hydrogen diffusion may be faster in columnar crystals than in equi-axed crystal regions. The presence of porosities in ingots seems to retard the removal of hydrogen. Such implications have not been sufficiently realized in the past.Based on the discussion of the experimental results, certain immunizing treatment suitable for preventing hairline cracks in certain types of steel is explained.

氢在鋼锭中的分佈是一个具有重要实际意义的问题,但在过去未得到研究工作者足够的重视.本文利用高铬型合金鋼在常温下不损失氢的特点,并建立了適宜的半微量定氢装置,对退火后的鋼锭中各个部位进行了定氢试验。结果证明,氢在鋼锭中的分佈是具有规律性的,指出了前人根据不全面的实验结果所提出的错误结论. 经过退火处理后的鋼锭,其平均含氢量虽然只及原来钢液含氢量的一半,伹在某些局部其含氢量反而高於钢液.这说明钢锭中确有氢的偏析现象存在.根据等氢曲线的分布情况来看,钢锭中氢偏析严重之处大致与最后凝固的部分相符.凝固过程中钢锭一面受到中注管散热的影响,也能从等氢曲线的分佈情况反映出来,而这种影响从低倍检验结果来看是没有能够觉察到的. 从氢含量变化的平均趋势来看,退火钢锭中的氢分佈不管是沿横方向抑是沿縱方向都服从於扩散规律,伹必须考虑到结晶构造和内部缺陷的影响.譬如,沿柱状晶轴方向的氢扩散似乎比等轴晶区域内的氢扩散速度大,而钢锭中心疏松对於去氢则起阻碍作用,过去对於这些方面的了解是不够的. 根据上述结果的分析讨论,本文还为某种防止钢中白点的热处理方法提供了理论上的解释.

 
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