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the upper mantle
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  上地幔
     The value of flow stress of the upper mantle ranges from 27.9 to 59.7MPa, flow rate from 1.37×10~(-18) to 2.17×10~(-16)s~(-1), and equivalent viscosity from 9.18×10~(22) to 6.92×10~(24)Pa·s.
     上地幔的流动应力σ为27.9—59.7MPa,流动速率ε为1.37×10-18—2.17×10-16s-1,等效粘滞度η为9.18×1022—6.92×1024Pa·s。
短句来源
     It is found that: the average crust thicknesses of the Mid-Western and Eastern Tibetan Plateau are 70 ±7km and 65±7km respectively, the average shear velocities Vs in the crusts of the two areas are 3.55km/s and 3.62km/s re spectively, the average Vs of the lid in the upper mantle of the two areas are 4.63km/s and 4.61km/s respectively.
     研究表明,青藏高原中西部地区和东部地区的地壳平均厚度分别为70±7km和65±7km,地壳平均剪切波速度分别为3.55和3.62km/s,上地幔顶盖平均速度分别为4.63和4.61km/s;
短句来源
     On the basis of the occurrence, and δ18O(+6.34-+ 6.72‰), δ31C(-5.54-5.63‰) and87Sr/86Sr(i)(0.7032) of the biotite-aegirine carbonatite, it is evident that the complex-forming materials were derived from the upper mantle.
     黑云霓石碳酸岩δ~(18)O=6.34—6.72%,δ~(13)C=—5.54——5.63‰,~(87)Sr/~(86)Sr(i)=0.7032,证明其物质来源于上地幔
短句来源
     Sm/Nd EVOLUTION OF THE UPPER MANTLE
     上地幔Sm/Nd值的演化
短句来源
     In Ganges area the crust thickness is 34± 2km, the crustal Vs is 3.45 km/s, the lid thickness of the upper mantle is 86 ±10km, Vs of the lid is 4.63km/s, within the lid there is an inserted low velocity section of depth from 55 km to 83 km.
     恒河平原地壳厚34±2km,速度平均为3.45km/s; 上地幔顶盖厚86±10km,速度平均为4.63km/s,顶盖内55—83km深处有一个低速夹层.
短句来源
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  西上地幔
     A Discussion for the Evolution Model of Pb Isotope of the Upper Mantle in Western Yunnan and Its Interpretation to the Lead Isotopic Compositions of the Regional Alkali-rich Porphyries and their Related Rocks
     滇西上地幔铅同位素演化模式探讨以及对滇西富碱斑岩及其相关岩石铅同位素组成的诠释
     The Pb Isotope Evolution Model of the Upper Mantle in Western Yunnan and Interpretation of Lead Isotopic Compositions of Regional Alkali-rich Porphyries
     滇西上地幔铅同位素演化模式及滇西富碱斑岩铅同位素组成的诠释
短句来源
     Thirty Pb isotope data of the upper mantle in western Yunnan show trends similar to Stacey-Kramers′ two stage model growth curves but apparently deviate from the latter curves on the lead isotope composition programs.
     大量的Pb同位素数据资料表明 ,滇西上地幔铅具两阶段演化历史 ,但又不是很好地吻合Stacey Kramers的两阶段模式。
短句来源
     Thirty Pb isotope data of the upper mantle in the area of western Yunnan have the similar trends with the Stacey-Kramers' two stage model growth curves but apparently deviate from it on the lead isotope composition programs, which may suggest Pb isotope of the upper mantle in the area of westen Yunnan might have two stage evolution history though not fit very well to the Stacey-Kramers' two stage model growth curves.
     大量的铅同位素数据资料表明滇西上地幔铅具两阶段演化历史,但又不是很好的吻合Stacey-Kramers的两阶段模式。
     In this paper, a two-stage growth curves which can better fit the Pb isotope data was constructed based on the lead isotope data of the upper mantle in western Yunnan and the principle that Stacey and Kramers constructed the two-stage model and a reasonable interpretation was given to the lead isotopic compositions of the regional alkali-rich porphyries and their related rocks using the model.
     本文依据Stacey-Kramers建造两阶段模式的基本原理,结合滇西地区上地幔铅同位素组成资料,拟合出了能更好地反映滇西上地幔铅同位素演化历史的二阶段模式并应用此模式对滇西富碱斑岩及其相关岩石的铅同位素组成作出较为合理的诠释。
  “the upper mantle”译为未确定词的双语例句
     (87Sr/86Sr), = 0.70402 and (1433Nd/144Nd)o = 0.51013, in consistence with the data from other rocks of the same type elsewhere in the world, indicating that the source of magma came from the upper mantle.
     (~(87)Sr/~(86)Sr)+0=0.70402,(~(143)Nd/~(144)Nd)_0=0.51013,与世界上其他同类岩体一致。
短句来源
     The δ~(18)O values range from 5.8 to 8.9% and the ~(87)Sr/~(86)Sr initial ratio is 0.705. To surh up, the materials of the gabbros and granitoids in the area consist of the top of the upper mantle and the lower crust.
     δ~(18)O为5.8—8.9‰,~(87)Sr/~(86)Sr初始值为0.705。
短句来源
     lead isotopes are noted for 206Pb/ 204Pb<18.5, 208Pb/ 204Pb<38.65, μ<9.35, ω<38.60, V 1<75 and V 2<65. In the latter province, the upper mantle rock is mainly harzburgite characterized by impoverishment of mantle type elements (K T) and the weak enrichment type REE patterns;
     铅同位素2 0 6 Pb/2 0 4 Pb <18.5、2 0 8Pb/2 0 4 Pb <38.6 5、μ <9.35、ω <38.6 0、V1<75、V2 <6 5。
短句来源
     δ~(34)S_(FeS2)=-2.3‰—+20.5‰(40 samples), δ~(34)S_(av). =+10.44%. These data indicate a mixed feature of sulfur in the hydrothermal fluid coming from the upper mantle and the crust.
     矿石中40个黄铁矿δ~(34)S=-2.3‰-+20.5‰,其平均值δ~(34)S=+10.44‰,这表明成矿热液中的硫具有深部硫和地壳硫的混合特征。
短句来源
     We take ρ= 5500kg/m~3 as the average density of the mantle and μ=10~(21)Pa·s as the average viscosity of the upper mantle and calculate the convection patterns of the mantle with different viscous rations of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 between the lower and upper mantle, respectively.
     研究中选取地幔平均密度为ρ=5500kgm3,上层地幔平均黏滞系数为μ=1021Pa·s,计算了上、下地幔黏滞系数之比为1∶1,1∶10,1∶100和1∶1000时地幔大圆剖面、以及区域剖面上的流场.
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  the upper mantle
There are conductive bodies stretching from the crust into the upper mantle below the Bangong-Nujiang suture and Jinshajiang suture.
      
The mantle upwelling originates from the core-mantle boundary and mostly occurs in the middle mantle and the lower part of the upper mantle.
      
The upper mantle structure and Cenozoic volcanism in Central Mongolia
      
Oxygen fugacity regime in the upper mantle as a reflection of the chemical differentiation of planetary materials
      
This paper addresses some problems concerning changes in the redox state of the upper mantle over geologic time and through its depth and the possible influence of fO2 stratification in the interiors on geochemical processes.
      
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The present paper discusses the various theories on the nature of the Mohorovi(?)i(?) discontinuity and the difficulties encountered by the phase-change hypothesis. By examining the velocity distribution data recently obtained by use of seismic body and surface waves, the following conclusions can be made: (1) The Mohorovi(?)i(?) discontinuity, either under the continents or the oceans, cannot be interpreted as a surface of phase transition. (2) The chemical composition of the upper mantle is not homogeneous...

The present paper discusses the various theories on the nature of the Mohorovi(?)i(?) discontinuity and the difficulties encountered by the phase-change hypothesis. By examining the velocity distribution data recently obtained by use of seismic body and surface waves, the following conclusions can be made: (1) The Mohorovi(?)i(?) discontinuity, either under the continents or the oceans, cannot be interpreted as a surface of phase transition. (2) The chemical composition of the upper mantle is not homogeneous in the vertical direction. The low-velocity layer in the upper mantle is probably "caused by a change in composition rather than by the temperature effects. (3) The top surface of the asthenospheric low-velocity layer is deeper under the oceans than under the continents. (4) The chemical composition of the upper mantle, according to the data of radioactive measurements, may be some mixtures of eclogites or other ultra-basic rocks, their change of velocity due to temperature effects being very small.

本文綜述了当前对莫霍界面性貭的学說,列举了相变学說所遇到的困难。根据新近地震面波和体波所获得有关地幔頂部速度分布的资料,进一步探討了莫霍界面的性貭,所得的結論为: (1)大陆和海洋的莫霍界面都不是相变面; (2)地幔頂部沿深度方向不可能由均勻物貭所組成,低速带的形成与物貭的組成有关; (3)大陆和海洋的地幔頂部,其差异主要在于低速带頂面位置的不同,大陆的較深,海洋的較浅; (4)根据放射性含量的測定,組成地幔頂部的物貭可能是榴輝岩与其他超基性岩石的混合物,其速度受溫度的影响不大。

In order to study the deep crustal structure of the Central part of North China Plain, a profile of deep seismic sounding has been made. This profile starts from Yuanshih Hsien (元氏县), Hopei Province, at its west end and Tsinan, Shantung Province at its east end. The total length is about 270 km.On the profile are 9 shooting points, constituting a continuous system of observations by correlative meeting and pursuing recording. Based on the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the waves, we can recognize many...

In order to study the deep crustal structure of the Central part of North China Plain, a profile of deep seismic sounding has been made. This profile starts from Yuanshih Hsien (元氏县), Hopei Province, at its west end and Tsinan, Shantung Province at its east end. The total length is about 270 km.On the profile are 9 shooting points, constituting a continuous system of observations by correlative meeting and pursuing recording. Based on the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the waves, we can recognize many primary reflected and head waves, together with multiple reflected waves. In this region, the crust can be divided into seven layers of alterate higher and lower velocities. The overage thickness of the crust is 35-36 km. The overlying material has an average velocity of 6.0 km/sec, while the layer velocity of the top of upper mantle is 8.1 km/sec.In this region, the crust is composed of an inhomogeneous medium of many layers. It consists of intercalated layers of high velocity gradients.Finally, it is given here the velocity distribution in the crust and in the upper mantle together with a model of the crust.

为了研究华北平原中部地区的深部地壳结构,进行了地壳测深的剖面工作。该剖面西起河北省元氏县,东至山东省济南市郊,全长达270余公里。 全线分布九个爆炸点,构成了相遇和追逐的连续观测系统。根据波的运动学和动力学特点记到了很多一次反射波和一次首波,同时亦存在着多次波。该区地壳分为七个层次,且由高低速相间的介质组成。地壳的平均厚度为35—36公里,上覆介质的平均速度为6.0公里/秒,上地幔顶部介质的层速度为8.1公里/秒。 该区地壳为不均匀的多层结构,并存在着高速梯度夹层。 文中最后给出了地壳和上地幔顶部的综合速度分布和地壳模型。

The seismic wave field of artificial explosions at the most destructive area of the Hsingtai earthquake, M = 7.2, of March 22, 196(?) was very complex. The kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the such seismic waves show that there exist along the profile many deep faults which cut the profile into five blocks, and the fault planes usually extend to the Mohorovicic discontinuity and to the solid medium of the upper mantle, while in the most destructive area the structure has a more spe-cific character.Here,...

The seismic wave field of artificial explosions at the most destructive area of the Hsingtai earthquake, M = 7.2, of March 22, 196(?) was very complex. The kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the such seismic waves show that there exist along the profile many deep faults which cut the profile into five blocks, and the fault planes usually extend to the Mohorovicic discontinuity and to the solid medium of the upper mantle, while in the most destructive area the structure has a more spe-cific character.Here, the apparent velocity V*, the apparent period T*, the layer boundary velocity Vd, and the energy absorption coefficient a* of the medium vary anomalously. It is a fracture zone of fault complex with a width of 10-20 km.Under the epicentral area of the earthquake, there exist two groups of deep and large faults, intersecting at this point. The local horizontal dislocation reaches about 4 km in the medium at the focal depth, where the upper mantle rises.

1966年3月22日邢台7.2级地震极震区的人工爆炸地震波场十分复杂。其运动学和动力学特征表明,沿人工爆炸测线地区的深处存在着许多深断裂,且将全测线切割成为五个块段,断裂面常延伸到莫霍界面和上地幔顶部的坚硬介质。极震区则为更特殊的块段结构。 极震区人工爆炸地震波的视速度V~*、视周期T~*、界面速度V_d、介质对能量的吸收系数α~*均有异常的变化,是一个断裂错综分布,宽约10—20公里的破碎地带。 7.2级地震震中区下面存在着两组深大断裂,且在此汇集。在震源深度附近的介质中,局部水平错动可达4公里左右,上地幔顶部在此隆起。

 
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