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soils     
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  土壤
    Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium in Submerged Soils
    淹水土壤中硝态氮异化还原成铵过程的研究
短句来源
    Study on Soil Air CO_2 Concentration and Soil CO_2 Evolution in Farmland Soils
    农田土壤空气CO_2动态和土壤——大气界面CO_2释放的研究
短句来源
    Study on Fixed Ammonium in Soils and Effect Factors on It
    土壤固定态铵及其影响因素的研究
短句来源
    Study on N_2O Emissions and Nitrogen Transformation in Leaching Solution in Cracking Paddy Soils
    裂缝条件下稻田土壤中N_2O的释放和氮溶质运移的机理研究
短句来源
    Changes of Soc in Agricultural Soils and the Temperature Dependence on C Minrealization and CO_2 Evolution in Paddy Soils
    农业土壤有机碳库的变化与土壤升温对水稻土有机碳矿化和CO_2排放的影响
短句来源
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    Experimental Study on Infiltration Characteristics and Finger Flow in Layer Soils of the Loess Area
    黄区层状入渗特性及其指流的实验研究
短句来源
    Changes of Soc in Agricultural Soils and the Temperature Dependence on C Minrealization and CO_2 Evolution in Paddy Soils
    农业壤有机碳库的变化与壤升温对水稻有机碳矿化和CO_2排放的影响
短句来源
    THE MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PADDY SOILS——(Ⅱ) THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MICROFLORA AND SOIL FERTILITY
    水稻的微生物学特性(Ⅱ)水稻微生物区系及其与壤肥力的关系
短句来源
    STUDIES ON OXIDATION-REDUCTION PROCESSES IN PADDY SOILS V. DETERMINATION OF THE REDUCING COMPOUNDS
    水稻中氧化还原过程的研究 (Ⅴ)还原性物质的测定
短句来源
    STUDIES ON ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS Ⅱ.APPLICATION OF THE MICROELECTRODES IN THE STUDY OF SOILS
    旗电化学性厦的研究 II.徽电极方法在壤研究中的应用
短句来源
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  土壤的
    STUDIES ON POTASSIUM-BEARING MINERALS IN SOILS Ⅱ.THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONTENTS OF POTASSIUMBEARING MINERALS AND SLOWLY AVAILABLE POTASSIUM IN SOME SOILS OF HUNAN PROVINCE
    土壤中含钾矿物的研究 Ⅱ.湖南省一些土壤的含钾矿物含量及其与缓效钾的关系
短句来源
    THE FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MOUNTAINOUS AND HILLY SOILS IN SOUTHEAST FUJIAN PROVINCE
    福建东南部山地丘陵土壤的基本特征
短句来源
    CLASSIFICATION AND UTILIZATION OF SOME ZONAL SOILS IN THE SUBTROPICAL LOW MOUNTAIN AREA LYING BETWEEN JIANGSU ZHEJIANG AND ANHUI PROVINCES
    苏浙皖边界低山丘陵区几种地带性土壤的发生分类及开发利用
短句来源
    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONTENT OF MICA AND KSUPPLYING POTENTIAL IN SOME MAIN SOILS OF CHINA
    我国主要土壤的云母含量与供钾潜力的关系
短句来源
    STUDY ON THE MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAIN SOILS OF JILIN PROVINCE
    吉林省主要土壤的水分特性研究
短句来源
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  土的
    THE MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PADDY SOILS——(Ⅱ) THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MICROFLORA AND SOIL FERTILITY
    水稻土的微生物学特性(Ⅱ)水稻土微生物区系及其与土壤肥力的关系
短句来源
    SALT ACCUMULATION IN THE SOILS OF SUNG-NUN PLAIN,NORTHEASTERN CHINA
    东北松嫩平原盐渍土的盐分累积
短句来源
    EFFECT OF PARENT MATERIALS ON DRAB SOILS IN NORTHWESTERN HILLY REGION OF BEIJING
    北京西北部山丘地区成土母质对褐土的影响
短句来源
    STUDIES ON ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS Ⅸ. SOME SURFACE ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PADDY SOILS
    土壤电化学性质的研究——Ⅸ.水稻土的某些表面电化学性质
短句来源
    STUDIES ON PADDY SOILS Ⅳ.THE MOVEMENT AND ACCUMULATION OF ZINC IN PADDY SOILS
    水稻土的研究——Ⅳ.锌在水稻土中的移动和积累
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  soils
Baldcypress should not be planted in drought-stricken soils.
      
Characteristics of the temperature coefficient, Q10, for the respiration of non-photosynthetic organs and soils of forest ecosys
      
The temperature coefficient, Q10 (fractional change in rate with a 10°C increase in temperature) describes the temperature sensitivity of soils, roots, and stems, as well as their possible performance in global warming processes.
      
The differences between woody organisms of stems, roots, and soils excluding roots were statistically significant (p>amp;lt;0.05), indicating that heterotrophic respiration from microorganism activity may be more sensitive to global warming.
      
The contents of aggregates of over 0.25 mm in two shrub land soils in the upper layer (0-20 cm) increased by 4.6% and 14.1% compared with farmland.
      
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A tank experiment to study the rainfall characteristics,degree of slope and kinds of crops in relation to erosion of the Szechuan purple brown soil was carried out on the experimental farm of the University of Nanking in Chengtu during the period from 1941 to 1945 inclusive.The text consists of the results,of four years only,that of the first year being used for reference.

本试验就成都南郊金陵大学农场利用箱具装置以求降雨,坡度及作物种类对于四川紫棕土冲蚀之关系,试验自1941年须始至1945年年底为止,本报告包括1942至1945年四年记录;最初一年记录仅供参考未列入计算。试验中之箱具係木制,长1.8公尺,宽0.35公尺,深0.33公尺,共四具,分别置于5%,10%,20%及30%之四种坡度上,内盛四川红色盆地中之一种紫棕色粘土。降雨之时,每廿小时测定雨量,逕流及土壤冲矢量各一次,试验中192及1943两年行播芝蔴代表茎葉稀疏之作物,1944及1945年密播大豆代表茎菜密茂之作物。四年结果中之要点如下:(i)本试验四年中成都年降水量总平均为959.9公厘,最少年为689.9公厘而最多年为489.8公厘,本试验芝蔴年度平均降水量为734.0公厘,而大豆年度平均降水量为1185.8公厘。(ii)成都降雨烈度可暂按廿四小时内雨量,分为0—3.9m.m.,4—7.9m.m.,8—11.9m.m.,12—23.9m.m.,24—17.9m.m.,4(?)—95.6m.m.,96—191.9m.m.,等七级,四年中廿四小时内最多雨量可自84.2公厘至183.2公厘不等,此项烈雨可降于六月初...

本试验就成都南郊金陵大学农场利用箱具装置以求降雨,坡度及作物种类对于四川紫棕土冲蚀之关系,试验自1941年须始至1945年年底为止,本报告包括1942至1945年四年记录;最初一年记录仅供参考未列入计算。试验中之箱具係木制,长1.8公尺,宽0.35公尺,深0.33公尺,共四具,分别置于5%,10%,20%及30%之四种坡度上,内盛四川红色盆地中之一种紫棕色粘土。降雨之时,每廿小时测定雨量,逕流及土壤冲矢量各一次,试验中192及1943两年行播芝蔴代表茎葉稀疏之作物,1944及1945年密播大豆代表茎菜密茂之作物。四年结果中之要点如下:(i)本试验四年中成都年降水量总平均为959.9公厘,最少年为689.9公厘而最多年为489.8公厘,本试验芝蔴年度平均降水量为734.0公厘,而大豆年度平均降水量为1185.8公厘。(ii)成都降雨烈度可暂按廿四小时内雨量,分为0—3.9m.m.,4—7.9m.m.,8—11.9m.m.,12—23.9m.m.,24—17.9m.m.,4(?)—95.6m.m.,96—191.9m.m.,等七级,四年中廿四小时内最多雨量可自84.2公厘至183.2公厘不等,此项烈雨可降于六月初至八月底之间,廿四小时内大于24公厘之雨日可自七日至十七日不等。(iii)芝蔴年度年降水量虽较大豆年度为低,但逕流占年雨量百分数,依坡度顺序,则前者各为16.95%,19.23%,25.71%及27.66%而后者各为3.96%,9.06%,9.63%及10.62%。(iv)四年中逕流量之实际数值,依坡度顺序,芝蔴年度各为129.11公厘,143.79公厘,193.54公厘及216.64公厘,而后者各为53.37公厘,120.59公厘,121.60公厘及135.07公厘。逕流逐月分布隨雨量分佈而变异,惟大豆作物有使逕流分佈百分数,向各月分散之趋势。又芝蔴年度七月份或八月份之逕流量可占年逕流量70%以上。(v)逕流之大部由于廿四小时内大于24公厘之雨量所发生,各坡度上大于24公厘之烈度等级中,在芝蔴年度,其分佈百分数之和幾全人於80%,而在大豆年度,其分佈百分数之和,自约38%至90%以上不等。芝蔴年度逕流量之实际数值较大豆年度为大,但逕流量隨坡度增加之比率则芝蔴年度较大豆年度为小。(vi)土壤冲失量之实际数值,依坡度顺序,芝蔴年度各为每市亩773.91市斤,832.5市斤,2004.93市斤及2822.62市斤,而大豆年度各为每市亩270.02市斤,370.50市斤,666.53市斤及762.95市斤,大豆年度中雨量特別丰沛之年,大豆护土力在大坡度上(坡度30%)更为显盖。(vii)芝蔴年度月雨量对于土壤冲矢量之影响大于对于逕流量之影响,月雨量增多,使同月土壤冲失量增加之百分数较使同月逕流量增加之百分数为大,大豆年度则反是。芝蔴年度土壤冲失量之实际数值较大豆年度为大,目土壤冲失量隨坡度增加之比率,芝蔴年度亦较大豆年度为大。(viii)据本试验情形,某一日之前五日内如降落巨雨,则该日急雨可发生甚大量之逕流及土壤冲失,芝蔴年度此种情形甚显,但大豆年度则不显。(ix)大豆作物之护土力,由于宽阔平向之叶面及密茂之莖叶可遮蔽地面以防雨滴之打击,而落叶护土亦可使地面流水澄清而维持土壤之渗漏速率,又麦稈覆盖地面之护土效力甚宏,如于大豆莖叶向未郁閉之前用之,可防初夏急雨之冲蚀。(X)自成都向南至仁寿县一带之紫棕土斤陵地,可行玉米与大豆等高行栽之间作制,惟大豆宜密植以收护土之效,若能于生长前期,地面覆盖麦稈,则土壤冲蚀之害可大减。

1.Homo-ionic colloidal clays (soil and yellow earth taken from Peipei (北碚) were used to study the effect of exchangeable cations on the phosphate fixation by soil colloids. 2.The degree ef phosphate fixation by colloidal clays having different exchangeable cations varies according to following order: Ca-clay>Mg-clay>H-clay>Be-clay>NH4-clay>K-clay>Na-clay. 3.The collcidal clays from yellow earth having lower SiO_2/R_2O_3 ratios fix more phosphate than that from...

1.Homo-ionic colloidal clays (soil and yellow earth taken from Peipei (北碚) were used to study the effect of exchangeable cations on the phosphate fixation by soil colloids. 2.The degree ef phosphate fixation by colloidal clays having different exchangeable cations varies according to following order: Ca-clay>Mg-clay>H-clay>Be-clay>NH4-clay>K-clay>Na-clay. 3.The collcidal clays from yellow earth having lower SiO_2/R_2O_3 ratios fix more phosphate than that from purple brown soil. 4.The phosphate fixation power of H-clay is markedly reduced after the removal of free irn and aluminum oxides. 5.In Ca-clay,the fixed phosphate was unstable.The association of phosphate with the exchangeable calcium is easily liberated by a very dilute acid solution.

土壤中磷酸固定作用每受外界环境之影响而有很大差异,如粘土矿物的种类,土壤反应,代换性盐基等,黏土矿物与土壤反应对于磷酸固定前,人已有较详细之报告,本文特重视代换性盐基之种类对于磷酸固定之关系。本试验以紫色土与黄壤为代表,均取于北碚。紫色土系发育于白垩纪自流井层紫色页岩,属中性而无石灰性反应,pH=7.0,黄壤系自侏罗纪灰色砂岩风化者,心土微红,pH=4.5—5.0,为避免过高之有机质,均采取心土,按照 Stoke 氏定律提取5微米(micron)直径之黏土粒,晒干后,分别以 N NaCl,N KGl,N NH_4Cl,N MgCl_2,N BaCl_2及 pH=3 HCl 处理,然后再以90%酒精洗涤至无氯为止,总之以不变更胶体之构造为原则,经处理之黏土,先分析其中之代换性盐基以及盐基代换总量,然后再测定其磷酸固定量,在酸性反应如 H~-黏土,其磷酸固定之主要因子为水化铁及水化铝,故再以 pH=2之盐酸淋洗,除去其中游离铁铝,再测定其磷酸固定量以资比较。按分析结果,黄壤胶体(<2 micron)中之(SiO_2)/(R_2O_3)为2.19,紫色土为2.56,前者盐基代换总量每百克黏土粒(<5 micron)...

土壤中磷酸固定作用每受外界环境之影响而有很大差异,如粘土矿物的种类,土壤反应,代换性盐基等,黏土矿物与土壤反应对于磷酸固定前,人已有较详细之报告,本文特重视代换性盐基之种类对于磷酸固定之关系。本试验以紫色土与黄壤为代表,均取于北碚。紫色土系发育于白垩纪自流井层紫色页岩,属中性而无石灰性反应,pH=7.0,黄壤系自侏罗纪灰色砂岩风化者,心土微红,pH=4.5—5.0,为避免过高之有机质,均采取心土,按照 Stoke 氏定律提取5微米(micron)直径之黏土粒,晒干后,分别以 N NaCl,N KGl,N NH_4Cl,N MgCl_2,N BaCl_2及 pH=3 HCl 处理,然后再以90%酒精洗涤至无氯为止,总之以不变更胶体之构造为原则,经处理之黏土,先分析其中之代换性盐基以及盐基代换总量,然后再测定其磷酸固定量,在酸性反应如 H~-黏土,其磷酸固定之主要因子为水化铁及水化铝,故再以 pH=2之盐酸淋洗,除去其中游离铁铝,再测定其磷酸固定量以资比较。按分析结果,黄壤胶体(<2 micron)中之(SiO_2)/(R_2O_3)为2.19,紫色土为2.56,前者盐基代换总量每百克黏土粒(<5 micron)为18m.e.后背为30m.e.,兹将试验所得结果归纳如次: 1.磷酸固定量每因土壤胶体之不同而有差异,由黄壤所提取之黏土其磷酸固定量亦较紫色土为高。 2.土壤之磷酸固定量,非特因土壤胶体之不同而有差异,即或同一黏土,其磷酸固定量亦因其代换性盐基之不同而有差异,概言之,钠黏土之磷酸固定量为最小,钾黏土次之钡、铵黏土又次之,而以钙黏土为最大,其磷酸固定次序为: Ca-黏土>Mg-黏土>H-黏土>B(?)-黏土>NH_4-黏土>K-黏土>Na 黏土 3.各种不同代换性盐基的粘土,加磷酸溶液后,其反应亦各不相同,H~-黏土之 pH 值为3.2—4.5,因其酸度较高,溶液中之游离铁与游离铝含量较多,是故磷酸固定量亦较高,如以淡盐酸(pH=2)洗涤,除去其中游离铁铝后,其磷酸固定量则大为减少,Na~-黏土与 K~-粘土之溶液中,因 OH 离子较多(pH=8.0—8.6),而磷酸钠与磷酸钾又为水溶性,故磷酸固定量为最少。Ca~-粘土与 Mg-粘土其反应属中性至微碱性,pH=7.5—8.0,因溶液中 Ca,Mg 离子浓度较高,磷酸则为此 Ca,Mg离子所固定,故在中性土壤中,磷酸固定以 Ca 为其主要在子,酸性土壤则以水化铁为其主要因子。 4.钙粘土所固定之磷酸,如以0.002 N H_2SO_4提取,其所固定之磷酸复可溶解,是项固定之磷酸与 Heck 所称「暂时固定磷酸」颇为相似。

The present paper reports studies on the relative rate of decomposition of nine different oil cake-meals [soybean, peanut, sesame, rape seed, cotton seed(with and without hull), chinese tallow seed (with and without hull)]. In the course of decomposition of the different oil cake-meals, freguent measurement were made of the quantity of evolved CO_2 gas, and amount of the NH_4~+, NO_3~-, and NO_2~- nitrogen formed at the given intervals of the day. These measurement served as indices of the intensity of decomposition...

The present paper reports studies on the relative rate of decomposition of nine different oil cake-meals [soybean, peanut, sesame, rape seed, cotton seed(with and without hull), chinese tallow seed (with and without hull)]. In the course of decomposition of the different oil cake-meals, freguent measurement were made of the quantity of evolved CO_2 gas, and amount of the NH_4~+, NO_3~-, and NO_2~- nitrogen formed at the given intervals of the day. These measurement served as indices of the intensity of decomposition and rate of ammonification and nitrification of the oil cake-meals that may be occur in the soil. These studies were performed in the laboratory, under room temperature condition of the summer season. All cakes were ground into meals to such particle size as to pass through a 20-mesh sieve. The cake-meals were separately mixed with cultivation soil in the proportion of one part of cake-meal to hundred parts by weight of soil. The soil used was of alluvial origin, low in organic matter and somewhat sandy in texture. It was found that decomposition of the cake-meals began soon after their application to the soil. The daily evolution of CO_2 reached its maximum for about one week. Immediately after that, the daily evolution of CO_2 declined rapidly to a such lower level and attained a rather steady declining rate after about two weeks. The trends were common in character irrespective of the kind of the cake-meals. Among the organic constituents of tile cake-meals that underwent into decomposition in the early days, nitrogeneous organic compou ads seemed to be of major importance. The production of ammonium compounds as a result of ammonification followed a trend similar to that shown by the evolution of CO_2. The maximum rate of ammonification was noticed sometime before the evolution of Co_2 had reached a maximum. The positive correlation existing between the total nitrogen content of the oil cakes and the rate of ammonification was evident. Other factors, however seemed to be also affecting the status of transformation of Nitrogen compounds. Nitrate compounds began to appear soon after ammonification had proceeded to an appreciable degree. In the course of decomposition their accumulation in the soil increased steadily with the time. Small amounts of nitrites were found under the experiment conditions which were characterized by low moisture content (25%) of the soil and meal mixtures. From the quantity of the total available nitrogen accumulated at different intervals in the course of decomposition as in the case here given, it seemed that some nitrogen might be lost through volatilization of ammonium compounds, since the soil was alkaline in reaction (the soil here used had a PH value of 7.2) Soaking the cake meals with water, lime-water, or straw-ash extract as sometimes practiced by the local farmers in some districts in Chekiang province brought about the effect of hastening ammonification and nitrification processes. But, gain in readiness of availability of the meals by this hastening effect might not compensate for the loss in total amount of available nitrogen formed. The loss was particularly evident when the cake-meals were pretreated with lime-water or straw-ash extract. It is believed that the alkaline reaction of the treated cake-meals accounts for this loss. The relative readiness of decomposition of the different oil cake-meals followed in descending order: soybean, sesame, peanut, Cotton seed (without hulls)>Cotton seed (with hulls), rape seed>Chinese tallow seed (with and without bulls). Similarly, the relative total amount of available nitrogen (including ammonium and nitrate nitrogen) formed during decomposition shows in the following order: soybean, peanut, sesame, chiness tallow seed(without hulls)>Cotton seed (with and without hulls)>rape seeds>Chiness tallow seed (with hlls).

研究了浙江省施用的九种主要餅肥在土壤中分解的情况,各种餅肥都經磨碎,并通过20孔篩。实驗証明,在夏天的温度下,餅肥施入土壤后即迅速分解,它的分解最盛时期是在一星期左右,此后即迅速下降,到二星期后,即漸趋穩定。餅肥施入土壤后,铵态氮的大量發生是在一星期以內,此后即迅速降低,轉化成硝酸态氮。硝酸态氮在一星期到二星期的时間内开始大量發生,到二星期后就漸趋穩定。土壤中有效态氮总量在各个形态轉化的过程中,有顯著的減少趋势。餅肥在施入土壤前用石灰、草灰或水处理一星期,可提早土壤中有效氮的發生,其中單用水处理的效果尤其好。实驗証明,用石灰或草灰处理餅肥,使有效态氮大量損失,而用水处理則沒有这种情况。在本实驗的条件下,各种餅肥的分解速率依次为:豆餅、芝麻餅、花生餅、棉仁餅>棉籽餅、生菜餅、熟菜餅>桕餅、青餅。各种餅肥中氮素化合物转化后所產生的有效态氮总量依次为:豆餅、花生餅、芝麻餅、青餅>棉仁餅、生菜餅、棉籽餅>熟菜餅>桕餅。

 
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